And, But, So, Before,


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When to use certain conjuctions like And, But, So, Before, When, Or

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And, But, So, Before,

  1. 1. When to use: CAADI Psicología, UANL
  2. 2. <ul><li>We use AND to join words: </li></ul><ul><li>Crime AND Punishment Bread AND butter </li></ul><ul><li>Two shirts, a pullover AND a jacket </li></ul><ul><li>We do not use a comma when we join two words with AND </li></ul><ul><li>x John, and Mary </li></ul><ul><li>We also use AND to join sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Fred went home AND watched TV. </li></ul><ul><li>Fred went home AND Carol spent the evening with him </li></ul>
  3. 3. We also use AND <ul><li>To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another: &quot;Tashonda sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest that one idea is the result of another: &quot;Willie heard the weather report and promptly boarded up his house.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another (frequently replaced by but in this usage): &quot;Juanita is brilliant and Shalimar has a pleasant personality. </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest an element of surprise (sometimes replaced by yet in this usage): &quot;Hartford is a rich city and suffers from many symptoms of urban blight.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another, conditionally (usually the first clause is an imperative): &quot;Use your credit cards frequently and you'll soon find yourself deep in debt.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest a kind of &quot;comment&quot; on the first clause: &quot;Charlie became addicted to gambling — and that surprised no one who knew him.&quot; </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>We use but to join sentences when the second sentence is a contrast with the first: </li></ul><ul><li>Fred went home to watch television, BUT the TV was broken. </li></ul><ul><li>Carol wanted a coke BUT there wasn't any in the fridge </li></ul>
  5. 5. We use BUT <ul><li>To suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light of the first clause: &quot;Joey lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way (sometimes replaced by on the contrary ): &quot;The club never invested foolishly, but used the services of a sage investment counselor.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To connect two ideas with the meaning of &quot;with the exception of&quot; (and then the second word takes over as subject): &quot;Everybody but Goldenbreath is trying out for the team.&quot; </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>We use SO to join sentences when the second sentence is consequence of the first: </li></ul><ul><li>It was raining  She opened her umbrella </li></ul><ul><li>It was raining, SO she opened her umbrella </li></ul><ul><li>She didn't like the film  She walked out of the cinema </li></ul><ul><li>She didn't like the film SO she walked out of the cinema </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Be careful of the conjunction SO . Sometimes it can connect two independent clauses along with a comma, but sometimes it can't. For instance, in this sentence, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soto is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his brother, sister, and his Uncle Chet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where the word so means &quot;as well&quot; or &quot;in addition,&quot; most careful writers would use a semicolon between the two independent clauses. In the following sentence, where so is acting like a minor-league &quot;therefore,&quot; the conjunction and the comma are adequate to the task: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soto has always been nervous in large gatherings, so it is no surprise that he avoids crowds of his adoring fans. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, at the beginning of a sentence, so will act as a kind of summing up device or transition, and when it does, it is often set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So, the sheriff peremptorily removed the child from the custody of his parents. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>We can use these words as prepositions: </li></ul><ul><li>*AFTER lunch *BEFORE six o´ clock *AFTER the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>We can also use them to join two sentences </li></ul><ul><li>He had a shower  He had breakfast </li></ul><ul><li>He had a shower BEFORE he had a breakfast </li></ul><ul><li>He had a breakfast  He had a shower </li></ul><ul><li>He had a breakfast AFTER he had a shower. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>We use WHEN to join two sentences in time. The two actions may happen at about the same time, or at two different time </li></ul><ul><li>When the time of the two sentences is (more or less) the same, we use the same tense for both: </li></ul><ul><li>I arrived (at 6 am). He left (at 6 am). </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN I arrived he left </li></ul><ul><li>When the time of the two sentences is different, we use different tenses: </li></ul><ul><li>I arrived (at 6 am). He left (at 5:30 am). </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN I arrived he had (already) left. </li></ul>
  10. 10. We us OR <ul><li>To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other: &quot;You can study hard for this exam or you can fail.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives: &quot;We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can just eat leftovers. </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest a refinement of the first clause: &quot;Smith College is the premier all-women's college in the country, or so it seems to most Smith College alumnae.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest a restatement or &quot;correction&quot; of the first part of the sentence: &quot;There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest a negative condition: &quot;The New Hampshire state motto is the rather grim &quot;Live free or die.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative (see use of and above ): &quot;They must approve his political style or they wouldn't keep electing him mayor.&quot; </li></ul>
  11. 11. Now is time to practice <ul><li>Go to the next web site </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Shepherd, J. (1995) Multilevel English Grammar Programme Level 2 Student's book. Hong Kong: Phoenix ELT </li></ul><ul><li>Some information taken from the web site: </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborated by: Carlos Gualberto Salazar Hernández </li></ul><ul><li>2009 </li></ul>References