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Provision for urban aminities malayalam
 

Provision for urban aminities malayalam

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A critique of the Government of India program PURA (In Malayalam)

A critique of the Government of India program PURA (In Malayalam)

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    Provision for urban aminities malayalam Provision for urban aminities malayalam Document Transcript

    • 1 ]pc-bpsS ]n¶m-¼p-dw Kc{]tZi§fnse ]Ým¯ekuIcy§Ä {Kma{]tZi§fnepw e`yam¡pI F¶ {]Jym]nX e£yt¯msS tI{µKh¬saânsâ {KmahnIk hIp¸v S¸m¡p¶ ]²XnbmWv s{]mhnj³ Hm^v AÀ_³ Aannäokv C³ dqd Gcnbmkv AYhm ]pc. (Provision of Urban Amenities in Rural Areas - PURA). XncsªSp¡s¸« {Kma]©mb¯pIfnemWv BZyL«¯n Cu ]²Xn S¸m¡pI. ]»nIvþss{]hävþ]mÀ«nknt¸j³ AYhm PPP amXr-I-bn-emWv ]pc ]²Xn S-¸m-¡p-¶-Xv. {Kma§fnse ASnØmkuIcy§fpsS nÀamWhpw ]¯phÀjs¯ ]cn]mehpw kzImcyI¼nIfpsS D¯chmZnXzam¡pI F¶XmWv ]pcbpsS ASnØmw. ]pc ]²Xn¡v Gjy³ sUhe¸vsaâv _m¦nsâ (ADB) kmt¦XnI klm-b-hp-ap--v. ]Ým¯ew Kc§fpw {Kma§fpw X½n ASnØmkuIcy§fpsS Imcy¯n h³ A´cw nen¡p¶p. Cu A´cw Ipdbv¡pIsb¶Xpw Kc{]tZi§fnse ASnØmkuIcy§Ä {Kma§fnepw e`yam¡pIsb¶XpamWv ]pc ]²XnbpsS {]Jym]nX e£y§Ä. 2003 se dn¸»nIv Zn¯n A¶s¯ cmjv{S]Xn tUm.F.]n.sP A_vZpÄIemamWv C¯csamcp ]²Xn AhXcn¸n¨Xv. At±l¯nsâ ‘hnj³ 2020’ sâ `mKambncp¶p AXv. `uXnI kuIcy§Ä sa¨s¸Sp¯pI, CeIvt{SmWnIv hmÀ¯mhnnab kt¦X§Ä hym]n¸n¡pI, hnhckmt¦XnIhnZy hym]n¸n¡pI, ChbneqsS {KmaoW kaql§sf imàoIcn¨v hnIkw XzcnXs¸Sp¯pI F¶Xmbncp¶p At±l¯nsâ nÀt±iw. F¶m AtXmsSm¸w Xs¶ CXv km¼¯nI km[yXbpÅ Hcp _nknkv amXrI IqSnbmIWsa¶pw AXn kwcw`IcpsSbpw {KmaoW PXbptSbpw sNdpInS hyhkmbnIfptSbpw ]¦v {][mamsW¶pw IqSn At±lw ]dªp. ]²Xn XpS§m³ Bhiyamb kmt¦XnI
