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Your backend architecture     is what matters               Scaling your application       Colin Charles, colin@montyprogr...
What are you building?• a bunch of static fbml pages + fql+ database  triggers+views?• the next cool game zynga wants to a...
http://xkcd.com/327/
Don’t prematurely         optimise                Just remember the 7P’s:Prior & Proper Planning Prevents Piss Poor Perfor...
Reference        Architectures• Is there one for the Web world?• Your choices are to: • scale up • scale out• Which do you...
Scaling out• Buying (renting) commodity hardware• Using the cloud to expand • Or using the cloud totally: e.g. http://    ...
OS•   If you didn’t go opensource, you’re silly•   Tuning Linux/BSD is mandatory    •   filesystem: xfs, ext3(4)    •   swa...
Web server• Apache, lighthttpd, nginx• They all require configuration (httpd.conf)• Simple things like maximum connections,...
Language• “PHP doesn’t scale.” - Cal Henderson, when  he was at Flickr.com• Languages are not meant to scale for you• Use ...
Databases• are slow, period.• partition data into shards• tune that database
And that was yourbasic LAMP stack
How do you scale        easily?• Use caches• Disk-based caching (cache_lite via php-  pear). RAM disks on SSDs... fast!• I...
memcached• Easy to setup and use• Very fast over the network• Scales, has failover, widely supported• Centralised and shar...
S3• Databases are good for storing relational  data, but suck for blob storage• S3 is a file & data store, running over HTT...
CDN• Outsource it• Costs a lot of money• Aflexi is a Malaysian company making a  pretty darn good CDN (resold via  Exabytes...
Back to the database...• Sharding   • not all data lives in one place   • hash records to partitions     • partition alpha...
Horizontal vs Vertical        Partitioning192.168.0.1                                 192.168.0.1                         ...
MySQL has engines• InnoDB (XtraDB) for transactional use• MyISAM for “data warehousing” use• Maria in time
MySQL has replication!• Simple, easy to implement (async)• Row based replication is better than  statement based replicati...
Use INDEXes• Covering index: all fields in SELECT for  specific table are contained in index  • EXPLAIN will say “Using index”
Monitor everything!• Benchmarking allows tracking performance  over time• Nagios• MySQL (MariaDB/Percona Server)  • slow q...
Fulltext Search• Don’t use the database!• Sphinx • SphinxSE for MariaDB• Lucene
Don’t• SELECT * FROM room WHERE room_date  BETWEEN ‘2011-02-25’ AND ‘2011-02-27’ • not have an INDEX on field being    oper...
Keeping state• Session data in DB • PHP has files, doesn’t scale. DB    +Memcached goes far• Replicate/Partition/Cache stat...
General advice•   Your DB servers are not your web servers and they’re not    your load balancers•   Write non-locking cod...
NoSQL• MongoDB                  "I dont foresee StumbleUpon ever giving up on all of                  its MySQL instances....
A lot of web scale tech     comes from...• Brad Fitzpatrick• LiveJournal infrastructure• memcached (distributed caching, h...
“Without money the site cant function. Okay, let me tellyou the difference between Facebook and everyoneelse, we dont cras...
Resources• High Performance Web Sites (Steve  Sounders)• High Performance MySQL (Jeremy  Zawodny, Baron Schwartz, Peter Za...
Thanks/Q&AColin Charles, colin@montyprogram.com  @bytebot | http://bytebot.net/blog/
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Your backend architecture is what matters slideshare

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Overview of understanding your stack at the KL Facebook Developer Garage

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  1. 1. Your backend architecture is what matters Scaling your application Colin Charles, colin@montyprogram.com @bytebot / http://bytebot.net/blog/ KL Facebook Developer Garage, February 26 2011
  2. 2. What are you building?• a bunch of static fbml pages + fql+ database triggers+views?• the next cool game zynga wants to acquire? • needs to be database driven with proper architecture planning
  3. 3. http://xkcd.com/327/
  4. 4. Don’t prematurely optimise Just remember the 7P’s:Prior & Proper Planning Prevents Piss Poor Performance
  5. 5. Reference Architectures• Is there one for the Web world?• Your choices are to: • scale up • scale out• Which do you pick?
