Alcohol, Tobacco, and   Other Drugs: ACommunity Concern      Chapter 12
Introduction• Use, misuse, and abuse of mind-altering  substances predates recorded history• Chronic alcohol and other dru...
Consequences of Drug Abuse
Violence Associated with Drug and Alcohol Use
Scope of the Current Drug Problem• More deaths, illnesses, and disabilities can be  attributed to substance abuse than any...
Definitions•   Drug•   Psychoactive drugs•   Drug use•   Drug misuse•   Drug abuse•   Drug dependence
Factors that Contribute to Alcohol,      Tobacco, and Other Drug Abuse• Risk factors – factors that increase the  probabil...
Inherited Risk Factors• Most research related to drug dependence and  inherited risk is on alcoholism• Research has shown ...
Environmental Risk Factors•   Personal factors•   Home and family life•   School and peer groups•   Sociocultural environm...
Types of Drugs Abused and Resulting                Problems• Legal drugs  • Alcohol, nicotine, nonprescription (over-the- ...
Legal Drugs• Can be legally bought and sold in the  marketplace  • Includes drugs that can be closely regulated,    likely...
Alcohol•   Number one drug problem in the United States•   Binge drinking•   Underage drinking•   Problem drinkers•   Alco...
Nicotine• Psychoactive and addictive drug present in  tobacco products• Synar Amendment• Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)...
Over the Counter Drugs (OTCs)• Legal drugs other than alcohol and tobacco  that can be purchased without a physician’s  pr...
Prescription Drugs• Can be purchased only with a physician’s  prescription because they have serious side  effects for som...
Controlled Substances and Illicit Drugs• Those regulated by the Controlled Substances  Act of 1970     • Cannot be cultiva...
Marijuana• Products derived from hemp plant• Most abused illicit drug in the U.S.• Acute effects – reduced concentration, ...
Narcotics• Opium and its derivatives, morphine and  heroin, come from an oriental poppy plant• Narcotics numb the senses a...
Cocaine and Crack Cocaine• Cocaine is the psychoactive ingredient in the  leaves of the coca plant• Powerful and addictive...
Hallucinogens• Produce illusions, hallucinations, changes in  perceptions• Synesthesia – mixing of the senses• Both natura...
Stimulants• Drugs that increase the activity of the central  nervous system• Amphetamines  • Schedule II prescription drug...
Depressants•   Slow down the central nervous system•   May lower anxiety and inhibitions•   Tolerance develops•   Strong p...
Club Drugs and Designer Drugs• Illicit drugs, primarily synthetic, most  commonly encountered at nightclubs and raves• MDM...
Anabolic Drugs• Protein-building drugs• Anabolic/androgenic steroids, testosterone,  human growth hormone• Have some legit...
Inhalants• Collection of psychoactive breathable  chemicals• Paint solvents, motor fuels, cleaners, glues,  aerosol sprays...
Prevention and Control of Drug Abuse• Requires knowledge of:  •   Causes of drug-taking behavior  •   Sources of illicit d...
Levels of Prevention• Primary prevention aimed at those who have  never used drugs• Secondary prevention aimed at those wh...
Elements of Prevention•   Education•   Treatment•   Public policy•   Law enforcement•   Education and treatment goals same...
Governmental Drug Prevention and Control        Agencies and Programs• Include a multitude of federal, state, and local  a...
Federal Drug Control Spending
Federal Drug Control Spending
Federal Agencies and Programs• Office of National Drug Control Policy• Department of Health and Human Services• Substance ...
State and Local Agencies and Programs• State departments of health, education, mental  health, justice, and law enforcemen...
Nongovernmental Drug Prevention and     Control Agencies and Programs• Community-based drug education programs• School-bas...
Discussion Questions• How can risk factors for drug abuse be utilized  to aide in drug abuse prevention?• How should feder...
