Instructional Modules


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Instructional Modules Methodology

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Instructional Modules

  1. 1. TUTORIALS By Luis Q. Colón Ortiz BWP Tech Liaison
  2. 2. Instructional factors “Methodology” <ul><li>Introducing the tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and responses </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment of responses </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback about responses </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Organization and sequence of programs </li></ul><ul><li>Learner control in tutorials </li></ul>diagram
  3. 3. Introduction of the Tutorial <ul><li>Presentation of Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>should be stated in terms that learner can understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should motivate learners demonstrating relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulating prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich natural context facilitates learning outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pretesting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess knowledge of prerequisites (ready for new material) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess knowledge of the final objectives (already know the content of the lesson) </li></ul></ul>Example
  4. 4. Questions and Responses <ul><li>The function of Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Other Factors Affecting Quality of Question </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Graphics in Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Placement of Questions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Questions and Responses (cont.) <ul><li>Mode of Response (keyboard,mouse, speech) </li></ul><ul><li>Response Economy (short responses) </li></ul><ul><li>The Response Prompt and the Typing Prompt </li></ul><ul><ul><li><type your response> or<click the best answer> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Box or mark where typing will appear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other types of Learner Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(take notes, make diagrams or create analogies) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Judgment of Responses <ul><li>Types of Judgments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response is: correct, contains an expected or unexpected error, neither right nor wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple choice, Marking question, drawings or essays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Judging Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length, Time Limits, Help and Escape </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Feedback about Responses <ul><li>Feedback following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format Errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Errors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive and Corrective Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Timing of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Types of feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>graphics, audio/video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subsequent Attempts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Remediation <ul><li>Repeat information </li></ul><ul><li>Provide restatements of information with new and simpler wording </li></ul>
  9. 9. Organization and Sequence of Programs <ul><li>Types of Information Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Branching Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorials that Assess Learner Level and Adjust Difficulty Level </li></ul><ul><li>Organization Not Well Suited to the Tutorial Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Exiting the Tutorial </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learner Control in Tutorials <ul><li>Paging </li></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>Help </li></ul><ul><li>Asking for the answer </li></ul>
  11. 11. Summary <ul><li>Instructional Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of the Tutorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question and Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment of Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback about Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization and Sequence of Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner control in Tutorials </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Thank you for your Attention
  13. 13. OBJECTIVES
  14. 14. General Structure and Sequence of a Tutorial Program Introductory section Present information Questions and Responses Judge response Feedback or Remediation Closing
  15. 15. The Function Of Questions <ul><li>Keep the learner attentive to the program </li></ul><ul><li>Provide practice </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage deeper processing </li></ul><ul><li>Assess how well the learner remembers and understands information </li></ul>
  16. 16. Frequency of Questions <ul><li>Four-Part Cycle </li></ul>Present information Feedback or remediation Judge response Question and response
  17. 17. Types of Questions <ul><li>Alternate-response (objectives) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marking question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True or False (Yes/No) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructed-Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completion Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-Answer and Essay Questions </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Other Factors Affecting Quality of Questions <ul><li>Assessing Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Level </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Words </li></ul><ul><li>Scrolling </li></ul>
  19. 19. Use of graphics in Questions <ul><li>Graphics as the Context </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics as Prompts </li></ul>
  20. 20. Placement of Questions <ul><li>Before or after the information they assess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus attention </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. A Multiple-Choice Question What country does this flag represent? Spain United States Cuba Puerto Rico Exit Help Back Next Menu
  22. 22. EXCELLENT!
  23. 23. SORRY! Try again!
  24. 24. A Marking Question Mark the prepositions in the sentence below by clicking on them with the mouse. The boy ran over the hill and under the bridge on his way home . Exit Menu Help Back Next
  25. 25. EXCELLENT!
  26. 26. SORRY! Try again!
  27. 27. True or false Questions T F T T T F F F Faster film speed permits smaller aperture. Slower film speed is better for faster action. Greater ASA settings requires a flash. Focusing is more accurate at maximum zoom. PHOTOGRAPHY BASIS Click on T or F for each statement below. Exit Menu Help Back Next
  28. 28. Great!
  29. 29. Sorry! That’s not the right answer
  30. 30. A Matching Question Match the countries with the flag. Click on the box with the right answer. A B Puerto Rico United States B A A B Exit Menu Help Back Next
  31. 31. EXCELLENT!
  32. 32. SORRY! Try again!
  33. 33. A Completion Questions Complete this statement. The three of rocks are sedimentary, , and metamorphic. Click on a box to type a word into it. Exit Menu Help Back Next
  34. 34. Essay Questions
  35. 35. Short-Answer and Essay Questions What is the primary element in the atmosphere? Answer Exit Menu Help Back Next