Moodle Homeostasis Notes

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Moodle Homeostasis Notes

  1. 1. Passive vs. Active Transport
  2. 2. Characteristics needed for transport <ul><li>Size of the molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical structure of the molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge and shape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concentration of the molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Role played by the molecule </li></ul>
  3. 3. Passive Transport <ul><li>Does not require energy (ATP) </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules always move from an area of high concentration to low concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Movement goes along with the concentration gradient </li></ul>
  4. 4. Passive Transport Examples <ul><li>Simple Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes osmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipid soluble particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Passive Transport Examples <ul><li>Facilitated Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistance in crossing the membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bigger molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not lipid soluble particles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific carrier proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help molecules cross the membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other simple sugars </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Facilitated Diffusion Diagram
  7. 7. Passive Transport Simple Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion diffuses molecules faster than simple diffusion.
  8. 8. Passive Transport Examples <ul><li>Ion Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific channels allows ion cross the membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open vs. Gated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ions – Calcium (Ca 2+ ), Chloride (Cl - ), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ion Channels
  10. 10. Active Transport <ul><li>Does require energy </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules usually move from an area of low concentration to high concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Movement goes AGAINST the concentration gradient </li></ul>
  11. 11. Active Transport Examples <ul><li>Cell membrane pump </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium-potassium pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrier protein pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries ions against the concentration gradient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must “change shape” to function </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sodium-potassium pump <ul><li>3 Na + are pumped outside the cell </li></ul><ul><li>2 K + are pumped inside the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a net positive charge outside the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Animation ( http://www.brookscole.com/chemistry_d/templates/student_resources/shared_resources/animations/ion_pump/ionpump.html ) </li></ul><ul><li>Needed for cell to function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve impulse </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Bulk Transport <ul><li>Large molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too big to pass through the cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules will “break through” by forming a vesicle by either taking a piece of the membrane away or adding a piece back onto the membrane </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Bulk Transport <ul><li>Endocytosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substances is allowed into the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macromolecules, whole cells or organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluids and solutes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Bulk Transport <ul><li>Exocytosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substances leaving the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall picture </li></ul>
  16. 17. Membrane Transport Active Transport Protein channels Certain Ions Non-polar molecules Water Facilitated Diffusion Simple Diffusion Passive Transport Endocytosis Pumps Cotransport Large Molecules Pinocytosis Phagocytosis Exocytosis

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