Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Bullying In Academic Environments And The After Effects

1,736

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,736
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Bullying in Academic Environments and the AfterMath: A Closer Look at Bullying at the Primary andSecondary and Levels of Education
  • 2. Brad WeisbergSOCI251-Measurement and Data CollectionFinal Research Proposal25th April 2010 Table of ContentsIntroduction 3 Background Section Characteristics Traits of Victims and Bullies Differences Between Grade, Gender and Type of Aggression Effects of VictimizationMethods and Procedures 7 Study Context and Participants Age Gender Socioeconomic Status and Family Background Sampling Methods and Design Methodology Section Surveys Type of Survey Form of Administration 2
  • 3. Analysis Section 10 Forms of Data Analysis Qualitative Qualitative Data Processing Quantitative Multivariable AnalysisReferences 14Appendix 16 Sample SurveyBackground Section: Since the beginning of civilization, bullying has been an existent practice that certain 3
  • 4. individuals or groups resort to in order to marginalize others who appear weaker, in a physicalcontext. “Bullying” is such an ambiguous term whos, meaning differs from culture to culture,region to region, and person to person. For the purpose of this background research, we will referto the following definition of bullying, “Bullying is generally conceived as repeated unprovokedaggressive behavior in which the perpetrator or perpetrators are more powerful than the person orpersons being attacked. It may be physical in form or non-physical; direct or indirect” (Rigby,2000, pp. 57-68). These actions occur in all spheres, but the main area of the research focuses onbullying in elementary, middle schools, and high schools. Bullying is prevalent in both malesand females. However, the degree and course of bullying varies between sexes or levels ofschooling. Aside from the patterns and variations of bullying, the effects that these direct andindirect acts of aggression have on the individual bullies and victims is another important subjectthat must be looked more closely at. Both bullies and victim suffer from physical, psychologicaland emotional pain and future result of improper treatment from their peers. Bullying has become a pressing issue in modern societies. Tonja Renae Nansel, socialresearcher and Investigator at the National Institute of Health states that on average 11% ofadolescents report experiencing victimization (Nansel et al., 2000). Within the last ten years, themedia has had wide coverage on bullying in academic-learning environments nationwide.Though, it is not just a national issue. Throughout Europe, Asia and other parts of the globe,social researchers have expressed their concerns on the matter and have made proposals forintervention programs. Portrayals of aggressive behavior do not promote the driving forces, suchas unity and leadership, which lead to social-stability and economic prosperity. 4
  • 5. Characteristic Traits of Victims and Bullies Certain individuals present themselves as perfect targets for bullies. Bullying is centeredon an imbalance of power. With that being said, individuals who appear physically weaker thantheir perpetrators are targets for bullies. Though, that is not the only variable that creates a fencebetween a victim and his or her bully/ bullies. Previous studies affirm that victims tend to bemore physically weaker and more anxious than most individuals. Doctor Dan Olweus, aprofessor of psychology at University of Umea, Sweden and leading advocate for bullyingprevention describes the characteristics of typical victims. Olweus says, “The typical victims aremore anxious and insecure than students in general. Further, they are often cautious, sensitive,and quiet. Victims suffer from low self-esteem and negative view of themselves and theirsituation” (Olweus, 1994, 27-31). He classifies them as passive or submissive victims (Olweus,1994). Other professionals in the field hold the same belief as Olweus. Wendy M. Craig,professor of psychology at Queens University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, states, “ Victims inprevious research displayed an anxious personality pattern combined with physical weakness”(Craig, 1997, 123-30). Similarly to the victims, select individuals are screened for being bullies. Our societypaints a flawed image with the assumption that individuals who seek popularity are those whotake part in these indirect and direct acts of aggression. Past research explains that the realculprits behind bullying are individuals who display an antisocial personality pattern and arephysically strong. Olweus asserts this, “Typical bullies can be described as having an aggressivereaction pattern (Olweus, 1994). Prior research seeks to explain the generalized image of the model bully and victim. Over 5
