François Taddéi - Challenges and Chances of Education in the 21st century


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François Taddéi - Challenges and Chances of Education in the 21st century

  1. 1. The challenges and chances of education in the 21st century François Taddei [email_address] Paris Descartes University Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity Beijing Normal University July 13 th 2009
  2. 2. A culture of questioning [email_address]
  3. 3. Chances & challenges for educational systems <ul><ul><li>New challenges (eg sustainable development, ecologic, economic, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>climate & health crisis, exponential growth of knowledge & tech ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivating the new generation despite desinterest for science education </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to learn, update and build relevant knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking (positive criticisms) </li></ul><ul><li>New Technologies of Information & CCCC </li></ul><ul><li>Opening Higher-ed (at least 100 millions more students) </li></ul><ul><li>Towards a paradigm shift ? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Students creativity as a chance & a challenge for education <ul><li>Debates in national and international settings </li></ul><ul><li>France 2025: « How to create creators ? » </li></ul><ul><li>OECD report: “Training creative and collaborative knowledge-builders: a major challenge for 21st century education” </li></ul><ul><li>European Union: « Creativity Debate » </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO: Creativity & Education </li></ul>
  5. 5. The chances and challenges of night science Adapted from François Jacob Nobel prize 1965 Science has in fact two aspects. Day science involves reasoning as articulated as gears, results that have the strength of certainty. Aware of its style, proud of its past, sure of its future, the science of days advances in the light. Night Science , on the contrary, wanders in the dark. It hesitates, stumbles, falls. Questioning everything, it is seerching itself endlessly, combining, associating myriads of hypothesis, assumptions still in the form of vague hunches, projects barely taken shape. Nothing guarantees its successes, its ability to survive the tests of Logic and experiments, but sometimes thanks to intuition, instinct and the will to discover, as a lightning it illuminates more than a thousand suns.... 
  6. 6. 'None of us alone is as smart as all of us together' Centre for Research & Interdisciplinary: an experiment in scientific pedagogy where night scientists shared dreams becomes reality 1/ Interdisciplinary Approaches of Life Sciences Master M2 (2005), M1 (2009) 2/ Students Clubs (iGEM team, science & ethics, biomed, «science ac», science festival, nanotech, Paris PhD symposium, information …) 3/ PhD Program Frontiers in Life Sciences Liliane Bettencourt Program 4/ Orange Chair , Interdisciplinary Approaches of the Web Master 5/ Axa Chair with 3 europeans institutes : Systemic approaches of longevity 6/ Team Evolutionary Systems Biology (Inserm, TaMaRa’s lab) 7/ WISER-U web project: how to promote Science 2.0 & Education 2.0 From coffee room interactions to 400 m 2 at the Medicine Faculty of Paris Descartes University in the heart of Paris :
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>From a scientific club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to an award for fondamental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research in MIT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PKU CTB undergrad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-organised team wins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Grand prize in MIT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Synthetic Multicellular Bacterium’ </li></ul>a human & scientific experience for students
  8. 8. Pedagogy <ul><li>Ignorance of tools and concepts from other disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and diversity of courses, strong interaction amongst all: students & teachers, </li></ul><ul><li>Project imposed by laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>Students confined to one laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of international interaction </li></ul><ul><li>research valorisation & ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility and autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>given to students </li></ul><ul><li>Students have access to several labs, </li></ul><ul><li>tutors, visiting professors & travel grants </li></ul><ul><li>International curriculum, </li></ul><ul><li>students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of research </li></ul><ul><li>implications and applications. </li></ul>Reasons for CRI's exponential growth Classical french programs
  9. 9. Learning from... > Parents: the power of love and trust > Games: the power of planning and adaptability > Professors: - the power of experiments - the power of co-operation & transitions > Research: unexpected findings & systemic views > Children: the power of questioning > September 11: the power of individuals in a connected world > French riots: the power of the youth > Students: the power of group creativity & group work > International differences: the power of comparison > History: the power of Technology of Information & CCC > Bacteria: - the danger of niche destruction and cheaters - the power of information transfer and niche construction - the power of evolution the need for evolvability
  10. 10. It takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast Lewis Carroll, 1871
  11. 11. The Red Queen speed is accelerating
