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  • 1. Green areas in Kraków. Smart city is a green city. Paweł Hałat Krakowskie Stowarzyszenie Przestrzeń-Ludzie-Miasto Instytut Spraw Publicznych Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego SMART_KOM: SMART ENVIRONMENT WORKSHOP Kraków, 09. 01. 2014
  • 2. Ecosystem services - benefits that households, societies and economy obtain from the ecosystems Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, http://uslugiekosystemow.pl
  • 3. Smart city diagnostics – green areas: • smart city places priority on natural resources, • natural resources are seen as amenities and economic development assets, used to build a good quality of life, • system of greenways and parks, • new developments create neighborhoods with good quality of life for the long-term, • green areas (parks, forests, water areas etc.) offer diverse recreational opportunities. http://www.smartcityconsulting.com
  • 4. Vegetation map of Krakow – plant communities and valuation Source: http://zielonykrakow.um.krakow.pl:280/rosl/
  • 5. Environmental links Source: Opracowanie Ekofizjograficzne m. Krakowa
  • 6. Statistics – green areas in Kraków and Polish metropolises Parks, forest, lawns, residental green areas, street Protected areas greenbelts % of ha ha % of area ha m2/inh. area 2002 2012 2002 2012 2002 2012 2002 2012 2012 Parks and community forests City Kraków 1 125,4 1 251,3 14,9 16,5 2 453,3 2 943,7 7,5 9,0 4 874,2 14,9 Warszawa 1 189,5 1 082,0 9,7 8,7 12 214,4 23,6 Łódź 2 114,2 2 053,0 26,9 28,6 3 331,4 3 548,0 11,3 12,1 2 753,1 9,4 Wrocław 1 560,8 1 702,8 24,4 27,0 2 401,6 2 799,4 6,3 Poznań 2 472,2 2 395,6 42,8 43,5 5 223,4 3 522,1 20,0 13,4 497,5 1,9 Cities >500 th. 8 462,1 8 484,7 19,0 19,4 18 400,3 17 294,9 10,9 10,2 22 175,7 13,1 Source: BDL GUS 7,0 6,3 4 990,6 4 481,7 8,2 9,6 1 836,5
  • 7. Threats – private investments: • destruction of large green/open areas in the city by new, uncontrolled residential/commercial development (Ruczaj, Górka Narodowa, Zakrzówek, Czyżyny – the old runway), • uncontrolled „densification” of build-up areas (Młynówka Królewska, Wisła boulevards, Park Dębnicki, Bronowice fortification, modernist estates), • new large residential areas dominated by paved surface and with no public recreational areas, • suburbanisation – urban sprawl in the metro area, • trees removal from development areas, • functional and visual degradation of landscape.
  • 8. Threats – public policies and investments: • • • • lack of green areas protection in local zoning plans/MPZP, too large urban development area proposed in spatial plans, not enough funds to purchase areas for public parks, new transport infrastructure (new ecological barriers) in green areas (3rd Ring, Balice route, S7) and roads expansion – trees removal (Al. 29-Listopada, Al. 3 Maja), • large public investments in greenfield areas – 3rd Campus, new university hospital, • expansion of parking space – including underground car park (Pl. Biskupi, modernist estates) • mature trees destruction – dwarf trees (or no trees at all) as a replacement.