Ecology moodle part 2


Published on

Published in: Technology, Self Improvement
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ecology moodle part 2

  1. 1. SuccessionThe gradual, sequential regrowth of a species in an area due to changing conditions
  2. 2. Succession• PRIMARY succession – Development of a community in an area that has not supported life before. • Requires the building of soil by PIONEER PLANTS – Small fast-growing & fast-reproducing plants – Lichen, moss, crabgrass, plankton
  3. 3. Primary succession• Seral stages – Developmental stages of an environment – Ecological communities that succeed one another in the biotic development of an area – Species will eventually be replaced by successive species based on conditions such as Soil quantity Sunlight Soil type Water
  4. 4. Seral stages• Can be determined by an index species• Index species Definition – Species that are used as a reference point to indicate relative placement in an ecosystem
  5. 5. Primary succession• Climax Community – Will be established eventually – Community will prevail unless the area is disturbed again – Hardwood trees (maple, beech, birch)
  6. 6. Examples of Primary Succession• Bare Rock Succession• Sand Dune Succession• Pond/Lake Succession
  7. 7. Bare rock succession• Pioneer Plants: – Lichens Help break down rocks Adds humus for new soil building  What’s humus?  Substance that provides nutrients  Increases the ability of soil to retain H2O
  8. 8. Bare rock succession• Seral stages: – Mosses/fern – Grasses/weeds – Bushes – Softwood trees• Each stage paves the way for the next stage
  9. 9. Bare rock succession• Climax community – Hardwood trees• Species of plant remain constant for a long period of time until a disturbance occurs
  10. 10. Lichen Hardwood Softwood trees Bushes trees Mosses, Grasses, ferns weedsBare rocks
  11. 11. Sand dune succession• Pioneer plants: – Beach grass• Roots stabilize the sand• Humus is added to the foredune – An area directly behind the beach
  12. 12. Sand dune succession• Seral stages – Cottonwood – Pines – Oaks• Continue to add humus and shade to the soil
  13. 13. Sand dune succession• Climax community – Beech or maple
  14. 14. succession
  15. 15. Pond/lake succession• Pioneer plants/organisms – Microscopic plants and animals • Phytoplankton - producers • Zooplankton - consumers• Found in open water• Humus is added and soil develops
  16. 16. Pond/lake succession – Seral stages• Rooted submerged zone – Closer to the shore – Light penetrates all the way to the bottom so young plants can grow – Algae/Kelp
  17. 17. Pond/lake succession – Seral stages• Rooted floating zone – Rooted in the bottom and leaves float on the surface – Water lilies• Emergent zone – Very shallow water – Rooted in the bottom and extend through the surface – Cattails
  18. 18. Pond/lake succession• Climax community – Land
  19. 19. Process of lake/pond succession• As the plants die and as sediment washes in from the surrounding land the lake (pond) fills-in• First the open water zone disappear• Then the rooted submerged zone,• Then the rooted floating zone,• Then the emergent zone
  20. 20. Process of lake/pond succession• Succession of an open field now takes place (grasses and weeds, bushes, softwood trees, finally hardwood trees)• Climax community will depend on the biome the lake (pond) was in.
  21. 21. Secondary succession• Sequential replacement of species that follows the disruption of an EXISTING community
  22. 22. Secondary succession• Pioneer species – Grasses – Weeds – Plants must be adapted to hot, dry conditions
  23. 23. Secondary succession• Seral stages – Bushes – Softwood trees – Adds humus & moisture to the soil – Then later, replaced by a larger species
  24. 24. Secondary succession• Climax community – Hardwood trees
  25. 25. EcosystemA system formed by the interactionof a community of organisms with their environment
  26. 26. Ecological Relationships• Trophic Level – Any class of organisms that occupy the same position in a food chain – Examples
  27. 27. Energy Flow• Producers have the most energy.• As an organism eats the next, available energy decreases.• Only 10% is passed on to the next trophic level. (Ten Percent Law)• What happens to the other 90%? – Transferred as heat to the environment
  28. 28. Pyramid of Energy• A measure of the amount of energy available in each trophic level
  29. 29. Ecosystem Recycling• All molecules are recycled naturally in the environment through a biogeochemical cycle.• Biogeochemical cycle – Movement of elements through various compartments (at least one being biological). – Water cycle – Carbon/oxygen cycle – Nitrogen cycle
  30. 30. Water Cycle• Movement of water through various reservoirs• Precipitation – Water falling from the atmosphere to the ground• Transpiration – Water entering the atmosphere from plants• Respiration – Water entering the atmosphere from animals• Evaporation – Water entering the atmosphere through a phase change (liquid to gas)
  31. 31. Water Cycle• Absorption – Water taken in by a plant• Urination – Water added to the ground by an animal• Runoff/Seepage – Excess water entering land or another body of water• Aquifer/Groundwater – Underground water stored in porous rocks
  32. 32. Precipitation TranspirationEvaporation Respiration Absorption Urination Run-off Aquifer
  33. 33. Carbon/Oxygen Cycle• Movement of organic compounds through various reservoirs.• Based on concepts of photosynthesis and cellular respiration• Photosynthesis – Autotrophs used CO2 found in the atmosphere and convert it into an organic compound C6H12O6
  34. 34. Carbon/Oxygen Cycle• Respiration – Hetertrophs consume the glucose and release carbon compounds in the form of CO2 wastes• Decomposition – When detritivores feed off of the remains of dead organisms• Fossil fuel – Formed from years of high temperature and pressure of decaying, organic matter• Combustion – The burning of organic matter
  35. 35. Carbon dioxide Respiration Photosynthesis GlucoseCombustion Fossil Fuels Decomposition
  36. 36. Nitrogen Cycle• Movement of nitrogen-containing compounds (proteins, nucleic acids, atmospheric nitrogen, urine, ammonia, nitrates and nitrites.)• Cycle could not exist if it wasn’t for BACTERIA• Ammonification – Decomposition – When detritivores feed off the remains of dead organisms and convert protein and nucleic acids into ammonia
  37. 37. Nitrogen Cycle• Nitrification – When bacteria convert ammonia into nitrates (NO3) and nitrites (NO2)• Absorption – When plants take up nitrates and form amino acids which consumers will acquire as protein• Denitrification – When bacteria break down nitrates and produce nitrogen gas
  38. 38. Nitrogen Cycle• Nitrogen Fixation – When bacteria found on special plants (legumes – beans, peas, alfalfa) converts atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. – Lightning can also perform this process.
  39. 39. Atmospheric Nitrogen Nitrogen Fixation Lightning Feeding NO3- Ammonification Absorption NH4Nitrates (NO3-)and Atmospheric Nitrogen (N2) used by plants
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.