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Unit 10 water and sanitation
Unit 10 water and sanitation
Unit 10 water and sanitation
Unit 10 water and sanitation
Unit 10 water and sanitation
Unit 10 water and sanitation
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Unit 10 water and sanitation

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  • 1. Scientific Unit 10: Water and Sanitation l Reasoning & Problem Solving in Comparative World Perspective Unit 10: Water and Sanitation What are some of the most pressing water and sanitation challenges facing the world? Using a variety of primary sources, document at least three of them. How, if at all, does your discipline offer theories and frameworks for examining how to secure clean water and sanitaOon to people in places of great want? You must develop a proposal to be presented to the InternaOonal Monetary Find (IMF) that would help miOgate the problem in the lives of one village or township examined in your primary source materials. Next, read Creswell’s Research Design: QualitaOve, QuanOtaOve, and Mixed Method Approaches (2009). Write an original proposal. Submit a drah of the proposal to your teacher within three weeks of the assignment. Confer with your teacher in a session of not less than 30 minutes to an hour. Redrah your proposal. PracOce defending your proposal with five to seven members of your learning community. IdenOfy the elements of the service learning project. What are the implementaOon steps? What are the expected outcomes? Unit Descrip?on: One of the most pressing issues for communiOes around the world is water and sanitaOon. Ohen ciO‐ zens of the industrialized naOons take access to clean water and sanitaOon faciliOes for granted. This unit will allow students to appreciate these issues and how they factor into enhancing well‐ being in developing naOons. Unit Narra?ve: This unit begins by reporOng key findings from the United NaOons Development Program that highlights issues concerning water and sanitaOon. Students will be provided with water and sanitaOon data resources to review the status of parOcular naOons and regions of the world. Students will have the opportunity to read case studies that describe ways to improve water and hygiene for
  • 2. individuals and communiOes in parOcular countries. Next, students will learn how to conduct field studies to assess these issues. Leading a lot of community and regional development acOviOes are governmental and nongovernmental agencies which students will learn about. The process these agencies use to bring about posiOve change ohen involve responding to requests for research or funding and wriOng proposals to which students will be introduced. At the end of the course, students will present water and sanita Oon proposals targeOng a region or country of their interest to the class. 59 Class Schedule (8‐ day session) Day 1. Introduce students to the problem of water/sanitaOon. a. What is the scope of the problem? b. Provide some maps and staOsOcs. c. What prevents some people from having access to water/sanitaOon? d. Have the students read a case study. e. Assign students search for other case studies available from the UNICEF site that they may be interested in. Day 2. Governments and WSH f. How do various governments deal with/prioriOze WSH? g. How do various enOOes define and measure WSH? h. Are there organizaOons (governmental) in place? How do they negoOate with each other to provide resources? How do they interact with the target community? Day 3. The Role of NGOs i. What are NGOs? j. InteracOon paIerns between NGOs and governments k. Key NGOs dealing with WSH l. Assignment web review memorandum of Water and SanitaOon NGOs (see 4biii above) Day 4. The UN, WHO, and World Bank (WB) m. What they are, who runs them, and what they do. n. How do NGOs and governments react to UN/WHO/WB o. UN/WHO/WB and WSH Day 5. What is a grant? I p. RFAs/RFPs q. Grant wriOng Ops Day 6. What is a grant? II r. RFAs/RFPs dealing with WSH s. Group acOvity: Find one RFA/RFP dealing with WSH. Review it. Consider what
  • 3. you can answer. What are some of the areas that are outside of your discipline? What discipline/approach would be appropriate to idenOfy those areas. Allocate a person best suited to answering each part of RFAs/RFPs. Write a memorandum that reacts to the RFA/RFP. Be ready to present on Day 7 or 8. Day 7. PresentaOons Day 8. PresentaOons/Wrap‐up 60 RESOURCES UNICEF. 2008. “Nicaragua ‘Being Dirty Had to End.’” SanitaOon and Hygiene Case Study 9. New York: UNICEF. Accesses at hIp://www.unicef.org/wash/files/9_case_study_NICARAGUA_4web.pdf on 26 Jul, 2010. Watkins, Kevin. 2006. Human Development Report 2006: Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis. New York: United NaOons Development Programme. Accessed at hIp://hdr.undp.org/en/media/Forword_Acknowledgements_Content.pdf on 26 Jul, 2010. World Health OrganizaOon. 2003. The Right to Water. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health OrganizaOon. Accessed at hIp://www.who.int/water_sanitaOon_health/rightowater/en/ on 26 Jul, 2010. 1. What are some of the most pressing water and sanita5on challenges facing the world? According the United NaOons Development Program (2006:v) there are three major challenges to water and sanitaOon needs in the world community: a. Access to water and sanitaOon tend to shunted to the boIom of governmental prioriOes. Many developing naOons do not have the poliOcal will or the resources to alleviate the water and sanitaOon needs for their poor ciOzens. b. Poor people pay proporOonally more for water than do more affluent people. Lack of infrastructure, isolaOon in rural communiOes and other factors make access to water that much more difficult and therefore expensive to provide. c. There is a lack of cooperaOon and prioriOzaOon of water/sanitaOon development between the internaOonal communiOes as expressed in the UN’s Millennium Development Goals. 2. Using a variety of primary sources, document at least three of them. a. Map of water and sanitaOon with naOons proporOoned to lack of water access. World Bank Millennium Development Goals at hIp://devdata.worldbank.org/atlasmdg/ 61 b. Country data from World Bank Millennium Development Goals at hIp://devdata.worldbank.org/atlas‐mdg/ (See Table 1 created by Kersen based on World Bank MDG data). There is a lot of room for improvement in sanitaOon and water faciliOes and sources in Nicaragua, where in 2008, where in 2008 48 percent of the populaOon had “improved sanitaOon faciliOes. By comparison, the U.S. was reported to have 100 percent improved sanitaOon faciliOes. In 2008, 79