    • 2 klmbw ÂIpIbpw C¯cw amtPvsaâv GP³knIsf imàoIcn¡pIbpamWv Kh¬saânsâ ISasb¶mbncp¶p cmjv{S]XnbpsS A`n{]mbw. 2004-05 apX 2005-06 hsc-bpÅ Ime-b-f-hn Ggv ss]eäv t{]mP-Iväp-IÄ S-¯n-sb-¦nepw Ch {]Xo-£n¨ hnPbw tSn-bn-Ã. B{Ô-{]-tZ-iv, BÊmw, _olmÀ, alm-cm-jv{S, Hdo-k, cmP-Øm³, D¯À{]-tZiv F¶o kwØm--§-fn-emWv ss]eäv t{]mPIväv S-¸m-¡n-b- Xv. 30 tImSn cq]-bmWv CXn-mbn BsI Nne-hm-¡n-b-Xv. nÀ½n¨ BkvXn- I-fpsS XpSÀ]cn-]m-e--¯nv th-{X {]m[m-yw ÂIm-Xn-cp-¶-XmWv ]cm-P-b-Im-c-W-sa-¶m-bn-cp¶p hne-bn-cp-¯Â. AXmbXv ASnØm kuIcy§fpsS nÀamWt¯msSm¸w XpSÀ]cn]mewIqSn (bqkÀ^okv DÄs¸sS) kzImcy¡¼nIsf GÂ]n¡mXncp¶XnmemWv ]²Xn hnPbamImXncp¶Xv F¶ÀYw. 2006þemWv ]n¶oSv C¡mcy¯n ]ptcmKXnbp-mbXv. ]²XnbpsS sSIvn¡Â I¬kÄ«âmb F.Un._nbpsSbpw hnhn[ a{´me§fptSbpw kwØm Kh¬saâpIfptSbpw kzImcy taJebptSbpw A`n{]mb§Ä IW¡nseSp¯vsIm-v ]pc ]²Xnbn LSm]camb amä§Ä hcp¯n. nÀ½mW-tijw 10 hÀjs¯ ]cn-]m- ew IqSn kzImcy I¼-nsb G¸n-¡p-¶-XmWv {][m--am-äw. kzImcy I¼-n-IÄ¡v Ah-cpsS nt£-]-¯n-t·- 12% em`hpw Kh¬saâv Dd¸v ÂIp-¶p. Xmsg]dbp¶ hnjb§fnemWv F.Un._nbpsS D]tZiw kzoIcn¨Xv. i) ]pc ]²Xn hym]Iambn S¸m¡p¶Xnmhiyamb N«¡qSv (frame work) krjvSn¡pI. ii) ]pc ]²Xn ]qÀWambn {]tbmPs¸Sp¯m³ Xt±i Øm]§sf klmbn¡pI iii) ]²Xn¡mhiyamb ]Ww apS¡pIbpw ]²XnS¸m¡pIbpw kzImcyØm]§Ä¡v Bhiyamb klmbw ÂipI. iv) `mhnbn C´ybnsem«msI ]pc ]²Xn hym]n¸n¡pt¼mÄ AXnv s]mXpkzoImcyX D-mIp¶Xnmhiyamb Bib
    • 3 hnnab X{´§Ä BhnjvIcn¡pI (communication strategy and advocacy framework) v) `mhnbn aänS§fn BhÀ¯n¡m³ Ignbp¶ amXrIm t{]mPIväpIÄ¡v cq]w ÂIpI. Cu LS-m-]-c-amb amä-§Ä h¶-tXm-sS- {Kmao-W-hn-I-kw ]qÀW- ambpw kzIm-cy-ta-J-e-bpsS ssII-fn-em-hp¶ ØnXn-bp--m-bn. 25 NXp- c{i Intem-ao-ä-sd-¦nepw hnkvXr-Xn-bp-ÅXpw 25,000 P-kw-Jy-bp- ÅXpamb {Kma-§sfbmWv ]²-Xn-bn DÄs¸-Sp-¯p-I. aq¶v Cw ]²-Xn- I-fmWv ]pc-bn DÄs¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-Å-Xv. 1) {Kma-hn-I-k a{´m-eb¯nsâ ]²-Xn-IÄ þ Ch An-hm-cy-ambpw S-¸m-¡n-bn-cn-¡-Ww. IpSn-sh-Åw, kznh-td-Pv, {KmaoWtdmUp-IÄ, HmS-IÄ, Jc-am-enynÀ½mÀÖ-w, sXmgn sshZKv²yw hÀ²n¸n¡p¶XnpÅ ]²XnIÄ, km¼¯nI {]hÀ¯§Ä F¶nhbmWv Cu hn`mK¯n DÄs¸SpI. 2) {Kma-hn-I-k a{´m-e-b-¯n-tâ-X-Ãm¯ tI{µ-K-h¬saâv ]²-Xn- IÄ þ sXcphphnf¡pIÄ, sSent¡mw, sshZypXn DXv]mZw 3) A[n-I-ambn Gsä-Sp-¡p¶ ]²-Xn-IÄ þ {Kma-hp-ambn _Ô-s¸« Sqdn-kw, amÀ¡-äv, A{Kn tIma¬ kÀhokv skâÀ, shbÀlu-kv, {KmaoW k¼-Zvhy-h-Ø-bp-ambn _Ô-s¸« aäv t{]mP-Iväp-IÄ. Ch- bv¡-DÅ apXÂap-S¡v S-¯p-¶Xv kzIm-cy-ta-J-e-bm-Wv. ]pc S-¸m-¡p-¶-sX-§s? BZyL«¯n ]²Xn S¸nemt¡- I¼nIsf tI{µKh¬saâv XncsªSp¡p¶p. CXnmbn At]£ kaÀ¸n¡p¶ I¼nIfn n¶v {]hr¯n ]cnNb¯nsâbpw km¼¯nI ØnXnbpsSbpw ASnØm¯nemWv XncsªSp¸v S¯pI. Cu I¼nIÄ¡v ]pc ]²Xn S¸mt¡- ]©mb¯pIsf XncsªSp¡mw. ChnsS I¼nIfmWv ]©mb¯pIsf XncsªSp¡p¶Xv. F¶Xv {it²bamWv.
    • 4 I¼-n-Isf Xnc-sª-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn-mbn tI{µ-K-h¬saâv {]kn-²o-I- cn¨ ]c-ky-¯n Xs¶ (A-p-_Ôw 1) ]pc-bpsS Dt±-iyhpw km¼-¯n- I-am-Xr-Ibpw hyà-am-¡n-bn-«p--v. kzIm-cy-ta-J-e-bpsS nt£-]hpw amt- Pvsaâv sshZ-Kv²yhpw s]mXp-]-Whpw kwtbm-Pn-¸n¨v {Kmao-W-ta-J-e-bn ASn-Øm--ku-I-cy-§Ä hnI-kn-¸n-¡p-Ibpw ]cn-]m-en-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-I- bmWv ]pc-bpsS k¯ F¶v Cu ]c-ky-¯n hyà-am-¡p-¶p. CXn-mbn At]£ kaÀ¸n-¡p¶ I¼-n-IÄ¡v Bh-iy-amb km¼-¯nIhpw kmt¦-Xn-I-hp-amb tbmKy-X-IÄ hyà-am-¡n-bn-«p--v. I¼-n-Isf ‘amt-Pvsaâv GP³kn-IÄ’ F¶mWv ]pc-bn- hnti-jn- ¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. Cu amt-Pvsaâv GP³kn-Isf imào-I-cn-¡p-I, XpS-¡- ¯n Bh-iy-amb km¼-¯n-I-k-lmbw ÂIp-I, bpà-amb