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90110 pp tx_ch12

  1. 1. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs: ACommunity Concern Chapter 12
  2. 2. Introduction• Use, misuse, and abuse of mind-altering substances predates recorded history• Chronic alcohol and other drug abuse or dependence is regarded as destructive behavior in most cultures• Affects individuals and the surrounding community
  3. 3. Consequences of Drug Abuse
  4. 4. Violence Associated with Drug and Alcohol Use
  5. 5. Scope of the Current Drug Problem• More deaths, illnesses, and disabilities can be attributed to substance abuse than any other preventable health condition• Economic costs include direct costs (health care, premature death, impaired productivity) and indirect costs (crime and law enforcement, courts, jails, social work)• Those abusing are threats to themselves, their families, and their communities
  6. 6. Definitions• Drug• Psychoactive drugs• Drug use• Drug misuse• Drug abuse• Drug dependence
  7. 7. Factors that Contribute to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Abuse• Risk factors – factors that increase the probability of drug use• Protective factors – factors that lower the probability of drug use• Both can be genetic or environmental
  8. 8. Inherited Risk Factors• Most research related to drug dependence and inherited risk is on alcoholism• Research has shown genetic and biological markers may predispose someone to increased susceptibility to develop alcohol-related problems
  9. 9. Environmental Risk Factors• Personal factors• Home and family life• School and peer groups• Sociocultural environment
  10. 10. Types of Drugs Abused and Resulting Problems• Legal drugs • Alcohol, nicotine, nonprescription (over-the- counter) drugs, prescription drugs• Illegal (illicit) drugs and controlled substances • Marijuana, narcotics, cocaine and crack cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, depressants, club drugs and designer drugs, anabolic drugs, inhalants
  11. 11. Legal Drugs• Can be legally bought and sold in the marketplace • Includes drugs that can be closely regulated, likely regulated, and not regulated at all
  12. 12. Alcohol• Number one drug problem in the United States• Binge drinking• Underage drinking• Problem drinkers• Alcoholism• Blood alcohol concentration (BAC)• FAS
  13. 13. Nicotine• Psychoactive and addictive drug present in tobacco products• Synar Amendment• Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or secondhand smoke
  14. 14. Over the Counter Drugs (OTCs)• Legal drugs other than alcohol and tobacco that can be purchased without a physician’s prescription• Carefully regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)• Most only provide symptomatic relief, not a cure• Subject to misuse and abuse
  15. 15. Prescription Drugs• Can be purchased only with a physician’s prescription because they have serious side effects for some people• Regulated by the FDA• Over 4,000 prescription drugs available• Subject to misuse and abuse• Risk of dependence• Risk of unintentional overdose
  16. 16. Controlled Substances and Illicit Drugs• Those regulated by the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 • Cannot be cultivated, manufactured, bought, sold, or used within the confines of the law • Schedule I – high potential for abuse; no accepted medical uses • Schedules II-V – have medical uses; scheduled based on potential for risk of dependence or abuse • Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) responsible for enforcing Controlled Substances Act
  17. 17. Marijuana• Products derived from hemp plant• Most abused illicit drug in the U.S.• Acute effects – reduced concentration, slowed reaction time, impaired short term memory, impaired judgment• Chronic effects – damage to the respiratory system (if smoked), amotivational syndrome
  18. 18. Narcotics• Opium and its derivatives, morphine and heroin, come from an oriental poppy plant• Narcotics numb the senses and reduce pain • High potential for abuse• Opium poppies do not grow in U.S.; drug trafficking problems• Heroin addiction leads to significant community health problems
  19. 19. Cocaine and Crack Cocaine• Cocaine is the psychoactive ingredient in the leaves of the coca plant• Powerful and addictive euphoriant/stimulant• Purified forms – salt (white powder), dried paste (crack)
  20. 20. Hallucinogens• Produce illusions, hallucinations, changes in perceptions• Synesthesia – mixing of the senses• Both naturally derived and synthetic• LSD, mescaline, peyote, mushrooms
  21. 21. Stimulants• Drugs that increase the activity of the central nervous system• Amphetamines • Schedule II prescription drugs; widely abused • Methamphetamines often made in clandestine labs
  22. 22. Depressants• Slow down the central nervous system• May lower anxiety and inhibitions• Tolerance develops• Strong physical dependence• Alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazapines
  23. 23. Club Drugs and Designer Drugs• Illicit drugs, primarily synthetic, most commonly encountered at nightclubs and raves• MDMA (ecstasy) most popular club drug• Rohypnol – “date rape” drug• Designer drugs – synthesized by amateur chemists in secret labs • Constantly change design to stay ahead of law enforcement
  24. 24. Anabolic Drugs• Protein-building drugs• Anabolic/androgenic steroids, testosterone, human growth hormone• Have some legitimate medical uses• Sometimes abused by athletes and body builders• Acute and chronic side effects
  25. 25. Inhalants• Collection of psychoactive breathable chemicals• Paint solvents, motor fuels, cleaners, glues, aerosol sprays• Easy availability• Low cost• Often drug choice of young• Acute and chronic effects
  26. 26. Prevention and Control of Drug Abuse• Requires knowledge of: • Causes of drug-taking behavior • Sources of illicit drugs • Drug laws • Treatment programs • Community organizing skills• Persistence, and cooperation of various individuals and agencies
  27. 27. Levels of Prevention• Primary prevention aimed at those who have never used drugs• Secondary prevention aimed at those who have used, but are not chronic abusers• Tertiary prevention aimed at drug abuse treatment and aftercare, including relapse prevention
  28. 28. Elements of Prevention• Education• Treatment• Public policy• Law enforcement• Education and treatment goals same: • Reduce demand for drugs• Public policy and law enforcement goals same: • Reduce supply and availability of drugs
  29. 29. Governmental Drug Prevention and Control Agencies and Programs• Include a multitude of federal, state, and local agencies• Aim to reduce either the supply or demand for drugs
  30. 30. Federal Drug Control Spending
  31. 31. Federal Drug Control Spending
  32. 32. Federal Agencies and Programs• Office of National Drug Control Policy• Department of Health and Human Services• Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA)• National Institute on Drug Abuse• Department of Homeland Security• Department of Justice• Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)
  33. 33. State and Local Agencies and Programs• State departments of health, education, mental health, justice, and law enforcement all address drug abuse prevention and control issues• Some states have passed laws that conflict with federal laws• Local communities have individuals, task forces, or agencies to prioritize problems and decide approaches for solving them
  34. 34. Nongovernmental Drug Prevention and Control Agencies and Programs• Community-based drug education programs• School-based drug education programs • DARE, student assistance programs, peer counseling programs• Workplace-based drug education programs • Employee assistance programs• Voluntary health agencies
  35. 35. Discussion Questions• How can risk factors for drug abuse be utilized to aide in drug abuse prevention?• How should federal, state, and local funds be used to successfully deal with drug abuse problems?
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