Hierarchical Linear Modeling of<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Among College Students<br />Old Dominion Universit...
Background<br />Current Research<br />Method<br />Analysis<br />Results<br />Discussion<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety...
Alcohol use in teens / young adults (NIAAA, 2008)<br />72% 12th Graders<br />83% College Students<br />Highest rates of pr...
Drinking Motives<br />Self-reported reasons for drinking<br />Proximal precursors to alcohol consumption<br />Previously a...
Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Historical Factors<br />Personality characteristics<br />Social/environmental influence...
Net result of the Cox & Klinger Model (Cooper, 1994)<br />Decision to drink is motivated by<br />Positive vs. negative rei...
Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />Coping<br />C...
Drinking Motives Questionnaire- Revised (DMQ-R) (Cooper, 1994)<br />I.E., Drinking to enhance the current emotional state<...
Drinking Motives Questionnaire- Revised (DMQ-R) (Cooper, 1994)<br />Better accounted for consumption patterns<br />Enhance...
Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Modified DMQ – R(Grant et al., 2007)<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />...
Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Modified DMQ – R(Grant et al., 2007)<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />...
Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Modified DMQ – R(Grant et al., 2007)<br />Coping<br />Coping – Anxiety<...
Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Modified DMQ – R(Grant et al., 2007)<br />Coping – Anxiety<br />Coping ...
Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Modified DMQ – R(Grant et al., 2007)<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />...
Modified DMQ - R (Grant et al., 2007)<br />More predictive than previous scale<br />Two new dimensions were distinct<br />...
Modified DMQ - R (Grant et al., 2007)<br />Next: Longitudinal Analysis<br />High coping-depression = Increased no. drinks<...
Purpose<br />Investigate whether coping-anxiety motives vary over time, allowing for differential consumption patterns in ...
Variables<br />Drinking Motives<br />Self-reported reasons for drinking<br />Anxiety<br />Self-reported negative affective...
Hypothesis<br />The relationship between anxiety and drinking will change over time in response to variation in coping-anx...
Participants<br />125 ODU Undergraduate Psychology Students<br />> 18 years old, Median Age = 20<br />Mostly Caucasian fem...
Measures<br />Modified DMQ – R (Cooper, 1994; Grant et al., 2007)<br />5 dimensions, 23 items<br />5-point Likert scale<br...
Measures<br />Anxiety<br />International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg et al., 2006)<br />10 items<br />“I tend to get s...
Measures<br />Alcohol Use<br />7-day grid<br />No. drinks/day for previous week<br />Composite Score = Weekly sum (Total d...
Measures<br />Standard Demographics<br />Age<br />Gender<br />Race / Ethnicity<br />Marital Status<br />Housing Status<br ...
Procedure<br />Scheduled via SONA, groups of 4<br />Campus lab<br />Standard desktop computers<br />Assessments via comput...
Data include follow-ups where P’s drank at least once during previous week (N = 293)<br />Preliminary analysis<br />D.V. P...
Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM)<br />Level-1 (State, or within-persons)<br />Predictors = State coping-anxiety motives,...
Hypothesis<br />The relationship between anxiety and drinking will change over time in response to variation in anxiety co...
Typical man during typical week drinks 6.5 more drinks than a typical woman<br />(β01 = -6.47, t(122) = -3.31, p < .01)<br...
One-unit increase in between-persons (trait) coping-anxiety motives = 2.31 more drinks/week<br />(β02 = 2.31, t(122) = 2.8...
The relationship between state coping-anxiety motives and total drinks per week decreased as trait anxiety levels increase...
Hypothesis Supported<br />Temporal variation in drinking/state anxiety-coping relationship = state coping-anxiety motives ...
Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />The relationship between state coping-anxiety motives and total drinks per week decreas...
Future research<br />Why do participants with high trait anxiety levels tend not to drink as much in response to state cop...
Implications<br />Perhaps individuals with higher trait anxiety levels have found better coping methods<br />How individua...
Cooper, M. L. (1994). Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model. Ps...
Hierarchical Linear Modeling of<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Among College Students<br />Old Dominion Universit...