  6. 6. Scaling out• Buying (renting) commodity hardware• Using the cloud to expand • Or using the cloud totally: e.g. http:// heroku.com/facebook
  7. 7. OS• If you didn’t go opensource, you’re silly• Tuning Linux/BSD is mandatory • filesystem: xfs, ext3(4) • swap is the devil • different schedulers work better for different tasks (web, database, etc.) • NFS? You’d better tune that! (stopgap, scaling is hard)
  8. 8. Web server• Apache, lighthttpd, nginx• They all require configuration (httpd.conf)• Simple things like maximum connections, worker MPM, usually go unconfigured
  9. 9. Language• “PHP doesn’t scale.” - Cal Henderson, when he was at Flickr.com• Languages are not meant to scale for you• Use bytecode caches (PHP, Python, etc.)• Compile away -- HipHop• Library, driver support; developer communities
  10. 10. Databases• are slow, period.• partition data into shards• tune that database
  11. 11. And that was yourbasic LAMP stack
  12. 12. How do you scale easily?• Use caches• Disk-based caching (cache_lite via php- pear). RAM disks on SSDs... fast!• In-memory caching (APC, memcached)• Cloud-based caching (S3, MogileFS)
  13. 13. memcached• Easy to setup and use• Very fast over the network• Scales, has failover, widely supported• Centralised and shared across the site
  14. 14. S3• Databases are good for storing relational data, but suck for blob storage• S3 is a file & data store, running over HTTP• In theory, infinitely scalable• Centralised & shared across site• Costs money, no Malaysian POP• See OpenStack’s Swift Object Store
  15. 15. CDN• Outsource it• Costs a lot of money• Aflexi is a Malaysian company making a pretty darn good CDN (resold via Exabytes?)• Out of your control but will help you scale, scale, scale
  16. 16. Back to the database...• Sharding • not all data lives in one place • hash records to partitions • partition alphabetically? put n-users/ shard? organise by postal code?• horizontal vs vertical partitioning
  17. 17. Horizontal vs Vertical Partitioning192.168.0.1 192.168.0.1 User User id int(10) Better if INSERT id int(10) username char(15) username char(15) password char(15) email char(50) 192.168.0.3 heavy and there’s password char(15) email char(50) User less frequently192.168.0.2 id int(10) 192.168.0.2 changed data username char(15) password char(15) User email char(50) UserInfo id int(10) login datetime username char(15) md5 varchar(32) password char(15) guid varchar(32) email char(50)
  18. 18. MySQL has engines• InnoDB (XtraDB) for transactional use• MyISAM for “data warehousing” use• Maria in time
  19. 19. MySQL has replication!• Simple, easy to implement (async)• Row based replication is better than statement based replication• You do not need mysql cluster (ndb)• Look at Tungsten Replicator, Galera, etc. for other topologies (e.g. many masters)
  20. 20. Use INDEXes• Covering index: all fields in SELECT for specific table are contained in index • EXPLAIN will say “Using index”
  21. 21. Monitor everything!• Benchmarking allows tracking performance over time• Nagios• MySQL (MariaDB/Percona Server) • slow query log, extended stats in slow query log, use EXPLAIN, microsecond process list, userstats v2, SHOW PROCESSLIST, etc.
  22. 22. Fulltext Search• Don’t use the database!• Sphinx • SphinxSE for MariaDB• Lucene
  23. 23. Don’t• SELECT * FROM room WHERE room_date BETWEEN ‘2011-02-25’ AND ‘2011-02-27’ • not have an INDEX on field being operated on by range operator => full table scan• not allocate a primary key• over-normalise (3NF is fine)
  24. 24. Keeping state• Session data in DB • PHP has files, doesn’t scale. DB +Memcached goes far• Replicate/Partition/Cache state• Cookies can be validated by checksums and timestamps (encryption consumes CPU)
  25. 25. General advice• Your DB servers are not your web servers and they’re not your load balancers• Write non-locking code• Don’t block loading unnecessarily• Cache partially (esp. w/dynamic pages)• Use UTC for time (replication across geographies?)• Keep everything in version control• Migrations are never recommended unless you’ve exceeded capabilities of current solutions. Beware v2 disasters.
  26. 26. NoSQL• MongoDB "I dont foresee StumbleUpon ever giving up on all of its MySQL instances. RDBMSs are just too useful. The plan, though, is to shrink what MySQL does over• Redis time, let MySQL do what its good at and have HBase take over where MySQL is running up against limits handling ever-growing write rates, table sizes, etc." -• hBase/Hadoop Michael Stack, hbase project chair, StumbleUpon DBA http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/01/19/• CouchDB hbase_on_the_rise/• And the 45 other solutions out there...
  27. 27. A lot of web scale tech comes from...• Brad Fitzpatrick• LiveJournal infrastructure• memcached (distributed caching, hits less DB), MogileFS (distributed file system), Perlbal (reverse proxy load balancer), Gearman (remotely run code, load balanced, in parallel)• next: camlistore (http://camlistore.org/)
  28. 28. “Without money the site cant function. Okay, let me tellyou the difference between Facebook and everyoneelse, we dont crash EVER! If those servers are down foreven a day, our entire reputation is irreversiblydestroyed! Users are fickle, Friendster has proved that.Even a few people leaving would reverberate throughthe entire userbase. The users are interconnected, that isthe whole point. College kids are online because theirfriends are online, and if one domino goes, the otherdominos go, dont you get that?” -- Mark Zuckerberg(okay, not really, Jesse Eisenberg, in The Social Network)
  29. 29. Resources• High Performance Web Sites (Steve Sounders)• High Performance MySQL (Jeremy Zawodny, Baron Schwartz, Peter Zaitsev, et al)• Study HyperDB (Powers wordpress.com)• http://kb.askmonty.org/
  30. 30. Thanks/Q&AColin Charles, colin@montyprogram.com @bytebot | http://bytebot.net/blog/
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