• Save
MariaDB for Developers and Operators (DevOps)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

MariaDB for Developers and Operators (DevOps)



MariaDB features that both developers and operators will find benefit from, especially when we focus on the 10.0 release. This is specific to a Red Hat Summit/DevNation crowd.

MariaDB features that both developers and operators will find benefit from, especially when we focus on the 10.0 release. This is specific to a Red Hat Summit/DevNation crowd.



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



1 Embed 7

http://www.slideee.com 7



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

MariaDB for Developers and Operators (DevOps) MariaDB for Developers and Operators (DevOps) Presentation Transcript

  • MariaDB for DevOps Colin Charles
  • MariaDB for DevOps Colin Charles,Team MariaDB, SkySQL Ab colin@mariadb.org | http://mariadb.org/ http://bytebot.net/blog/ | @bytebot on Twitter DevNation/Red Hat Summit 2014, San Francisco, California, USA - 15 April 2014
  • whoami • Work on MariaDB at SkySQL Ab • Merged with Monty Program Ab, makers of MariaDB • Formerly MySQL AB (exit: Sun Microsystems) • Past lives include Fedora Project (FESCO), OpenOffice.org
  • Who are you? • Developer? • Operator? (DBA, sysadmin) • A bit of both?
  • First up… RHEL 6.5 mariadb55.x86_64 : Package that installs mariadb55 mariadb55-mariadb-bench.x86_64 : MariaDB benchmark scripts and data mariadb55-mariadb-devel.x86_64 : Files for development of MariaDB plugins mariadb55-mariadb-libs.x86_64 : The shared libraries required for MariaDB/MySQL : clients mariadb55-mariadb-server.x86_64 : The MariaDB server and related files mariadb55-runtime.x86_64 : Package that handles mariadb55 Software Collection. mariadb55-mariadb.x86_64 : A community developed branch of MySQL mariadb55-mariadb-test.x86_64 : The test suite distributed with MariaD
  • RHEL 7… • There’s no “community MySQL” package • You upgrade to MariaDB 5.5.33a (http://ftp.redhat.com/redhat/rhel/ beta/7/x86_64/os/Packages/) • OpenShift MariaDB Cartridge: https://github.com/openshift- cartridges/mariadb-cartridge
  • 5W1H is MariaDB • Drop-in compatible MySQL replacement • Community developed, Foundation backed, feature enhanced, backwards compatible, GPLv2 licensed • Steady stream of releases in 4 years 2 months: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.5, 10.0, MariaDB Galera Cluster 5.5, MariaDB with TokuDB 5.5 • Enterprise features open: PAM authentication plugin, threadpool, audit plugin
  • Microseconds • TIME, DATETIME, TIMESTAMP, temporal functions, CAST, dynamic columns CREATE TABLE microsec( column_microsec DATETIME(6), column_millisec TIME(3) ); SELECT CURTIME(6); MariaDB 5.3+
  • Microseconds & 5.6 • TIME_TO_SEC(), UNIX_TIMESTAMP() preserve microseconds of the argument MariaDB 10.0 MySQL 5.6 SELECT TIME_TO_SEC('10:10:10.12345'); +-------------------------------+ | TIME_TO_SEC('10:10:10.12345') | +-------------------------------+ | 36610.12345 | +-------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.01 sec) SELECT TIME_TO_SEC('10:10:10.12345'); +-------------------------------+ | TIME_TO_SEC('10:10:10.12345') | +-------------------------------+ | 36610 | +-------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • Virtual Columns • A column in a table that has its value automatically calculated either with a pre-calculated/deterministic expression or values of other fields in the table • VIRTUAL - computed on the fly when data is queried (like a VIEW) • PERSISTENT - computed when data is inserted and stored in a table MariaDB 5.2+
  • Virtual Columns CREATE TABLE table1 ( a INT NOT NULL, b VARCHAR(32), c INT AS (a mod 10) VIRTUAL, d VARCHAR(5) AS (left(b,5)) PERSISTENT);
  • Virtual columns example CREATE TABLE product ( -> productname VARCHAR(25), -> price_eur DOUBLE, -> xrate DOUBLE, -> price_usd DOUBLE AS (price_eur*xrate) VIRTUAL); INSERT INTO product VALUES ('toothpaste', 1.5, 1.39, default); INSERT into product VALUES ('shaving cream', 3.59, 1.39, default);