  • 6. the course of the past few months, there have been a number of cases of victimization that arecentered on homosexuality. In late January, an unnamed eighteen-year old male from Minnesotacommitted suicide. Investigators believe that his suicide was linked to his constant, impropertreatment from school bullies for being gay. Related to the subject, a freshman at RutgersUniversity in New Brunswick, NJ, committed suicide after a secret sex tape was filtered aroundcampus. However, social research fails to show a correlation between specific groups ofindividuals who are targeted based on key social factors, such as race, ethnicity, religiouspractices and sexual orientation. The basis of my research is to find clearer answers to whycertain individuals are attacked.Differences Between Grade, Gender and Type of Aggression Incidences of overt and indirect aggression are evident at all levels of schooling andbetween boys and girls. However, certain transgressions and trends are clearly distinguishablebetween these factors. Nicki R. Crick, Director at the Institute of Child Development inMinnesota, and Jennifer K. Grotpeter, mentions the differences that curtail between age andbullying. In their research, they state, “Specifically, bullying and victimization tends to declinewith age. Older children display less overt aggression than younger children” (Crick &Grotpeter, 1995). Certain individuals express their belief that the decline is related to a child’sintellectual development. Professor of Psychology, Wendy M. Craig, says, “This result may berelated to the developing repertoire of verbal skills” (Craig, 1997). The level and content of ‘bullying’ differs between boys and girls. Based on the researchof Crick and Bigbee, overtly aggressive behaviors such as physical fighting and verbal threatsare most salient for boys, while relational aggression, or aggressive behaviors focused on 6
  • 7. damaging or manipulating peers’ relationships, are more prone between girls (Crick and Bigbee,1996). “According to Crick and Grotpeter (1995), one reason that girls are more likely to userelational aggression, rather than overt aggression is because relationally aggressive behaviorsdamage goals that are particularly important to girls” (Crick and Bigbee, 1996).Effects of Victimization Research conducted by psychologists, sociologist and medical specialist infers arelationship between victimization and health problems. Victims of bullying have shown signs ofphysiological, psychological and emotional health problems. In a study conducted in SouthAustralia, 845 boys and girls, aged 12 to 16 were surveyed through questionnaires (Rigby, 2000).In the study, they found that the mental health of young adolescents is related independently tothe degree of bullying they experience at school and also to the extent to which these studentsfeel they can rely upon the support of others when they have a serious problems (Rigby, 2000).When compared to non-victimized children, victimized children reported more health problems(i.e. general illness, somatic complaints, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation) (Rigby, 1996).Craig’s research reinforces the idea of increased health problem among victimized children. Herfindings and others reaffirm that anxiety and depression may result as an effect of repeated actsof overt and indirect aggression (Craig, 1997). On a deeper scale, research studies suggest a connection between victimization and theabuse of alcohol and other substances. In a study conducted by Jeremy w. Luk, Jing Wang,Bruce G. and Simon-Morton, they examined the link between bullying victimization andsubstance use among U.S. adolescent as coping methods. From their study, they can concludethat increased victimization was linked to elevated substance use in a nationally representative 7
  • 8. sample of U.S. adolescents (Luk, Wang, Morton, 2010). In research conducted in London,England, 324 participants were surveyed over a 12 -month period, with questions related tovictimization and alcohol-related problem behavior (Topper, Ryan, Mackie, 2010). The results ofthe research provide evidence to suggest that adolescent bullying victimization creates aproximal risk for alcohol-related problems, both directly and indirectly through the developmentof internal and negative drinking motives. Furthermore, the results highlight that early episodesof bullying can have prolonged consequences in terms of victims’ engagement with alcohol, overa 12 -month period (Topper, Ryan, Mackie, 2010). Studies have shown that victimization and bullying can result in extreme effects such asacts of suicide. As mentioned above, there have been select scenarios where victims of bullyingresort to suicide. In a study conducted in Korean middle schools, two middle schools (one inSeoul and the other in Anyang) were studied through survey panels (Kim and Koh, 2005). Fromthe experiment, it can be said that when school bullying persists over an extended period,suicidality becomes equally common in both males and females student , thus making the genderdifferences disappear over time. Because the duration of the bullying is not measured in thisstudy, the present data cannot be used to explore this possibility (Kim and Koh, 2005).Goals of StudyThrough conducting this research, we hope to uncover the main causes for relational aggressionin academic arenas. To overcome adversity in the classroom, we must know “who” and “why”certain individuals are targets of bully victimization and what factors lead an individual tobecome a bully. When these answers are discovered, w will use the collected and analyzed datato create an advocacy program that selected schools will be encouraged to implement in their 8