amt- Pvsaâv LS cq]-s¸-Sp-¯pI F¶n-h-bmWv Kh¬saânsâ Nqa-X-e. km¼-¯nI t{kmX-Êp-IÄ 1) {Kma-hn-I-k--a-{´m-e-b-¯nsâ ^-v 2) aäv a{´m-e-b-§-fpsS ^-p-IÄ 3) kzIm-cy-aq-e-[w 4) Kh¬saânsâ Iym¸n-ä {Kmâv (]-²-Xn-¡m-h-iy-amb BsI XpI-bpsS 35%, ]c-am-h[n 42 tImSn cq] hsc e`n-¡pw). aäv n_-Ô--IÄ  Hcp ]©m-b-¯n ]pc ]²Xnbn DÄs¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xnv B ]©mb¯v Hcp {]tabw ]mkmt¡-Xp-v. ]pc S-¸m-¡p-¶-Xn ]©m-b-¯nsâ {]Xn-_-²X CXn-eqsS Dd-¸m-¡p-¶p.  ]©mb¯v, kwØm Kh¬saâv, kzImcy¡¼n F¶nh X½n C¡mcy¯n Xmsg¸dbp¶ IcmdpIÄ H¸nSWw. 1. ]©mb¯pw I¼nbpw X½n Hcp I¬kj³ F{Knsaâv (CXn bqkÀ NmÀPv AS¡apÅ hyhØIÄ DÄs¸Spw) 2. tI{µKh¬saâv, kwØm Kh¬saâv, I¼n F¶nh X½n tÌäv kt¸mÀ«v F{Knsaâv (tdmUv, IpSnshůnsâ _Ä¡v kss¹, sshZypXn XpS§nb kuIcy§Ä ÂIm³ kwØmKh¬saâns _m²yØam¡p¶p)
    • 5  taÂ]dª ]Ým¯ekuIcy§fpsS nÀamWw, ]¯phÀjs¯ ]cn]mew F¶nh kzImcyI¼nbpsS D¯chmZnXzambncn¡pw. C¶s¯ AhØ ]pc ]²-Xn-bn Ct¸mÄ 6 I¼-n-I-fn n¶mbn 8 ]²-Xn-I-fmWv ]cn-K-W--bn-ep-Å-Xv. hni-Zmw-i-§Ä Xmsg tNÀ¡p-¶p. w I¼n kwØmw 1 sF.-F & F^v. Fkv cmP-Øm-³, D¯-cm- ©Â 2 C³{^m-kv{S-IvNÀ tIcfm enan-äUv (C³IÂ) tIcfw 3 amÀKv enan-äUv t]m-n-t¨-cn, Xan-gvmSv 4 taL F©n-o-b-dnwKv C³{^m-kv{S-IvNÀ B{Ô-{]-tZiv 5 Fkv. hn. C. kn. I¬kv{S-£³ B{Ô-{]-tZiv 6 {io C³{^m-kv{S-IvNÀ ss^m³kv enan-äUv Xan-gvmSv, D¯À{]-tZiv BZyw 90 I¼-n-IÄ ]²-Xn-bn XmXv]cyw {]I-Sn-¸n-s¨-¦nepw ]n¶oSv AXn ]ecpw ]n·m-dp-I-bp--m-bn. Smäm, dne-b³kv, Pn-m XpS-§nb h¼-·mÀ ]n·m-dn-b-h-cn DÄs¸-Sp-¶p. X§Ä Dt±-in¨ tXmXn- epÅ {]Xn-I-cWw kzIm-cy-ta-J-e-bn n¶p--m-bn«nà F¶mWv Kh¬saâv ]d-bp-¶-Xv. Cu ipjvI-amb {]Xn-I-c-W-¯nsâ Imc-W-§Ä ]Tn¨v ]cn-lm-c-amÀ¤-§Ä nÀt±-in-¡m³ sF.-sF.