Circulation Notes Continued
Rh antigen/factor• Rh positive  – Antigen is present  – Dominant trait• Rh negative  – Antigen is absent  – Recessive trai...
Potential Pregnancy• Mom: Rh -• Father: Rh +• Child: Rh +• Mother creates antibodies against the Rh factor   – Rh + baby i...
Compatibility of Blood Activity    When an antiserum is added to  blood and clotting occurs, the blood         contains th...
Tissue Types(There are four types you should know.)
Tissue Types of Muscle   (You should know all three.)
Blood vessels• Arteries  – Structure     • Inner endothelium – single layer of cells     • Smooth muscle     • Connective ...
Blood Vessels• Veins  – Structure     •   Inner endothelium     •   Smooth muscle     •   Connective tissue     •   VALVES...
Special Note• Depends on surrounding skeletal muscle to  bring blood back to the heart
Be sure to know how to tell the difference between an    artery and vein by description and/or picture.
Blood Vessels• Capillaries  – One cell thick  – Connects arteries    and veins  – Diffusion takes    place in these    blo...
• Be sure to know the following picture  below.
Blood• Type of connective tissue - in liquid form• Allows for transport within the circulatory system• Functions  –   Tran...
Blood composition• Plasma  – Makes up 55% of of blood  – Sticky, yellowish fluid  – Made up mostly of water  – Made up of ...
Blood composition• Proteins  – Fibrinogen     • Helps in the formation of blood clots  – Serum albumin     • Regulates osm...
Blood composition• Blood solids   – Makes up 45% of blood   – Red blood cells (RBC)      • Erythrocytes      • Transports ...
Blood solids• White blood cells  – Leukocytes  – Defends against disease  – Made in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and sple...
Blood solids• Platelets  – Thrombocytes  – Cell fragments    (pieces of cytoplasm with no nucleus)  – Life span of about 1...
Blood clotting•   Cut•   Platelets congregate to the site of cut•   Blood vessels constrict•   Blood flow decreases•   Clo...
Bruising• Blood vessel broken under the skin• Red blood cells that leak out into the tissue  lose their oxygen and the hem...
Transplants• Rejection of transplanted organs results from  recipients’ body producing antibodies in  response to donor’s ...
Blood transfusion• Patient MUST receive a matching blood type  or Blood type O- or else agglutination may  occur
Blood Donation GuideBlood Type       Receive from      Donate ToType A           A, O              A, ABType B           B...
Lymphatic System• A network of organs,  lymph nodes,  lymph ducts,  and lymph vessels
Function• Maintains fluid balance in the internal environment   – Returns excess fluid to the blood   – Example:      • Wh...
Other systems involved…• Closely connected with the circulatory system  & immune system• WHY?  – Lymph comes from blood an...
Lymph• Clear fluid that circulates around the body  tissues• Contains a high number of lymphocytes (WBC)• Process  – Plasm...
Lymph Process• The fluid,  now called lymph,  flows through the  biggest lymph vessel  (thoracic duct)• Thoracic duct  the...
Transportation system• Lymph capillaries• Lymph vessels• Two large ducts  – Right lymphatic duct  – Thoracic duct• Two lar...
Lymph Nodes• Small clumps of cells found on many vessels  – Neck, armpits, inner elbows, and groin  – Abdomen, pelvis, che...
Other organs• Spleen  – Helps in immunity    (protection against    infection)  – Stores blood for the body    & releases ...
Other organs…• Thymus  – Small gland under the breast bone  – Helps produce white blood cells• Tonsils  – Help protect the...
Circulation notes continued
Circulation notes continued
Circulation notes continued
Circulation notes continued
Circulation notes continued
Circulation notes continued
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Circulation notes continued

1,340
-1

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,340
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Circulation notes continued