  • 9. curriculum.METHODS AND PROCEDURESSTUDY CONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTS In the United States, thousands of children are victims of “bullying” and other forms ofdirect and indirect aggression. For the purpose of this research, participants of this study include50,000 men and women, ages 10-18, from all different racial and socioeconomic backgrounds.We want to obtain a wide-scoped image of the population of students and how certain factorsaffect the level and varieties of non-aggressive and aggressive behaviors that occur at almostevery primary and secondary education structure. For these reasons, several different elementary,middle and high schools located in the Southeast region will be selected to participate in ourstudy.AGE Certain transgressions and trends are clearly distinguishable between the age-differencesof both perpetrators and their victims. Prior research has demonstrated that bullying andvictimization tend to decline with age; older children display less overt aggression than youngerchildren. In order to affirm these observations, our experiment will select children fromelementary level to high school.GENDER Another large factor that contributes to the level and content of “bullying” is the genderof the suspects and victims. Several experiments conducted in past years have proven that femalebullies tend to focus on relational aggression; those aggressive behaviors focuses on damagingor manipulating peer’s relationships. On the opposite side of the spectrum, the variation of 9
  • 10. bully’s techniques that occurs within boys is more geared on overt aggression, such as physicalconfrontation and verbal threats.FAMILY AND SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND Cultural upbringings and families economic background is influential in children’sattitude and behavior patterns. To better understand how family life and neighborhood values arerelated to the different attitudes and behaviors that children exhibit in academic environments,when interacting with their peers, we will be measuring both male and female subjects fromdifferent neighborhoods and quality of public institutions (working-class schools, middle-class/upper-middle class schools, and elite schools).SAMPLING METHODS AND DESIGN In order to attain an overview of the representative student population of the United State,we will be using probability sampling as out selection method. To enhance our likelihood ofpainting a clear and representative image of subjects, we will use random selection. Oursampling frame will feature hundreds of elementary, middle, and high schools across theSoutheast region of the United States. Using a mathematical equation (to be determined), we will randomly select 900 academicinstitutions through multi-stage cluster sampling design (300 from each level; elementary,middle and high school). For the purpose of the experiment, we will systematically sample fromthree separate sorted lists, each containing their multiple institutions by level.METHODOLOGY SELECTIONSURVEYS 10
  • 11. Since we’re dealing with a large population, we have chosen to conduct our research through thedistribution of survey. Our study will obtain a general overview of the population. The basis ofour research includes the random selection of 900 academic institutions, from all school levels.That is an extremely large population; due to the size and variability, the administering ofsurveys is the most convenient and efficient module for us to obtain our information. Since we’reinterested in measuring the attitudes and behavior patterns of our individuals, we areTYPE OF SURVEYThe survey that we will be distributing will not have any reference or overt content that willexpose our motive for research. Our survey will have to be completed by participants with aproper number 2 pencil so we do not any errors to result from faulty technology; such as flawedcomputer programs. It will have questions related to behavior patterns; items that deal withaggression, depression, violence, thoughts of suicide and a wide range of other questions (referto appendix).FORM OF ADMINISTRATIONAs mentioned throughout, 900 elementary, middle, and high schools combined will be selectedto participate in our study. Each selected school will receive a proportion of surveys to beadministered in selected classes at their schools. Self-administration is the best choice for ourstudy because we are dealing with such a large population and it is easy, cheap and convenient.Though, since we are dealing with schools, we will make sure that each school receives properinstructions on how to deal with the administration and if permitted, we will be sending anadministrative -assistants that we have properly trained to each school.ANALYSIS SECTION 11
