The goals of psychology are describe the basic components of behavior, to explain them, to predict them, and, potentially, to manage them.
Psychologists develop theories. A theory is a collection of interrelated ideas and facts put forward to explain and predict behavior and mental processes.
A history os psychology: Schools of Psychological thought, past and present WERTHEIMER Suggested that conscious experience is more than simply the sum of its parts. Focused on the unity of perception and thinking. GESTALT JAMES Grew out structuralism and was concerned with how and mhy the conscious mind, works; a principal aim was to know how those contents of consciousness worked together. FUNCTIONALISM WUNDT Consideres conscious experience the proper subject matter of psychology. Used a technique called introspection (the description and analysis by a person of what he or she is thinking and feeling. STRUCTURALISM EARLY LEADER FOCUS SCHOOL
EARLY LEADER FOCUS SCHOOL WATSON The behaviorists’ prespective focuses on how observable responses are learned, modified, and forgotten. A fundamental assumption is that disordered behavior can be reshaped and that appropriate, worthwhile behavior can be substituted throught the traditional learning techniques. BEHAVIORISM VARIOUS Focuses on thought processes and mental activities involved in perception, memory, learning, and thinking. Cognitive psychology focuses on the mental processes involved in behavior, such as how people solve problems and appriaise situations as threatening. COGNITIVE FREUD He focused on the causes and treatment of emotional disturbances. Freud worked from the premise the unconscious processes direct daily behavior. He emphasized the idea that childhood experiences influence future adult behavior and the sexual energy fuels day – to – day behavior. PSYCHOANALYSIS
An eclectis orientation allows a researcher or practitioner to view a problem from several orientations. Consider Depression:
From a biological perspective alone, people become depressed becouse of changes in brain chemistry.
From a behavioral poin of view alone, people learn to be depressed and sad because of faulty reward systems in ther enviroment.
The cognitive perspective suggests that depression is made worse by the interpretations (thoughts) an individual might adopt about a situations.
VARIOUS Focuses on how physical mechanisms affect emotions, feelings, thoughts, desires, and sensory experiences. BIOLOGICAL MASLOW Emphasized the uniqueness of the human experience and the idea that human beings have frr will to determine their destiny. HUMANISTIC
Psychology is a science that answers important questions. To do so, it uses a variety of methods, is flexible in explaining behavior; accounts for the complexity of the brain, the environment, and behavior relations; and accommodates competing theories. There are many specialities and interests, but only one science of psychology.
PSYCHOLOGIST Person who studies behavior and uses behavioral principles in scientific research or in applied settings for the treatment of emotional problems
They teach people to cope more effectively by applying behavioral principles. Ther aim is to help people solve problems and the promote well-being. Within the human service area are the subfields of clinical, counseling, community and school psychology.
The psychologists study behavior in both animals and human beings
Psychologists often work with a human participants called Subjets
The typical research process is usually systematic and begins whit a specific question. But sometimes unexpectedly find an answer to another problem.
A hypothesis is a tentative idea that express a causal relationship of two events o variable.
Systematic explorations The researchers follow up systematically, that is they try to consider all the aspects of a situation that might cause an organism to behave as it does. Only controlled laboratory experiments permit researches to make cause-an effect-statements
Correllated events and causally related events
Two events are correlated when de presence of a hi value of one variable o situation is regulary asociated whit a hi, or low value of another.
Events are causally related when one event makes another event occur.
Significant differences: is the statistically determined likelihood that a behavior not occurred because of chance alone
The technique they use more than any other to explore a cause-effect relationship is a controlled experiment.
questionnaires interviews naturalistic case study observation Another techniques To collect information
Strengths and weaknesses of 5 approaches to research Lack of generalizability of findings time-consuming Study or rare events; extensive evidence gathered on a single person Case study Little opportunity to conrol variables; time-consuming Observation of behavior in its natural context Naturalistic observation Lack of explanatory power; validity of findings may be limitted by samples realibity dificult to determine; self report may be inaccurate or biased Effective means of measuring actions, attitudes, opinions, preferences, and intentions of large number of people. Questionarie Limited opportunity to controlled third factors; unable to draw conclusions about causal relationships. Measurement of degree of asociation among variables; good basis for predictions Correlational study Artificially or laboratory envirotment, limited or generalizability of findings, manipulation of some variables is unethical or impractical Manipulated the variable to control the extraneus influences, best method for identifying ausal realtionships Experiment Weaknesses Strengths Aproach