90110 pp tx_ch05
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90110 pp tx_ch05






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90110 pp tx_ch05 90110 pp tx_ch05 Presentation Transcript

  • Community Organizing/Building and Health Promotion Programming Chapter 5
  • Introduction
    • Social ecological approach to behavior change
      • Interaction between and interdependence of factors within and across all levels of a health problem
      • Behavior has multiple levels of influence
      • Behavior change usually a combination of individual and environmental/policy-level interventions
  • Community Organizing/Building
    • Community health problems range from small to complex
    • Community organizing
      • Process through which communities are helped to identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies for reaching the goals they have collectively set
      • Not a science, but an art of consensus building
    • Community capacity
    • Empowerment
    • Participation and relevance
    • Social capital
    Community Organizing/Building Terms
  • Need for Organizing Communities
    • Changes in community social structure has lead to loss in sense of community
      • Advances in electronics
      • Communications
      • Increased mobility
    • Community organizing skills extend beyond community health
  • Assumptions of Community Organizing
    • Those who organize communities do so while making certain assumptions
    • No single preferred method
    • All incorporate fundamental principles
      • Start where the people are
      • Participation
      • Create environments in which people and communities can become empowered as they increase problem-solving abilities
    Community Organizing Methods
  • Community Organizing Methods
    • Locality development
        • Broad self participation; process oriented; stresses consensus and cooperation; builds group identity and sense of community
    • Social planning
        • Heavily task oriented; involves people and outside planners
    • Social action
        • Task and process oriented; disadvantaged segments of the population
  • Process of Community Organizing/Building
  • Recognizing the Issue
    • Initial organizer
      • recognizes that a problem exists and decides to do something about it
      • Gets things started
      • Can be from within or outside of the community
        • Grass-roots, citizen initiated, bottom-up
        • Top-down, outside-in
  • Gaining Entry into the Community
    • Organizers need:
      • Cultural sensitivity, cultural competence, cultural humility
    • Organizers need to know:
      • Who is causing problem and why; how problem has been addressed in past; who supports and opposes idea of addressing problem; who could provide more insight
    • Gatekeepers
  • Organizing the People
    • Executive participants
    • Leadership identification
    • Recruitment
      • Expanding constituencies
    • Task Force
    • Coalition
  • Assessing the Community
    • Community building
    • Needs assessment vs. mapping community capacity
    • Community assets
      • Primary building blocks
      • Secondary building blocks
      • Potential building blocks
  • Determining the Priorities and Setting Goals
    • Criteria to consider when selecting priority issue
      • Problem must be winnable
      • Must be simple and specific
      • Must unite members of organizing group
      • Should affect many people
      • Should be part of larger plan
    • Goals written to serve as guide for problem solving
  • Arriving at a Solution and Selecting Intervention Strategies
    • Alternate solutions exist for every problem
      • Probable outcomes
      • Acceptability to the community
      • Probable long- and short-term effects
      • Costs of resources
  • Final Steps
    • Implementing
    • Evaluating
    • Maintaining
    • Looping Back
  • Process of Community Organizing/Building
  • Health Promotion Programming
    • Important tool for community health professionals
    • Health education – part of health promotion
    • Health promotion – more encompassing than health education
    • Program planning
      • May or may not be associated with community organizing/building
      • Process by which an intervention is planned
  • Creating a Health Promotion Program
    • Involves a series of steps
    • Success depends on many factors
    • Experienced planners use models to guide work
    • Before process begins, important to understand and engage priority population
  • Generalized Model for Program Planning
  • Assessing Needs of the Priority Population
    • Determining purpose and scope of needs assessment
    • Gathering data
    • Analyzing data
    • Identifying factors linked to health problem
    • Identifying program focus
    • Validating prioritized need
  • Setting Appropriate Goals and Objectives
    • Foundation of the program
    • Portions of the programming process are designed to achieve the goals by meeting the objectives
  • Goals
    • More encompassing than objectives
    • Written to cover all aspects of the program
    • Provide overall program direction
    • Are more general in nature
    • Usually take longer to complete
    • Do not have a deadline
    • Are usually not observed, but inferred
    • Often not measured in exact terms
  • Objectives
    • More precise than goals
    • Steps to achieve the program goals
    • The more complex a program, the more objectives needed
    • Composed of who, what, when, and how much
  • Creating an Intervention
    • Intervention
      • Activities that will help the priority population meet the objectives and achieve the program goals
      • The program that the priority population will experience
      • May be several or a few activities
  • Intervention Considerations
    • Multiplicity
    • Dose
    • Best practices
    • Best experience
    • Best processes
  • Implementing the Intervention
    • Implementation
      • Putting a planned program into action
    • Pilot test
      • Trial run-implementation to a small group
      • Determine problems and fix before full implementation
    • Phasing in
      • Step-by-step implementation; implementation with small groups
  • Evaluating the Results
    • Determine the value or worth of an object of interest
    • Evaluation should occur during first steps of program development
    • Formative evaluation
    • Summative evaluation
    • Impact evaluation
    • Outcome evaluation
  • Steps to Evaluation
    • Planning the evaluation
    • Collecting the data
    • Analyzing the data
    • Reporting the results
    • Applying the results
  • Discussion Questions
    • How would you explain the difference between health education and health promotion?
    • How can community members work together to solve health problems?