  • 12. FORMS OF DATA ANALYSIS In order to fully analyze and understand our collected data, we have chosen to utilizetechniques for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. As mentioned in previous sections, ourmethod for gathering our information is through the administration of surveys. Our surveysfeature both a series of open-ended and close-ended questions. Different forms of analysis willbe applied for us to properly analyze the information that is collected from each respondent.QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS The process of distributing surveys that measure bullying to a wide level of respondentscan produce varying results, dependent on age, grade level, regional area, and other variables forrespondents. We are fully aware of the varying results. In order to account for thesedifferentiations, the proper measures will be taken. In order to discover patterns, we will be looking at individual responses and collectivelycomparing them to other individual’s responses. Elements such as frequency, magnitude, andstructure, causes, and consequences will be measured in our analysis. Again, surveys will bedivided by level of education and then analyzed using, but limited to this criteria.-Frequency How often does bullying occur in each school? (Do not forget to take into account that datacould be flawed due to the uncertainty of individual responses)-MagnitudesDifferent levels of bullying; how continuous is it?-StructuresTypes of bullying – related in any way or forms are all independent.-ProcessesAny order or bullying? Does it start with less evasive forms and evolve into harsher forms?-Causes 12
  • 13. Causes of bullying – occur more often among certain people or no? Does class, race, gender orspecific behavioral traits account for any bullying?-ConsequencesEffects of bullying on victims (psychological, emotional and physical)CROSS-CASE ANALYSISVariable Oriented Analysis To reach a general explanation on bullying and prospected targets, our analyst will beusing a cross-case analysis. Since we’re concerned with the overall population of bully victims,they will use a variable-oriented analysis. Variables such as behavioral traits, gender, race,socioeconomic status and other elements will be analyzed.GROUNDED THEORY METHOD 1. Compare behavioral traits, age, and techniques of those bullied to those not bullied (at each education level) 2. Create ideal type of individuals who are most likely to bully victimization (at each education level) 3. Rule out any erroneous information and previous research that has been proven to false in all respects to the classifications of individuals who are victim of bullying. 4. Determine sects of individuals who are targeted for victimization. Use this theory in order properly devise policies at educational institutions to limit bully victimizationsQUALITATIVE DATA PROCESSINGCoding After carefully evaluating our respondent’s choices and creating ideal types forindividuals (both target an not targeted for bullying), we will codify certain responses to fit eachlevel of individual Using axial coding, when an individual has responded to a open-endedquestion that indicts a certain characteristic trait, we will code that individual to be one of thefollowing: 13
  • 14. 1) TARGET 2) LIKELY TARGET 3) NEUTRAL 4) NOT A TARGETSimilarly, we will use a technique to code individuals to be one of following, as suggested bytheir responses. 1) BULLY 2) LIKELY BULLY 3) NEUTRAL 4) NOT A BULLYIt is possible for respondents to be both bullies and victims of bullying. Respondents who answerquestions with a fifty percent response rate as “TARGET” and fifty percent response rate as“BULLY” will be classified as both.Memoing Analysts will be advised to annotate and markup individual’s responses in order to justifytheir codes for each respondent. Coding terms are inclusively subjective, so each analyst willneed to explain what constitutes respondents as their determined status.Concept Mapping Using selected computer programs, our researchers will create concepts maps to explainrelationships that exist between individuals that are classified as “targets”, “neither”, “bully”, or“both”.QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Part of our survey has a series of close-ended questions that each respondent will have toanswer. In order to understand our data, our analysts will use STATA: Data Analysis and 14
  • 15. Statistical Software for quantitative analysis.Grade Level- Education levels of respondents will be codified using the following numerical values1) Elementary2) Middle3) HighGender-Gender of individuals will be codified using the following numerical values1) Male2) Female3) TransgenderNeighborhood of Respondent1) Rural2) Suburban3) UrbanQuality of School1) Working Class2) Middle-Class—Upper Middle-Class3) EliteOther information, such as our matrix questions will be coded to the following. If an individualdetermines a statement to be a CONCERN, then he or she will be either1) TARGET2) BULLY 15