-F-½ns Npa-X-e-s¸-Sp- ¯mpw Kh¬saâv Btem-Nn-¡p-¶p. ]pcbpsS ]n¶m¼pdw {KmaoW hnIkcwK¯v kzImcy¡¼nIsf IS¶phcm³ AphZn¡pIbpw {KmaoWtaJebnse ASnØmkuIcy§fpsS ]cn]meaS¡w AhÀ¡v ssIamdpIbpw sN¿pIbmWv ]pcbpsS A´c^esa¶v taÂ]dª Imcy§Ä kqNn¸n¡p¶p. km{amPyXzhpw BtKmf[aqe[hpw Kh¬saâpIsf nb{´n¡pIbpw hyhkmbaqe[s¯¡mÄ em`w Dul¡¨hS¯neqsS tSpIbpw sN¿p¶ Cu hDZmchXvIcWImeL«¯n Cu ]²Xnbn ]Xnbncn¡p¶ A]IS§Ä hepXmWv. ]©mb¯pXe¯nepÅ
    • 6 XocpamsaSp¡Â {]{InbbneS¡w BtKmf[aqe[¯nsâ AZriykm¶n²yw Dd¸m¡p¶XmWv ]pcsb¶XmWv kXyw. mSnsâ hnIkaÃ, adn¨v ]camh[n em`w tSpIsb¶XmWv kzImcytaJebpsS ASnØm tNmZ. ]pc ]²Xnbn ]¦mfnbmhp¶ kzImcytaJebv¡v apS¡papXen³ta 12% em`w ]²Xn Xs¶ Dd¸pÂIp¶p-v. F¶m Cu em`w sIm-v AhÀ Xr]vXcmIpsa¶Xv _meniamb Nn´mKXnbmWv. emt`Obm bn¡s¸Sp¶ kzmImcytaJe {KmaoWtaJebnse ASnØmkuIcy§fn³ta ]nSnapdp¡pt¼mÄ kzm`mhnIambpw Zcn{Zcpw ]mÀizhXvIcn¡s¸«hcpw ]pd´Ås¸Spw. `£ytaJet]mse ASnØmkuIcyhnIk taJebpw Dul¡¨hS¯nsâ thZnbmbm t]mepw AÛpXs¸tS-XnÃ. 73, 74 `cWLSmt`ZKXnIÄ hn`mhw sN¿p¶Xpw tIcf¯n PIobmkq{XW¯neqsS kpØm]nXhpamb A[nImchntI{µoIcW¯nsâ A´xk¯¡v ISIhncp²amWv ]pc ]²Xn. A[nImcw _yqtdm{Iknbn n¶v XncsªSp¡s¸« ]©mb¯v kanXnIfneqsS {Kmak`IfneqsS Xmtg¡v ]IcpIbpw s]mXpP§sf imàoIcn¡pIbpw sN¿p¶ AXn_rl¯mb {]{InbbmWv A[nImchntI{µoIcWw. ]©mb¯pIsf tm¡pIp¯nbm¡ns¡m-v hnIk{]hÀ¯amsI kzImcy Ip¯IIÄ¡v XosdgpXp¶Xv A[nImchntI{µoIcW {]{InbbpsS IS¡Â I¯n h¡p¶Xnv XpeyamWv. ]pc ]²Xn PIob ]¦mfn¯s¯¸än kwkmcn¡p¶ps-¦nepw PIob CSs]SenpÅ Ahkc§fmsI sIm«nbS¡pIbmWv Cu ]²Xn sN¿p¶Xv. Hmtcm ]©mb¯nepw tImSn¡W¡np cq]bpsS ]²XnIÄ S¸m¡p¶ Cu I¼nIÄ BtcmSpw D¯cw ]dtb-XnÃ. CubnsS Iw]vt{SmfÀ Bâv HmUnäÀ Pd S¯nb Nne nco£W§Ä ChnsS {]kàamWv. hen_d ImeL«¯n s]mXp kwhn[m§Ä¡p ]pd¯v PPP amXrIbn tImSn¡W¡np cq]bmWv Nnehgn¡s¸Sp¶Xv. CsXm¶pw Xs¶ bmsXmcp HmUnänwKnpw hnt[baÃ. Cu hkvXpX Nq-n¡m«n kn.F.Pn ÂInb I¯nv adp]Sn ÂIm³ t]mepw tI{µkÀ¡mÀ X¿mdmbnà F¶mWv hmÀ¯.