  • 4. percent of Nicaraguans had improved water sources compared to the world which had 86 percent, and the U.S. which had 99 percent. c. Nicaragua as a case study dealing with sanitaOon and hygiene. See UNICEF’s 2008 Case Study #9 “Nicaragua ‘Being dirty had to end.’” at hIp://www.unicef.org/wash/files/9_case_study_NICARAGUA_4web.pdf The case study is included at the end of this document. 62 3. How, if at all, does your discipline offer theories and frameworks for examining how to secure clean water and sanita5on to people in places of great want? a. There are really no theories or frameworks within sociology about this parOcular topic. Clean water and sanitaOon is more in the domain of environmental engineering or related field. However, a sociological awareness would benefit those proposing water and sanitaOon development. i. IdenOfying the key players and understanding their agendas. What is the agenda of the granOng agency? Is it in line with those in the host naOon/province/village? ii. Analysis of the power structures within the village, province/state, and the naOon (both formal and informal). What is the proper way to negoOate through these structures? iii. What is needed rather than what is wanted? Who benefits? How many? iv. Do the social condiOons allow for such a change? 4. You must develop a proposal to be presented to the Interna5onal Monetary Fund (IMF) that would help mi5gate the problem in the lives of one village or township examined in your primary source materials. a. The InternaOonal Monetary Fund (IMF) may not be the best place to present a proposal about water and sanitaOon. Consider the World Health OrganizaOon’s Water, SanitaOon and Health (WSH) Program at hIp://www.who.int/water_sanitaOon_health/about/en/index.html b. There are also a number of Governmental/Nongovernmental Agencies that specialize in water and sanitaOon such as: i. USAID’s Environmental Health Program at hIp://www.ehproject.org/ ii. Global Water at hIp://www.globalwater.org/ iii. Various internaOonal NGOs at hIp://www.ecoiq.com/onlineresources/center/water/ngos.html 5. Next, read Creswell’s Research Design: Qualita5ve, Quan5ta5ve, and Mixed Methods Approaches (2009). 63 a. A cursory review of case studies and requests for applicaOon/aid (RFAs) and requests for proposals (RFPs) indicates that the prevailing methodology is some
  • 5. form of survey administered by trained workers who go out into the community and collect data about sanitaOon/water needs. In some cases, informaOon is collected from the UN or the World Bank. b. Therefore, a mixed method approach that combines survey research, field observaOons, and case study approach is warranted. i. Survey—asking quesOons about access to sanitaOon/water. Any waterborne illnesses. QuesOons about indoor plumbing are ubiquitous. Maybe some in‐depth quesOons about possible soluOons, insOtuOonal support, etc. ii. Field Studies—the researcher observes water and sanitaOon pracOces. iii. Case Studies—use a comparaOve approach that looks at exemplary villages, middle‐range, and the target village. c. The professor may wish to offer students the opportunity to complete a free online course from MIT enOtled “Water and SanitaOon Infrastructure in Developing Countries.” The course can be accessed at hIp://ocw.mit.edu/courses/urbanstudiesand‐ planning/11‐479j‐water‐and‐sanitaOon‐infrastructure‐in‐developingcountriesspring‐ 2007/index.htm. This course is designed for graduate students, so the professor may wish to choose topics and assignments that are appropriate for a parOcular level of academic ability. 6. Write an original proposal. a. The process for wriOng a proposal is lengthy and not really feasible in an 8‐day period, so to fit the objecOves within 8 days, students should review a RFA/RFP, look at the format, see what expectaOons the funding agency has for the researchers, and other RFA/RFP Ops. Perhaps devoOng a day to grant wriOng is warranted. The MIT course described above uses memoranda assignments rather than wriOng a proposal. b. Despite the Ome limitaOons, most proposals require the following: i. Problem Statement Who (target group), What (the problem), Where (locaOon), When (when is the project to begin and end?) ii. Background Literature 1. This secOon explains the Why—lays out the theoreOcal issues involved with the problem and idenOfies major concepts. 2.. Discusses past pracOces and lessons learned. Provides goals for the project. iii. Budget iv. Researcher biographies v. Appropriate endorsements such as InsOtuOonal Review Board (IRB), State Department, etc. 64 7. Submit a draS of the proposal to your teacher within three weeks of the assignment. 8. Confer with your teacher in a session of not less than 30 minutes to an
  • 6. hour. 9. RedraS your proposal. 10. Prac5ce defending your proposal with five to seven members of your learning community. 11. Iden5fy the elements of the service learning project. 12. What are the implementa5on steps? 13. What are the expected outcomes?

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