  • 16. MULTIVARIABLE ANALYSIS After properly coding our variables correctly, we will use STATA in order to createcontingency tables. Contingency tables will be used in order to explain the set of variables thatlead for an individual to be targeted as a victim of bullying. Likewise, we will also use tables toexplain the relationships between different variables that constitute and individual to be a bullyor not. REFERENCESCraig, Wendy M. "Emotional Regulation and Display in Classroom Victims of Bullying: Characteristic Expressions of Affect, Coping Styles and Relevant Contextual Factors." Social Development 9.2 (1997): 227-244. Web. 07 Feb. 2011. <http://psycserver.psyc.queensu.ca/craigw/mahady-wilton_craig_pepler_2000.pdf>.Crick, Nicki R., Maureen A. Bigbee, and Cynthia Howes "Gender Differences in Childrens Normative Beliefs about Aggression: Do I Hurt Thee? Let Me Count the Ways." Child Development 67.3 (1996): 1003-1014. JSTOR. Web. 07 Feb. 2011. <http:// www.jstor.org/stable/1131876>.Crick, Nicki R., and Jennifer K. Grotpeter "Relational Aggression, Gender and Social- Psychological Adjustment." Child Development 66.3 (1995): 710-722. JSTOR. Web. 07 16
  • 17. Feb. 2011. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1131945>.Kim, Young S., Yun J. Koh, and Bennett Levental "School Bullying and Suicidal Risk in Korean Middle School Students." PEDIATRICS 115.2 (2005): 357-363. Web. 07 Feb. 2011. <http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/115/2/357>.Luk, Jeremy W., Jing Wang, and Bruce G. Simons-Morton "Bullying Victimization and Substance Use Among U.S. Adolescents: Mediation by Depression." Prevention Science 11.4 (2010): 355-359. Web. 07 Feb. 2011. <http://www.springerlink.com/content/t676k47725151744/>.Nansel Et Al. "Bullying Behavior Among US Youth." Journal of the American Medical Association 285.16 (2001): 2094-2100. JAMA. Web. 07 Feb. 2011. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WH0-45F4RJ6-27&_user=130907&_coverDate=02%2F29% 2F2000&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor =&view=c&_searchStrId=1729715364&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C0000041 98&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=130907&md5=0e89c2b160b63f1814f00ec27f a4b7b8&searchtype=a>.Olweus, Dan. "Bullying at School: Basic Facts and an Effective Intervention Programme." Promotion & Education 1 (1994): 27-31. ped.sagepub.com. Web. 08 Feb. 2011. <http://ped.sagepub.com/content/1/4/27.refs.html>.Rigby, Ken. "Effects of Peer Victimization in Schools and Perceived Social Support on Adolescent Well-being." Journal of Adolescence 23.1 (2000): 57-68. ScienceDirect. Web. 07 Feb. 2011.<http://www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WH0-45F4RJ6-27&_user=130907&_coverDate=02%2F29% 2F2000&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor =&view=c&_searchStrId=1729715364&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C0000041 98&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=130907&md5=0e89c2b160b63f1814f00ec27f a4b7b8&searchtype=a>. 17
  • 18. Topper, Lauren R. et al "Adolescent Bullying Victimisation and Alcohol-related Problem Behaviour Mediated by Coping Drinking Motives over a 12 Month Period." Addictive Behaviors 36.1-2 (2011): 6-13. ScienceDirect. Web. 07 Feb. 2011. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VC9-50XCY7C-1&_user=130907&_coverDate=02%2F28% 2F2011&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=& view=c&_acct=C000004198&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=130907&md5=d094 5453be94734b96c085fa201e7d77&searchtype=a>. APPENDIXSample Survey QuestionsFor each response, only mark one answer choice.1. What is your sex? Male _ Female _ Intersexual_2. What is your age? 6-9__ 10-13__ 14-17__ 18+__3. What is your highest level of education? Elementary __ Middle __ High School __4. Do you have a mother? Yes __ No __ 18
  • 19. 5. Do you have a father? Yes __ No__If no for both, please explain.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6. Have you ever been bullied? Yes__ No__7. Have you every bullied anyone? Yes__ No__8. For the following, please place a checkmark next to the ones that apply to youCHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL YES NOAre you quiet?Are you loud?Do you actively participate inclass?Do you have a main group offriends?Do you have any older oryounger siblings?Is your mother or father (orguardian) employed?Do you get sick often?Do you use physical forcewhen you’re upset?Do you use verbal threatswhen you’re upset?Do you workout?Do you keep to yourself whenyou’re angry?9. Please explain a time in which you had to work in a large group setting? Be sure to include thesize of the group and your role in the group.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________10. Take a look at yourself, do you think you appear the same as your peers. If yes, explain why.If no, explain and why not and how it makes you feel.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 19
  • 20. 11. Please explain your hobbies. Do you actively interact with individuals your age whenpartaking in these activities?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________12. For the following, please place an X next to each one that applies to your right now.FEELINGS AND EMOTIONSTIREDANXIOUSEXCITEDNERVOUSFATIGUEFATIGUEDEXHAUSTEDHYPERSADANGRY 20
  • 21. 21

×