90110 pp tx_ch06


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90110 pp tx_ch06

  1. 1. The School Health Program: A Component of Community Health Chapter 6
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The school health program has great potential for affecting health of the community </li></ul>
  3. 3. Coordinated School Health Program <ul><li>An organized set of policies, procedures, and activities designed to protect, promote, and improve the health and well-being of students and staff </li></ul>
  4. 4. CSHP
  5. 5. The School Health Council <ul><li>Individuals from a school or school district and its community who work together to provide advice and aspects of the school health program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should include diverse representation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary role – provide coordination of the CSHP components </li></ul>
  6. 6. The School Nurse <ul><li>Can provide great leadership for the CSHP </li></ul><ul><li>Has medical knowledge and formal training </li></ul><ul><li>Has multiple responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Often districts do not have resources to hire full-time nurses </li></ul>
  7. 7. Teachers <ul><li>Heavy responsibility in making sure the CSHP works </li></ul><ul><li>Often spend more waking hours with children than parents </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Need for School Health <ul><li>An unhealthy child has a difficult time learning </li></ul><ul><li>Health and success in schools are interrelated </li></ul><ul><li>A CSHP provides the integration of education and health </li></ul>
  9. 10. Foundations of the School Health Program <ul><li>School administration that supports the effort </li></ul><ul><li>A well-organized school health council </li></ul><ul><li>Written school health policies </li></ul>
  10. 14. School Health Policies <ul><li>Steps for creating local health-related policies include </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the policy development team </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the district’s needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize needs and develop an action plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Draft a policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build awareness and support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt and implement the policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain, measure, and evaluate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 15. Policy Development <ul><li>Should be executed by the school health council </li></ul><ul><li>Should cover all facets of the school health program </li></ul><ul><li>Gain approval from key stakeholders </li></ul>
  12. 16. Policy Implementation <ul><li>Policies only effective if implemented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute policies to those affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute with a memorandum of explanation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place in faculty, staff, and student handbooks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present them at group meetings (PTO) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold a special meeting for explaining policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place them in the school district newsletter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Monitoring Policy Status <ul><li>National survey conducted by CDC every 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>Assesses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School health policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School health practices at the state, district, school, and classroom levels </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. Components of a CSHP <ul><li>Administration and organization </li></ul><ul><li>School health services </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy school environment </li></ul><ul><li>School health education </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling, psychological, and social services </li></ul><ul><li>Physical education </li></ul><ul><li>School nutrition services </li></ul><ul><li>Family/community involvement </li></ul><ul><li>School-site health promotion for staff </li></ul>
  15. 19. Administration and Organization <ul><li>A CSHP should be administered by a School Health Coordinator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often not a position required by states </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. School Health Services <ul><li>Health services provided by school health workers to appraise, protect, and promote health </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health screenings, emergency care for injury and sudden illness, chronic disease management, communicable disease prevention and control, health counseling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages: equitability, confidentiality, breadth of coverage, user friendliness, convenience </li></ul>
  17. 21. Healthy School Environment <ul><li>By law, school districts are required to provide a safe school environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings and structures, and the behaviors of those using them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location, age, air quality, food service, temperature, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychosocial environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes, values, feelings of students and staff </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. School Health Education <ul><li>The development, delivery, and evaluation of a planned curriculum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priority health content: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol and other drugs, healthy eating, mental and emotional health, personal health and wellness, physical activity, safety/unintentional injury prevention, sexual health (abstinence and risk avoidance), tobacco, violence prevention </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Development of and Sources of Health Education Curricula <ul><li>Many available from national specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Approved curricula from state departments of education or health </li></ul><ul><li>Health agencies and associations </li></ul><ul><li>Commercially produced curricula </li></ul>
  20. 25. Issues and Concerns of the School Health Program <ul><li>Lack of support for CSHP </li></ul><ul><li>School health curriculum challenges </li></ul><ul><li>School-based health centers </li></ul><ul><li>Violence in schools </li></ul>
  21. 26. Lack of Support for CSHP <ul><li>Limited success in getting CSHP implemented across the country </li></ul><ul><li>Need supportive legislation </li></ul>
  22. 27. School Health Curriculum Challenges <ul><li>Controversy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong opinions on various topics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improper implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often provided by individuals other than health education specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers to school health education </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. School-Based Health Centers or School-Linked Health Centers <ul><li>Rapidly growing concept </li></ul><ul><li>Provided in different ways; most common is in school building </li></ul><ul><li>Common features among various centers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cultural wars” </li></ul><ul><li>Funding challenges </li></ul>
  24. 30. Violence in Schools <ul><li>High profile incidents of violence in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for improving school climate as it relates to violence </li></ul>
  25. 31. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Why is a CSHP so challenging to implement in every school district? </li></ul><ul><li>How can schools have more effective health programs with limited funding? </li></ul>