1. Beyond the Basics:
Differentiation Strategies to
Enhance Online Information
BrandonWest, M.Ed., M.L.S.
Online Instruction/Instructional Design Librarian
Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego
June 29, 2014
ALA/LIRT Conference Program
• Bloom’s Taxonomy
“Bloom’s New Taxonomy.”(2013).
Maine Dept. of Education.
• Learning Styles / Multiple intelligences
(Gregory & Chapman, 2007)
• Differentiation is an approach to instruction that
incorporates a variety of strategies to address:
• What students need to learn (Content)
• How students learn about a topic (Process)
• How students demonstrate what they learn (Product)
(De Jesus, 2012)
4. My Online Teaching Journey
• Last fall, I taught information literacy online for the
first time as an embedded librarian.
• EDU 516: Research Methods in Education
• Teaching faculty:“My students need to use the
library to find research articles.”
5. Content Process Product
Content = What the students need to learn.
• The students in EDU 516 need to learn how to use
ERIC for their education research to locate 6 to 8
research articles and 1 dissertation or thesis.
• This information would be used by students to craft
a literature review.
6. Content Process Product
• I posted an ERIC web tutorial available on Penfield
Library’s website in Angel, our learning management
7. Content Process Product
Web tutorial Video tutorials Quick Guide Document
8. Content Process Product
Provide students with content choices. Select options that appeal to a
variety of learning styles and ability levels.
Provide students with
allow them to delve
more deeply into
9. Content Process Product
Process = How students will learn the content.
• The students would complete the tutorial, then search
for articles. I also hosted a discussion board to answer
10. Content Process Product
• Students complete a tutorial of their choosing.
• Students independently develop a search strategy; they can
post their questions to the discussion board as questions
• Small groups of 2 or 3 students review each other’s
11. Content Process Product
Consider the structure of learning activities and the types of
interactions students will have with their peers, the content, and the
• Asynchronous vs. Synchronous activities/interactions
(Mackey & Jacobson, 2011)
• Provide tiered activities: beginner, intermediate, advanced
• Incorporate opportunities for individual and small group work into
12. Content Process Product
Product = How students demonstrate what they have
The professor had a “Library Visit” assignment that
asked them to submit a list of their 6 to 8 articles and 1
dissertation or thesis.
13. Content Process Product
The students need to:
• Provide APA citations for their selected resources
• Evaluate how the sources benefit their action research project
• Analyze themes in found the literature
• Options for assignment:
Write an annotated bibliography OR Create a presentation
14. Content Process Product
Assignment Criteria 0-4 pts– Few requirements
5-9 pts– Most requirements
10 pts– All requirements
6 to 8 articles provided
in APA format
Less than 6 to 8 articles;
more than 5 APA
6 to 8 articles, but more
than 4 APA citation
6 to 8 articles; 2 or less
errors in APA format.
1 dissertation or thesis
provided in APA format
No dissertation or thesis
At least 1 dissertation;
less than 2 errors in APA
At least 1 dissertation or
thesis, 1 or less errors in
Explanation of why
benefit your research.
provided for ½ of
provided for ALL
Provide 4 themes that
seem to run throughout
No themes in literature
Only 3 or fewer themes
4 or more themes are
15. Content Process Product
Examples of possible products in online courses:
• Annotated bibliography
• Present synchronously
• Contribute to wikis
• Develop a multimedia object using web tools
• Blog/Journal entries
These products help the librarian assess student understanding.
• Start small & incorporate differentiated instruction
elements over time.
•Accessibility – Section 508
•Student learning profiles
• Self assessments
Presentation available at:
18. Interesting Reads & Other Sources
Akdemir, O., & Koszalka,T. A. (2008). Investigating the relationships
among instructional strategies and learning styles in online
environments. Computers & Education, 50(4),1451-1461.
Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with
implications for online learning design, AACE Journal, 16(2), 137-
• Carol Tomlinson – An expert in Educational Differentiation
• Consult teaching literature available in Curriculum Material Libraries
Cash, R. (2011). Advancing differentiation:Thinking and learning for the 21st
century. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing, Inc.
De Jesus, O. (2012). Differentiated instruction: Can differentiated instruction
provide success for all learners?. National Teacher Education Journal,
Gregory, G., & Chapman, C. (2007). Differentiated instructional strategies:
One size doesn’t fit all. London, UK: Corwin Press.
Mackey,T. P., & Jacobson,T. E. (Eds.). (2011). Teaching information literacy
online. NewYork, NY: Neal-Schuman Publishers.