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  1. 1. Hierarchical Linear Modeling of<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Among College Students<br />Old Dominion University <br />Department of Psychology<br />Bradley Wetzell ▪ Matthew R. Pearson, M.S. ▪ James M. Henson, Ph.D.<br />
  2. 2. Background<br />Current Research<br />Method<br />Analysis<br />Results<br />Discussion<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Overview<br />
  3. 3. Alcohol use in teens / young adults (NIAAA, 2008)<br />72% 12th Graders<br />83% College Students<br />Highest rates of problem drinking ages 18 – 24<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />
  4. 4. Drinking Motives<br />Self-reported reasons for drinking<br />Proximal precursors to alcohol consumption<br />Previously assumed to have<br />High between-persons variability (Traits)<br />Low within-persons variability (States)<br />Research suggests state drinking motive variability,<br /> especially with regard to coping with anxiety (Grant et al., 2007)<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />
  5. 5. Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Historical Factors<br />Personality characteristics<br />Social/environmental influences<br />Biological predisposition<br />Current Factors<br />Current emotional state<br />Situational variables<br />Mapping motivational influences for drinking<br />(Cox & Klinger, 1988)<br />Expected Effects<br />Direct chemical effects<br />Indirect instrumental effects<br />Decision to Drink<br />
  6. 6. Net result of the Cox & Klinger Model (Cooper, 1994)<br />Decision to drink is motivated by<br />Positive vs. negative reinforcement<br />Internal vs. external cues<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Internal Cues<br />External Cues<br />Positive Reinforcement<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />Negative Reinforcement<br />Coping<br />Conformity<br />
  7. 7. Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />Coping<br />Coping<br />Conformity<br />Conformity<br />
  8. 8. Drinking Motives Questionnaire- Revised (DMQ-R) (Cooper, 1994)<br />I.E., Drinking to enhance the current emotional state<br />I.E., Drinking to positively affect social interaction<br />I.E., Drinking to avoid a negative emotional state<br />I.E., Drinking to avoid negative social outcomes<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />Coping<br />Conformity<br />
  9. 9. Drinking Motives Questionnaire- Revised (DMQ-R) (Cooper, 1994)<br />Better accounted for consumption patterns<br />Enhancement and Coping strong predictors for alcohol use, heavy drinking, problem drinking<br />Each motive = Unique Consumption / Outcomes<br />Social = Parties & friends with no problems<br />Coping = Solitary consumption with problems<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />
  10. 10. Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Modified DMQ – R(Grant et al., 2007)<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />Coping<br />Conformity<br />
  11. 11. Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Modified DMQ – R(Grant et al., 2007)<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />Coping<br />Conformity<br />
  12. 12. Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Modified DMQ – R(Grant et al., 2007)<br />Coping<br />Coping – Anxiety<br />Coping - Depression<br />
  13. 13. Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Modified DMQ – R(Grant et al., 2007)<br />Coping – Anxiety<br />Coping - Depression<br />
  14. 14. Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />Modified DMQ – R(Grant et al., 2007)<br />Enhancement<br />Social<br />Coping - Anxiety<br />Coping - Depression<br />Conformity<br />
  15. 15. Modified DMQ - R (Grant et al., 2007)<br />More predictive than previous scale<br />Two new dimensions were distinct<br />Predicted different outcome patterns<br />Contrary to Cooper<br />Neither related drinking frequency<br />Mild coping-depression drinks/occasion link<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />
  16. 16. Modified DMQ - R (Grant et al., 2007)<br />Next: Longitudinal Analysis<br />High coping-depression = Increased no. drinks<br />High coping-anxiety = Decreased no. drinks<br />High coping-anxiety = Increased alcohol problems<br />Consistent with other studies (Dawson et al., 2005; Morris et al. 2005)<br />Due to within-persons variance?<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Background<br />
  17. 17. Purpose<br />Investigate whether coping-anxiety motives vary over time, allowing for differential consumption patterns in response to situational anxiety<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Current Research<br />
  18. 18. Variables<br />Drinking Motives<br />Self-reported reasons for drinking<br />Anxiety<br />Self-reported negative affective state characterized by apprehension regarding the future<br />Alcohol Consumption<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Current Research<br />
  19. 19. Hypothesis<br />The relationship between anxiety and drinking will change over time in response to variation in coping-anxiety motives<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Current Research<br />
  20. 20. Participants<br />125 ODU Undergraduate Psychology Students<br />> 18 years old, Median Age = 20<br />Mostly Caucasian females<br />Participated in exchange for optional course credit<br />Electronic notification statement<br />Ethical compliance approved by IRB (HSC)<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Method<br />
  21. 21. Measures<br />Modified DMQ – R (Cooper, 1994; Grant et al., 2007)<br />5 dimensions, 23 items<br />5-point Likert scale<br />Only coping-anxiety analyzed<br />“When I drank in the last week, it was:”<br />“Because it helps me when I feel nervous”<br />“Because I feel more self-confident or sure of myself”<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Method<br />
  22. 22. Measures<br />Anxiety<br />International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg et al., 2006)<br />10 items<br />“I tend to get stressed out easily”<br />“I tend to get wrapped up in my problems”<br />5-point Likert scale<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Method<br />