  12. 12. The bacterial Red Queen Lessons from bacteria: evolution of adaptability, co-operation & niche construction via information exchange
  13. 13. <ul><li>Adapting the environment </li></ul><ul><li>rather than adapting to it </li></ul><ul><li>The extended phenotype </li></ul><ul><li>allows the organisms to </li></ul><ul><li>modify their niche </li></ul><ul><li>Via ecological inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>their offspring can inherit </li></ul><ul><li>the modified niche </li></ul>
  14. 15. Language as a major transition
  15. 16. <ul><ul><li>Direct effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase of stability of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase of storage space for information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase of transmissibility of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New struggles seen again later in NTICCCC </li></ul></ul>Writing & Printing, as major transitions
  16. 17. Science as a major transition <ul><li>Could greek and chinese science emerge without writing, science 1.0 without printing and science 2.0 without the web ? </li></ul><ul><li>Science as a way to produce more « universal » information </li></ul>
  17. 18. Science & Conservatism: Semmelweis drama
  18. 19. Education as a major transition
  19. 20. Computers as major transitions
  20. 21. Globalisation as a major transition
  21. 22. NTICCC, New technologies of information, communication, cooperation & creativity <ul><li>Internet easing scientific exchanges and access to shared databases </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail (and its future) to increase transmissibility & speed of transfer of information </li></ul><ul><li>Search engines: relevant information on demand </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis to produce knowledge collectively </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs for individuals to share views </li></ul>
  22. 23. Web 2.0 & collective production of knowledge “ None of us is as smart as all of us” <ul><li>From one to many, to many to many : all can emit information (eg blogs, comments, video…)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the encyclopedist utopia (Wikipedia: when a “ shared dream ” becomes a reality)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of tools for collective intelligence (eg wikis, blog, liquid publications, knowledge markets)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Weak cooperation (useful for me and good for all) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Web 3.0 : faster feedback between information & action <ul><li>Linking informations from the real world, the web & actions will allow an ever faster feed back between information & action </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating the transition to non-biological production of informed actions </li></ul><ul><li> new inform-actions will be favoured </li></ul><ul><li>(towards collaborative « robot scientists » ?) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Robots as major transitions
  25. 26. Lessons for creativity, science & education <ul><li>Questions for future research & discussions </li></ul><ul><li>How tomorrow scientists and educators will revise their practice to optimally use the progresses allowed by NTICCC to do better research and to educate the new generations of knowledge builders, to allow them to develop meta-skills ? </li></ul><ul><li>How to create creators ? </li></ul><ul><li>How science, education, informations and the web coevolve ? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the web be improved to better educate the next generations ? </li></ul><ul><li>What can be found on a good campus/lab that cannot (yet) be found on the web ? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we develop further open source software and open education resources and integrate them to promote education 2.0 and science 2.0 ? </li></ul>
  26. 27. Open source & open education resources as major transitions
  27. 28. : a website & webtools developped by students for students to store, exchange & create ideas, where they can find « ideas mate » & realise projects <ul><li>Open access & open source </li></ul><ul><li>Use collective intelligence for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Allow to find critical mass on line and in real life to allow students to build innovative projects </li></ul><ul><li>Help the emergence of places to incubate interacting collectives </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate all the cool tools available & design new ones </li></ul>
  28. 29. WISER-U W orldwide I nteractions for S cience, E ducation and R esearch in U niversities 1 st Summer school: Peking University, Center for Theoretical Biology Science 2.0, July 6 th 10 th 2009 <ul><li>5 groups exploring the tools and first steps to speed-up the Scientific TRACK </li></ul><ul><li>T ailored scientific search engines (web, papers, images, videos...) </li></ul><ul><li>R elevant scientific news on your personal page </li></ul><ul><li>A ccessing scientific information (robots and databases) </li></ul><ul><li>C ollaborative annotation of publications and contents </li></ul><ul><li>K nowledge map and scientific paths (zoom and explore) </li></ul>Education 2.0 July 29 th August 4 th 2009
  29. 30. Can we imagine another education system ?
  30. 31. Creative education & competitivity: speeding-up the educational red queen
  31. 32. Creative education vs formatting
  32. 33. Can we measure creativity ? The Creativity Debate within European Union
  33. 34. Places of creativity
  34. 35. Encourage & protect creative minds
  35. 36. The future is in our hands