Overage Enrolment in Basic Schools in Ghana: Why does it Matter? Joseph Ghartey Ampiah University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Introduction <ul><li>Distribution of children into primary education relative to official age in 2005 shows 2 years or mor...
<ul><li>Ethiopia, Mozambique and Ghana in had the highest proportion of over-age children (15% or more) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Age distribution of primary one enrolment in  Savelugu-Nanton and Mfantseman districts
Enrolment age distribution of children in  Savelugu-Nanton and Mfantseman districts
Age Distribution of Dropouts <ul><li>Mfantseman </li></ul><ul><li>Out of a total cohort of 1069 pupils in the four cohorts...
Age distribution of dropouts by district
Repetition MFANTSEMAN Repeaters   2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Total %  Primary 1 cohort 331 43 2 0 45 13.6 Primary 4 c...
Age distribution of repeaters in class one in selected schools in two districts
School Attendance <ul><li>children in their correct age-in-grade attend school more regularly than over age children </li>...
Reasons for overage enrolment <ul><li>Late enrolment as a result of parents not knowing the correct ages of their children...
Overage child academic challenges Overage child social challenges  Overage discipline challenges She does not contribute i...
The way forward <ul><li>At the school level, headteachers and teachers must make an effort to seek children of school goin...
<ul><li>At the community level, opinion leaders, chiefs, assembly members, headteachers and teachers must ensure that the ...
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Overage enrolment in basic schools in ghana

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Overage enrolment in basic schools in ghana

  1. 1. Overage Enrolment in Basic Schools in Ghana: Why does it Matter? Joseph Ghartey Ampiah University of Cape Coast, Ghana
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Distribution of children into primary education relative to official age in 2005 shows 2 years or more over-age in countries in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-saharan Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asia and the Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South and West Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America and the Carribean </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Ethiopia, Mozambique and Ghana in had the highest proportion of over-age children (15% or more) </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba, Iceland had no over-age children in primary one and Tunisia no children over-age by more than 2 years and virtually no children overage by 1 year. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Age distribution of primary one enrolment in Savelugu-Nanton and Mfantseman districts
  5. 5. Enrolment age distribution of children in Savelugu-Nanton and Mfantseman districts
  6. 6. Age Distribution of Dropouts <ul><li>Mfantseman </li></ul><ul><li>Out of a total cohort of 1069 pupils in the four cohorts in the 2006/07 academic year, 177 (16.6%) had dropped out by 2009/2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Dropouts was highest (19.0%) for the primary 1 cohort and lowest for the JHS1 cohort (12.4%). </li></ul><ul><li>Savelugu-Nanton </li></ul><ul><li>Out of a total cohort of 1470 pupils in the four cohorts in the 2006/07 academic year, 238 (16.2%) had dropped out by 2009/2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Dropouts was (12.7%) for the primary 1 pupils and lowest for the JHS1 cohort (6.8%). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Age distribution of dropouts by district
  8. 8. Repetition MFANTSEMAN Repeaters   2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Total % Primary 1 cohort 331 43 2 0 45 13.6 Primary 4 cohort 292 39 4 0 43 14.7 Primary 6 cohort 221 20 5 7 32 14.5 JHS1 cohort 225 12 0 0 12 5.3 Total 1069 114 11 7 132 12.3   SAVELUGU   Repeaters   2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Total % Primary 1 cohort 474 29 13 5 47 9.9 Primary 4 cohort 368 55 20 1 76 20.7 Primary 6 cohort 335 13 18 9 40 11.9 JHS1 cohort 293 27 10 0 37 12.6 Total 1470 124 61 15 200 13.6
  9. 9. Age distribution of repeaters in class one in selected schools in two districts
  10. 10. School Attendance <ul><li>children in their correct age-in-grade attend school more regularly than over age children </li></ul><ul><li>Age-in-grade children attended, on average, 84 per cent of the lessons in the academic year 2008-09, </li></ul><ul><li>whereas children who were over age by two to three years attended 79 per cent of the lessons and </li></ul><ul><li>children who were over age by four or more years attended only 72 per cent of the lessons in the same academic year. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reasons for overage enrolment <ul><li>Late enrolment as a result of parents not knowing the correct ages of their children </li></ul><ul><li>Children dropping in and out of school for all sorts of reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition mainly as a result of poor performance in school </li></ul><ul><li>Stunted growth of children </li></ul><ul><li>Inability of parents to enroll children due to poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Child labour </li></ul><ul><li>Illiterate parents </li></ul>
  12. 12. Overage child academic challenges Overage child social challenges Overage discipline challenges She does not contribute in class work He normally does not play with his colleagues I sometimes receive harsh punishment from my teacher She is not active at all in class during teaching and learning She always isolates herself from her mates My punishment is always more than some of my colleagues He disturbs a lot when classes are in session He does not contribute well in class with the fear of colleagues laughing at him Finds it difficult to understand why I'm punished with the whole class at times He is very dull and does not talk in class Instead of playing with his mates, he rather plays with his seniors Sometimes late for school due to numerous household chores When you ask her questions she refuses to answer Feels very shy when playing with classmates. Hardly mixes with classmates. Hardly accepts punishments in front of class Hardly concentrates in class when lessons are going on. Combining academic work with farm and fishing business At times withdraws from school gatherings and the company of friends. Sometimes late for school. Hardly participates in cleaning the compound
  13. 13. The way forward <ul><li>At the school level, headteachers and teachers must make an effort to seek children of school going age and enroll them in school at the beginning of each academic year. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools must celebrate the birthdays of children in each class to draw attention of parents and children to the importance of children’s age in school. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should also pay attention to challenges faced by over-aged children. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>At the community level, opinion leaders, chiefs, assembly members, headteachers and teachers must ensure that the correct ages of all children born in the communities are recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, children who come to live in the communities must be registered and their correct ages recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>There must be a vigorous campaign by communities and schools to get all children to attend pre-school. Pre-school attendance must be made compulsory in each community and schools must seek for all children of eligible to attend pre-school to do so. </li></ul>

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