  23. 23. Measures<br />Alcohol Use<br />7-day grid<br />No. drinks/day for previous week<br />Composite Score = Weekly sum (Total drinks per week)<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Method<br />
  24. 24. Measures<br />Standard Demographics<br />Age<br />Gender<br />Race / Ethnicity<br />Marital Status<br />Housing Status<br />Greek Membership Status<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Method<br />
  25. 25. Procedure<br />Scheduled via SONA, groups of 4<br />Campus lab<br />Standard desktop computers<br />Assessments via computer<br />Approx. 1 hour<br />Follow-ups via weekly email<br />Assessments via internet<br />Approx. 15 minutes each, up to 7 times<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Method<br />
  26. 26. Data include follow-ups where P’s drank at least once during previous week (N = 293)<br />Preliminary analysis<br />D.V. Plotted with histogram<br />Unipolar<br />Skewness = 1.43<br />Kurtosis = 2.03<br />Multivariate outliers<br />Cook’s – D<br />Mahalanobis distances<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Analysis<br />
  27. 27. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM)<br />Level-1 (State, or within-persons)<br />Predictors = State coping-anxiety motives, state anxiety levels<br />Group mean-centered<br />Criterion = Total drinks /week<br />Level-2 (Trait, or between-persons)<br />Predictors = Gender, trait (avg.) coping-anxiety motives, trait (avg.) anxiety levels<br />Grand mean-centered (except gender)<br />Criterion = Avg. drinks / week<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Analysis<br />
  28. 28. Hypothesis<br />The relationship between anxiety and drinking will change over time in response to variation in anxiety coping motives<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Results<br />
  29. 29. Typical man during typical week drinks 6.5 more drinks than a typical woman<br />(β01 = -6.47, t(122) = -3.31, p < .01)<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Results<br />
  30. 30. One-unit increase in between-persons (trait) coping-anxiety motives = 2.31 more drinks/week<br />(β02 = 2.31, t(122) = 2.82, p < .01) <br />One-unit increase in within-persons (state) coping-anxiety motives = 2.38 more drinks/week<br />(β10 = 2.38, t(123) = 2.38, p < .05) <br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Results<br />
  31. 31. The relationship between state coping-anxiety motives and total drinks per week decreased as trait anxiety levels increased<br />(β11 = -0.36, t(123) = -2.39, p < .05) <br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Results<br />
  32. 32. Hypothesis Supported<br />Temporal variation in drinking/state anxiety-coping relationship = state coping-anxiety motives did not remain stable<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Discussion<br />One-unit increase in within-persons (state) coping-anxiety motives = 2.38 more drinks/week<br />(β10 = 2.38, t(123) = 2.38, p < .05) <br />
  33. 33. Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />The relationship between state coping-anxiety motives and total drinks per week decreased as trait anxiety levels increased<br />
  34. 34. Future research<br />Why do participants with high trait anxiety levels tend not to drink as much in response to state coping-anxiety motives vs. those with lower trait anxiety?<br />Do certain personality traits contribute to fluctuations?<br />Do demographic variables (other than gender) contribute to fluctuations?<br />Do other motives exhibit same fluctuations?<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Discussion<br />
  35. 35. Implications<br />Perhaps individuals with higher trait anxiety levels have found better coping methods<br />How individuals use alcohol to cope with anxiety is important for effective intervention<br />Changes in drinking motives may make individuals more at risk for alcohol problems while specific stimuli present<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Discussion<br />
  36. 36. Cooper, M. L. (1994). Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 6(2), 117-128. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.6.2.117<br />Cox, W. M., & Klinger, E. (1988). A motivational model of alcohol use. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97(2), 168-180. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.97.2.168<br />Dawson, D. A., Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., & Chou, P. S. (2005). Psychopathology associated with drinking and alcohol use disorders in the college and general adult populations. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 77(2), 139-150. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.07.012<br />Goldberg, L. R., Johnson, J. A., Eber, H. W., Hogan, R., Ashton, M. C., Cloninger, C. R., et al. (2006). The international personality item pool and the future of public-domain personality measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(1), 84-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2005.08.007<br />Grant, V. V., Stewart, S. H., O'Connor, R. M., Blackwell, E., & Conrod, P. J. (2007). Psychometric evaluation of the five-factor Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire--Revised in undergraduates. Addictive Behaviors, 32(11), 2611-2632. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.07.004<br />Morris, E. P., Stewart, S. H., & Ham, L. S. (2005). The relationship between social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders: A critical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(6), 734-760. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.05.004<br />National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2008). Research Findings on College Drinking and the Minimum Legal Drinking Age. Last Updated: October, 2008. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/F099FF68-37B3-4EBC-8573-93CC768A74AA/0/CollegeDrinkingMLDA.pdf.<br /> <br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />References<br />
  37. 37. Hierarchical Linear Modeling of<br />Drinking to Cope with Anxiety<br />Among College Students<br />Old Dominion University <br />Department of Psychology<br />Bradley Wetzell ▪ Matthew R. Pearson, M.S. ▪ James M. Henson, Ph.D.<br />

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