Cost of Injuries to Society• Fatal injuries • Fifth leading cause of death in U.S.• Disabling injuries • Great human burden attributed to injuries • Significant economic costs • Greatly contribute to premature death
Unintentional Injuries• The cause of nearly two-thirds of all injury- related deaths in the U.S.• A major community health problem • Motor vehicle crashes • Poisoning • Falls • Other unintentional injuries
Motor Vehicle Crashes• Leading type of unintentional injury death• Leading cause of nonfatal unintentional injury• Majority of those killed are • Drivers • Passengers • Motorcycle riders • Pedestrians • Pedalcyclists
Poisonings• Second leading cause of unintentional injury death • Unintentional ingestion of fatal doses of medicines and drugs • Consumption of toxic foods • Exposure to toxic substances in the workplace or elsewhere• Most occur in the home
Falls• Third leading cause of unintentional injury death• Leading cause of injury-related ED visits• Most occur in the home• Disproportionately affect elders
Epidemiology of Unintentional Injuries• Account for large number of early deaths in U.S.• Incapacitation significant problem• High economic impact
Person• Age • Leading cause of death in children and teenagers • Falls leading cause of unintentional injury death for elders• Gender • Males more likely to be involved in fatal unintentional injuries• Minority status
Injury-Related Visits to E.D.s by Age and Sex, 2006
Place• Home • More occur in the home than anyplace else• Highway • 2nd leading place for injuries and injury death• Recreation/sports area• Workplace
Alcohol and Other Drugs as Risk Factors• Alcohol may be most important factor contributing to injuries• Involved in high amount of motor vehicle crashes • Related to speeding, seat belt use, and other behaviors
Prevention through Epidemiology• Early contributors for injury prevention and control • John Gordon • William Haddon, Jr.• Model for unintentional injuries - triangle • Environment, host, and energy producing agent
Prevention and Control Tactics• Prevent accumulation of energy producing agent • Reducing speed limits, lowering settings on hot water heaters• Prevent inappropriate release of excess energy • Flame-retardant fabric, nonslip surfaces• Placing barrier between host and agent • Sunscreen, non-heat handles on cookware
Community Approaches to Prevention• Education – process of changing people’s health-directed behavior• Regulation – enacting and enforcing laws to control conduct• Automatic protection – modifying products or environments to reduce risk• Litigation – seeking justice for injury through courts
Intentional Injuries• Outcome of self-directed or interpersonal violence• Assaults, rapes, suicides, homicides• Can be perpetrated against family members, community members, or complete strangers
Epidemiology of Intentional Injuries• Interpersonal violence disproportionately affects those frustrated, hopeless, jobless, living in poverty, with low-self esteem• More acts committed by males• Firearms increasingly involved• Alcohol and drug use contributes• Perpetrators more likely to have been abused or neglected as children or exposed to violence
Homicide, Assault, Rape, and Property Crimes• Homicide victimization rate for blacks significantly higher than whites • Most homicides committed with firearms• Lower income associated with higher rate of being a victim of violence• Except for rape and sexual assault, all violent crime victimization rate higher for males• Less than half of all violent crimes committed are reported to police
Suicide and Attempted Suicide• Suicide rate for men four times that for women• Suicide rate for young people and elderly declined in recent years after significant increase from 1950-1995• Older men eight times more likely to commit suicide than senior women
Firearm Injuries and Injury Deaths• Intentional and unintentional acts, firearms third leading cause of injury death• Highest risk for homicide and suicide involving firearms are teenage boys and young men• Guns on college campuses• Absence of detailed federally supported reporting system
Violence in Our Society and Resources for Prevention• Individuals and Violence• Family Violence and Abuse • Child maltreatment • Child abuse • Child neglect • Prevention of child maltreatment • Elder maltreatment • Intimate partner violence • Prevention of intimate partner violence
Violence in Schools• Victimization rates have remained steady in recent years• Fighting and weapon carrying• Zero tolerance policies• Bullying and being bullied• Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative• Youth violence after school
Violence in Our Communities• Youth gang violence• Costs to the community• Community response• State response• Federal response
Discussion Questions• What levels of prevention can be most effective in reducing violence in communities?• How can unintentional injury rates continue to decline in the coming decades?
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