  1. 1. Circulation Notes Continued
  2. 2. Rh antigen/factor• Rh positive – Antigen is present – Dominant trait• Rh negative – Antigen is absent – Recessive trait• Rh+ and Rh- are incompatible
  3. 3. Potential Pregnancy• Mom: Rh -• Father: Rh +• Child: Rh +• Mother creates antibodies against the Rh factor – Rh + baby is treated like an intruder in the mother’s body• Rh immunoglobulin (RhIg) is a blood product given via injection to help the Rh – mother• Suppresses her ability to react to the Rh + red cells
  4. 4. Compatibility of Blood Activity When an antiserum is added to blood and clotting occurs, the blood contains that antigen
  5. 5. Tissue Types(There are four types you should know.)
  6. 6. Tissue Types of Muscle (You should know all three.)
  7. 7. Blood vessels• Arteries – Structure • Inner endothelium – single layer of cells • Smooth muscle • Connective tissue – Types • Aorta • Arterioles (small arteries)
  8. 8. Blood Vessels• Veins – Structure • Inner endothelium • Smooth muscle • Connective tissue • VALVES – prevents backflow – Types • Vena cavas • Venules
  9. 9. Special Note• Depends on surrounding skeletal muscle to bring blood back to the heart
  10. 10. Be sure to know how to tell the difference between an artery and vein by description and/or picture.
  11. 11. Blood Vessels• Capillaries – One cell thick – Connects arteries and veins – Diffusion takes place in these blood vessels. – Found all over the body & easy to break
  12. 12. • Be sure to know the following picture below.
  13. 13. Blood• Type of connective tissue - in liquid form• Allows for transport within the circulatory system• Functions – Transports nutrients and oxygen to cells – Transports wastes and carbon dioxide away from cells – Transfers heat to the surface of the skin – Defends the body against disease
  14. 14. Blood composition• Plasma – Makes up 55% of of blood – Sticky, yellowish fluid – Made up mostly of water – Made up of dissolved substances like vitamins, minerals, amino acids, glucose, hormones, and wastes
  15. 15. Blood composition• Proteins – Fibrinogen • Helps in the formation of blood clots – Serum albumin • Regulates osmotic pressure between the plasma and blood cells and the plasma and tissue – Serum globulin • Acts as antibodies, fight invaders
  16. 16. Blood composition• Blood solids – Makes up 45% of blood – Red blood cells (RBC) • Erythrocytes • Transports oxygen with the help of hemoglobin • Mature RBCs have no nucleus or organelles • Have a life span of 120 days • RBC removed by the liver and spleen • 30 trillion circulate in the body at any one time • Produced in the bone marrow
  17. 17. Blood solids• White blood cells – Leukocytes – Defends against disease – Made in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen – Larger than RBCs but less is present – Life span long – Two types • Phagocytes (engulf foreign invaders) • Antibodies (localizes invaders for phagocytes to ingest)
  18. 18. Blood solids• Platelets – Thrombocytes – Cell fragments (pieces of cytoplasm with no nucleus) – Life span of about 1 week – Help form blood clots
  19. 19. Blood clotting• Cut• Platelets congregate to the site of cut• Blood vessels constrict• Blood flow decreases• Clotting factors are released• Prothrombin (a protein) is added• Thrombin (enzyme) work with fibrinogen• Forms fibrin (long, sticky threads)• Fibrin with erythrocytes form a clot, or scab Click on the following link for an animation. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lx0zWdQqTWE
  20. 20. Bruising• Blood vessel broken under the skin• Red blood cells that leak out into the tissue lose their oxygen and the hemoglobin turns a bluish purple color• Later, as hemoglobin is broken down, the bruise may turn yellowish or greenish
  21. 21. Transplants• Rejection of transplanted organs results from recipients’ body producing antibodies in response to donor’s organ• Like in pregnancies, antiserums may be taken
  22. 22. Blood transfusion• Patient MUST receive a matching blood type or Blood type O- or else agglutination may occur
  23. 23. Blood Donation GuideBlood Type Receive from Donate ToType A A, O A, ABType B B, O B, ABType AB AB, A, B, O ABType O O A, B, AB, O • Type AB – universal receiver • Type O – universal donor
  24. 24. Lymphatic System• A network of organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels
  25. 25. Function• Maintains fluid balance in the internal environment – Returns excess fluid to the blood – Example: • When a body part swells, it may be because there is too much fluid in the tissues in that area• Immunity – Defends the body against foreign invaders – Example: • Contain phagocytic cells serving to filter bacteria and dead cells and alerts the immune system
  26. 26. Other systems involved…• Closely connected with the circulatory system & immune system• WHY? – Lymph comes from blood and returns to blood – Lymph vessels are similar to veins & capillaries – Aids in immunity
  27. 27. Lymph• Clear fluid that circulates around the body tissues• Contains a high number of lymphocytes (WBC)• Process – Plasma leaks out of the capillaries to surround and bathe the body tissues – Drains into the lymph vessels
  28. 28. Lymph Process• The fluid, now called lymph, flows through the biggest lymph vessel (thoracic duct)• Thoracic duct then empties back into the blood circulation via the subclavian veins
  29. 29. Transportation system• Lymph capillaries• Lymph vessels• Two large ducts – Right lymphatic duct – Thoracic duct• Two large veins (subclavian veins) in the upper chest
  30. 30. Lymph Nodes• Small clumps of cells found on many vessels – Neck, armpits, inner elbows, and groin – Abdomen, pelvis, chest• Filter lymph to rid the body of foreign particles, tissue debris, and microorganism• Produce lymphocytes to help fight disease
  31. 31. Other organs• Spleen – Helps in immunity (protection against infection) – Stores blood for the body & releases it when needed – Destroys bacteria – Destroys worn out & damaged platelets – Destroys worn out & damaged RBCs
  32. 32. Other organs…• Thymus – Small gland under the breast bone – Helps produce white blood cells• Tonsils – Help protect the against bacteria and viruses

×