    • 7 HmUnsä¶Xv shdpsamcp IW¡p ]cntim[bÃ. XncsªSp¡s¸« Pm[n]Xykwhn[§tfmSv D¯cw]dtb- _m[yXbmWv HmUnäneqsS ndthäs¸Sp¶Xv. HmUnänwKv Csöpam{XaÃ. P§Ä¡v ]²Xnbn A`n{]mbw ]dbmtm CSs]Smtm DÅ Hchkchpw ]pc AphZn¡p¶nÃ. kpXmcyXbpsS XXz§Ä¡msI FXncmWnXv. kzImcy¡¼nIÄ GÀs¸Sp¯p¶ bqkÀ^oknp ta bmsXmcp nb{´Whpw D-mInÃ. AXneqsS e`n¡p¶ hcpamamIs«, AhcpsS em`w s]cp¸n¡mmWv, s]mXpJPmhnte¡Ã apX¡q«mhpI. ]cn]me¨nehn Ipdhp hcp¯m³ Igntª¡msa¦nepw Cu Nnehp Npcp¡eneqsS s]mXpNnehv Ipdbp¶nÃ, adn¨v em`w s]cpIpIbmWv. temI¯mIamw PPP sb¸än S¯nb ]T§Ä Hcp Imcyw hyàam¡p¶p. PPP bn Ft¸mgpw em`w kzImcytaJebv¡pw _m²yXIÄ (risks) s]mXp taJebv¡pamWv. ChnsSbpw AXv hyXykvXamInÃ. kwØm¯nsâbpw ]©mb¯nsâbpw A[nImc¯n³ta tI{µKh¬saâv S¯p¶ ssItbäamWv ]pc. DZmlcW¯nv Pehpambn _Ôs¸« hnjb§Ä `cWLSbpkcn¨v kwØm¯nsâ A[nImc]cn[nbn hcp¶ ImcyamWv. IpSnshÅ hnXcWw ]©mb¯nsâbpw ap³]pXs¶ tI{µmhnjvIrX ]²XnIfptSbpw AhbpsS n_ÔIfptSbpw cq]¯n Cu hnjb§fn tI{µKh¬saâv CSs]«ncp¶p. ]pcbnemIs«, Hcp ]Sn IqSn¡S¶v Cu taJe kzImcy¡¼nIsf GÂ]n¡pIbpw ]©mb¯nsbpw kwØmKh¬saânsbpw ‘s^knentääÀ’ B¡n amäpIbpamWv sN¿p¶Xv. IpSnshÅ cwK¯v ‘Pen[n’ ]²XnbneqsS nÀan¡s¸« qdpIW¡nv sNdp IpSnshÅ ]²XnIÄ C¶v D]t`màrkwL§fmWv ]cn]men¡p¶Xv. Cu D]t`màrkwL§Ä¡v Ch XpSÀ¶v S¯m³ IgnbmXmhpIbpw ]pc ]²Xn hym]IamhpIbpw sN¿p¶tXmsS Cu IpSnshÅ ]²XnIÄ kzmImcy¡¼nIfpsS A[oXbnemhm³ km²yXIÄ GsdbmWv. CXneqsS
    • 8 Pet{kmXkpIfpw Pesa¶ {]IrXn hn`hw Xs¶bpw Dul¡¨hS¡mcpsS ]nSnbnembmepw AXnibnt¡-XnÃ. hnIksa¶Xv `uXnI kuIcy§Ä sa¨s¸Sp¯p¶Xn am{Xambn HXp§p¶nÃ. hnIk¯nsâ ^e§Ä Hcp]nSn k¼¶hn`mK¯npam{Xw Ap`hthZyamhpIbpw _lp`qcn]£w km[mcW¡mÀ ]pd´Ås¸SpIbpw sN¿p¶Xv hen_d bpK¯nsâ {]tXyIXbmWv. _lp`qcn]£¯nsâ PohnXnehmcw sa¨s¸Spt¼mÄ am{XamWv hnIkw AÀY]qÀWamhpI. CXmWv hnIk¯nsâ P]£cmjv{Sobw F¶m hnIk{]hÀ¯¯n n¶v cmjv{Sobs¯ Hgn¨p nÀ¯pIbpw shdpw km¼¯nI {]hÀ¯hpw nÀamW{]hÀ¯hpambn hnIks¯ Npcp¡pIbpamWv ]pcbneqsS sN¿p¶Xv. ]pc shdpw hnIk t{]mPIväÃ. adn¨v {KmaoWhnIks¯ Hcp ‘_nknkv tamUÂ’ B¡pIsb¶XmWv ]pcbpsS ASnØmXXzw. {KmaoWPXsb _nknknsâ Icp¡fm¡namäp¶ ]pcbpsS ASnØmXXzw Xs¶ FXnÀ¡s¸tS-XmWv. CXnsXnsc FÃm tZikvtlnIfpw H¶nt¡-Xp-v. hn. ss_Pp I¬hoÀ, Association of Kerala Water Authority Officers