  • Virtual columns example II select * from product; +---------------+-----------+-------+-------------------+ | productname | price_eur | xrate | price_usd | +---------------+-----------+-------+-------------------+ | toothpaste | 1.5 | 1.39 | 2.085 | | shaving cream | 3.59 | 1.39 | 4.990099999999999 | +---------------+-----------+-------+-------------------+ 2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
  • Virtual column use cases elsewhere • http://openlife.cc/blogs/2010/october/what-would-you-use-virtual-columns • http://openlife.cc/blogs/2010/october/mariadb-52-using-mariadb-column-store-and- virtual-columns-indexing • http://www.jonathanlevin.co.uk/2012/04/mariadbs-virtual-columns.html • http://daniel-bartholomew.com/wordpress/2010/09/road-to-mariadb-5-2-virtual-columns/ • http://falseisnotnull.wordpress.com/2012/11/29/observations-about-mariadbs-virtual- columns/ • https://mariadb.com/kb/en/virtual-columns/ • MariaDB Cookbook (2014) has a chapter dedicated to it
  • PCRE Regular Expressions • Powerful REGEXP/RLIKE operator • New operators: • REGEXP_REPLACE(sub,pattern,replace) • REGEXP_INSTR(sub,pattern) • REGEXP_SUBSTR(sub,pattern) • Works with multi-byte character sets that MariaDB supports, including East-Asian sets MariaDB 10.0+
  • REGEXP_REPLACE() SELECT REGEXP_REPLACE('ab12cd','[0-9]','') AS remove_digits; +---------------+ | remove_digits | +---------------+ | abcd | +---------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • REGEXP_INSTR() SELECT REGEXP_INSTR('abc','b'); +-------------------------+ | REGEXP_INSTR('abc','b') | +-------------------------+ | 2 | +-------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • REGEXP_SUBSTR() SELECT REGEXP_SUBSTR( -> 'See https://mariadb.org/en/foundation/ for details', -> 'https?://[^/]*'); +--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | REGEXP_SUBSTR( 'See https://mariadb.org/en/foundation/ for details', 'https?://[^/]*') | +--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | https://mariadb.org | +--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • PCRE features • Can have character classes, unicode character types, check script names SELECT 'abc' RLIKE '^[[:ascii:]]+$'; +------------------------------+ | 'abc' RLIKE '^[[:ascii:]]+$' | +------------------------------+ | 1 | +------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • PCRE script names SELECT 'ΣΦΩ' RLIKE '^p{Greek}+$'; +--------------------------------+ | 'ΣΦΩ' RLIKE '^p{Greek}+$' | +--------------------------------+ | 1 | +--------------------------------+ MariaDB [developers]> SELECT 'ΣΦΩ' RLIKE '^p{Old_Persian}+$'; +--------------------------------------+ | 'ΣΦΩ' RLIKE '^p{Old_Persian}+$' | +--------------------------------------+ | 0 | +--------------------------------------+
  • DELETE … RETURNING • Delete operations that return a result set of the deleted rows to the client DELETE post FROM blog INNER JOIN post WHERE blog.id = post.blog_id; DELETE from t1 WHERE a=2 RETURNING *; MariaDB 10.0+
  • GIS • MariaDB implements a subset of SQL with Geometry Types • No longer just minimum bounding rectangles (MBR) - shapes considered CREATE TABLE geom (g GEOMETRY NOT NULL, SPATIAL INDEX(g)) ENGINE=MyISAM; • ST_ prefix - as per OpenGIS requirements MariaDB 5.3+
  • Sample use cases • Import OpenStreetMap data into MariaDB: http://www.slideshare.net/ hholzgra/fosdem-2014mariadbgis • Use the OpenStreetMap dataset: https://mariadb.com/kb/en/ openstreetmap-dataset/ • Screencast: https://blog.mariadb.org/screencast-mariadb-gis-demo/ • node.js example use case for mapping GPX data: https:// blog.mariadb.org/node-js-mariadb-and-gis/ & jQuery usage: https:// blog.mariadb.org/jquery-and-gis-distance-in-mariadb/
  • Dynamic columns • Allows you to create virtual columns with dynamic content for each row in table. Store different attributes for each item (like a web store). • Basically a BLOB with handling functions: COLUMN_CREATE, COLUMN_ADD, COLUMN_GET, COLUMN_DELETE, COLUMN_EXISTS, COLUMN_LIST, COLUMN_CHECK, COLUMN_JSON • In MariaDB 10.0: name support (instead of referring to columns by numbers, name it), convert all dynamic column content to JSON array, interface with Cassandra INSERT INTO tbl SET dyncol_blob=COLUMN_CREATE("column_name", "value"); MariaDB 5.3+
  • Full-text search via SphinxSE mysql> INSTALL PLUGIN sphinx SONAME 'ha_sphinx.so'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec) MariaDB 5.2+
  • What is SphinxSE? • SphinxSE is just the storage engine that still depends on the Sphinx daemon • It doesn’t store any data itself • Its just a built-in client to allow MariaDB to talk to Sphinx searchd, run queries, obtain results • Indexing, searching is performed on Sphinx
  • Sphinx search table CREATE TABLE t1 ( id INTEGER UNSIGNED NOT NULL, weight INTEGER NOT NULL, query VARCHAR(3072) NOT NULL, group_id INTEGER, INDEX(query) ) ENGINE=SPHINX CONNECTION="sphinx://localhost:9312/test"; ! SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE query='test it;mode=any';
  • Sphinx search tables • 1st column: INTEGER UNSIGNED or BIGINT (document ID) • 2nd column: match weight • 3rd column: VARCHAR or TEXT (your query) • Query column needs indexing, no other column needs to be
  • Query Cassandra • Data is mapped: rowkey, static columns, dynamic columns • super columns aren’t supported • No 1-1 direct map for data types • Write to Cassandra from SQL (SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) MariaDB 10.0+
  • Cassandra II pk varchar(36) primary key, data1 varchar(60), data2 bigint ) engine=cassandra keyspace='ks1' column_family='cf1' • Table must have a primary key • name/type must match Cassandra’s rowkey • Columns map to Cassandra’s static columns • name must be same as in Cassandra, datatypes must match, can be subset of CF’s columns
  • Mapping • Datatype mapping - complete table at KB • Data mapping is safe - engine will refuse incorrect mappings • Command mapping: INSERT overwrites rows, UPDATE reads then writes, DELETE reads then writes
  • Typical use cases • Web page hits collection, streaming data • Sensor data • Reads served with a lookup • Want an auto-replicated, fault-tolerant table?
  • CONNECT • Target: ETL for BI or analytics • Import data from CSV, XML, ODBC, MS Access, etc. • WHERE conditions pushed to ODBC source • DROP TABLE just removes the stored definition, not data itself • “Virtual” tables cannot be indexed MariaDB 10.0+
  • Engines, etc • Plan for backups - TokuDB can be cool for your uses as an example • Galera: study your workload patterns, your application, etc. • SPIDER (built-in sharding capabilities, partitioning & XA transaction capable with multiple backends including Oracle) • its not going to be straightforward to “just start” - need to know right tables to implement, etc.
  • PAM Authentication • Authentication using /etc/shadow • Authentication using LDAP, SSH pass phrases, password expiration, username mapping, logging every login attempt, etc. • INSTALL PLUGIN pam SONAME ‘auth_pam.so’; • CREATE USER foo@host IDENTIFIED via pam • Remember to configure PAM (/etc/pam.d or /etc/pam.conf) • http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2013/02/24/using-two-factor- authentication-with-percona-server/ MariaDB 5.2+
  • Threadpool • Modified from 5.1 (libevent based), great for CPU bound loads and short running queries • Windows (threadpool), Linux (epoll), Solaris (event ports), FreeBSD/OSX (kevents) • No minimization of concurrent transactions with dynamic pool size • thread_handling=pool-of-threads • https://mariadb.com/kb/en/thread-pool-in-mariadb-55/ MariaDB 5.5+
  • Non-blocking client library • start operation, do work in thread, operation processed, result travels back • use cases: multiple queries against single server (utilize more CPUs); queries against multiple servers (SHOW STATUS on many machines) • https://mariadb.com/kb/en/about-non-blocking-operation-in-the- client-library/ • fast node.js driver available: mariasql MariaDB 5.5+
  • LIMIT ROWS EXAMINED • The purpose of this optimization is to provide the means to terminate the execution of SELECTstatements which examine too many rows, and thus use too many resources. • SELECT * from t1, t2 LIMIT 10 ROWS EXAMINED 1000; • https://mariadb.com/kb/en/limit-rows-examined/ MariaDB 5.5+
  • SQL Error Logging Plugin • Log errors sent to clients in a log file that can be analysed later. Log file can be rotated (recommended) • a MYSQL_AUDIT_PLUGIN install plugin SQL_ERROR_LOG soname 'sql_errlog.so'; MariaDB 5.5+
  • Audit Plugin • Log server activity - who connects to the server, what queries run, what tables touched - rotating log file or syslogd • a MYSQL_AUDIT_PLUGIN INSTALL PLUGIN server_audit SONAME ‘server_audit.so’; MariaDB 10.0+
  • Replication made better • Selective skipping of replication events (session-based or on master or slave) • Dynamic control of replication variables (no restarts!) • Using row-based replication? Annotate the binary log with SQL statements • Slaves perform checksums on binary log events MariaDB 5.3+
  • Replication made better II • Group commit in the binary log - finally, sync_binlog=1, innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit=1 performs • START TRANSACTION WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT • mysqldump —single-transaction —master-data - full non- blocking backup • Slaves crash-safe (data stored inside transaction tables) • Multi-source replication - (real-time) analytics, shard provisioning, backups, etc.
  • New KILL syntax • HARD | SOFT & USER USERNAME are MariaDB-specific (5.3.2) • KILL QUERY ID query_id (10.0.5) - kill by query id, rather than thread id • SOFT ensures things that may leave a table in an inconsistent state aren’t interrupted (like REPAIR or INDEX creation for MyISAM or Aria) KILL [HARD | SOFT] [CONNECTION | QUERY] [thread_id | USER user_name] MariaDB 5.3+
  • Statistics • Understand server activity better to understand database loads • SET GLOBAL userstat=1; • SHOW CLIENT_STATISTICS; SHOW USER_STATISTICS; • # of connections, CPU usage, bytes received/sent, row statistics • SHOW INDEX_STATISTICS; SHOW TABLE_STATISTICS; • # rows read, changed, indexes • INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST has MEMORY_USAGE, EXAMINED_ROWS (similar with SHOW STATUS output) MariaDB 5.2+ MariaDB 10.0+
  • EXPLAIN enhanced • Explain analyser: https://mariadb.org/explain_analyzer/analyze/ • SHOW EXPLAIN for <thread_id> • EXPLAIN output in the slow query log • EXPLAIN not just for SELECT but INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE MariaDB 10.0+
  • Roles • Bundles users together, with similar privileges - follows the SQL standard CREATE ROLE audit_bean_counters; GRANT SELECT ON accounts.* to audit_bean_counters; GRANT audit_bean_counters to ceo; MariaDB 10.0+
  • Connectors • The MariaDB project provides LGPL connectors (client libraries) for: • C • Java • ODBC • Embedding a connector? Makes sense to use these LGPL licensed ones…
  • Optimizer MariaDB 10 MySQL 5.6 index_merge=on index_merge_union=on index_merge_sort_union=on index_merge_intersection=on index_merge_sort_intersection=off engine_condition_pushdown=off index_condition_pushdown=on derived_merge=on derived_with_keys=on firstmatch=on loosescan=on materialization=on in_to_exists=on semijoin=on partial_match_rowid_merge=on partial_match_table_scan=on subquery_cache=on mrr=off mrr_cost_based=off mrr_sort_keys=off outer_join_with_cache=on semijoin_with_cache=on join_cache_incremental=on join_cache_hashed=on join_cache_bka=on optimize_join_buffer_size=off table_elimination=on extended_keys=on exists_to_in=off index_merge=on index_merge_union=on index_merge_sort_union=on index_merge_intersection=on engine_condition_pushdown=on index_condition_pushdown=on mrr=on mrr_cost_based=on block_nested_loop=on batched_key_access=off materialization=on semijoin=on loosescan=on firstmatch=on subquery_materialization_cost_based=on use_index_extensions=on MariaDB 5.3+
  • https://mariadb.com/kb/en/
  • Q&A colin@mariadb.org | byte@bytebot.net http://skysql.com/ | http://mariadb.org/ twitter: @bytebot | url: http://bytebot.net/blog/