Writing Methods Before the Invention of the Book.Stone Tablets Animal Skin
Ancient peoplealso wrote on :• Silk in China• Dried PalmLeaves in India• Wood onEaster Island Rongorong: Writing on Wood from Easter Island
The ancientEgyptians madea type of paperfrom thePapyrus plant.The Papyrus“paper” wasglued togetherinto scrolls.The Egyptiansused asharpened reedor bird featheras a “pen”.
Paper as we knowit was invented inChina around100AD.It eventually wasused as:Wrapping paperWriting paperToilet paperTea bag paper The Diamond Sutra (868ce) is the world’s oldest known book. It wasPaper money created by woodblock printing.
• The Codex replacedthe Scroll by thefourth century BC.• The codex is abook created bybinding many sheetstogether at one end.• The codex will stayopen on a table, andit provides directaccess to any page.• An index can be Founders and Benefactors book ofadded to the lastpages of the book. Tewkesbury Abbey (16th century).
In ChristianEurope, monks spenttheir days next to thewindows in scriptoriacopying books byhand.It could take years tocopy and decorate asingle book, so bookswere very rare.Western knowledgewas preserved by thishand copyingprocess, but thescarcity of booksprevented the spreadof knowledge. Monk copying a book in the scriptorium.
Before 1440:People rarelytraveled beyond thedistance they couldwalk in a day.Most people couldnot read.There was no wayto share knowledge.There was no:•• Telephone•• Telegraph•• Email•• Internet Medieval Farm•• Postal service
But around 1440 the worldchanged because of the invention of one man: JOANNASGUTENBURG
In Germany,Johannas Gutenburg:• improved oil basedink• improved theprinting press• invented movabletypeThose inventions ledto the MASSPRODUCTION OFBOOKS! Johannas Gutenburg
Books no longerneed to be handcopied or carvedon a wood blockpage by page.Instead a pageof a book was“typeset” byputting eachletter in itscorrect placeuntil the pagewas complete. Movable type and composing stick
The printingpress made itpossible to printmany copies ofeach page.This reduced thecost ofbookmakingand allowed forthe massproduction of Man on right is inking the type.books. Man on left is removing paper from the press.
Availability of books ledto:Sharing of scientificinformation , which ledto the industrialrevolution andimproved farming.Sharing of medicalknowledge , which led tobetter health care.Sharing of philosophicaland religious ideas, which led to theProtestant Reformation.People learned to read Diagram from Gilbert’s De Magnetebecause they could (1600), the first book aboutafford books. electricity and magnetism.
Martin Luther postedhis “95 Theses” onthe door of All SaintsChurch inWittenberg, Germanyin 1517.He was protestingthe sale ofindulgences by theCatholic Church.His Theses wereprinted and widelydistributed.This began the Title page from Martin Luther’sProtestant writings, 1581 edition.Reformation.
Wecontinueto printand readbookstoday. Harry Potter Books
Books onMicrofilmorMicroficheWhen your parentsand grandparentswere in college,they may havelooked at books onmicrofilm ormicrofiche. Thiswas a way librariessaved stack space.
Now we havenewer ways ofstoring “books”: On Microfilmor microfiche. On theInternet. On Kindle andsimilar devices. Amazon’s Kindle
Some wayis neededtoorganizeand indexlargecollectionsof books. Over 275,000 books are published in the United States each year.
The Libraryof CongressClassificationSystem (LC)is used toorganizebooks inmost collegelibraries. Reading Room of the Library of Congress, Washington, DC
What doesthe word“classify”mean?To divideinto groups Classified ads
Library of Congress Classification System• LC DIVIDES KNOWLEDGE INTO 21 BROADSUBJECT CATEGORIES• EACH SUBJECT AREA IS ASSIGNED A LETTEROR COMBINATION OF LETTERS• SUBJECTS ARE FURTHER SUBDIVIDED BYNUMBERS HTTP://WWW.LOC.GOV/CATDIR/CPSO/LCCO/
Classify a BookDECIDE WHAT THE BOOK ISABOUT (IT’S SUBJECT).USING THE LC CHART, ASSIGNTHE FIRST TWO LETTER OF THELC NUMBER.
BookLabelsLibrary ofCongress callnumbers arefound on thespines oflibrary books.
TN = MiningEngineering900=NonmetallicmineralsK865 = Author’slast name beginswith K2003 = Yearpublished Parts of a Library of Congress Classification Number
Put Books in Order on the Shelf• WORK FROM THE TOP LINE DOWN• THE TOP LINE CONTAINS LETTERS• THE SECOND LINE CONTAINS WHOLE NUMBERS• THE THIRD LINE CONTAINS A LETTER FOLLOWED BY DECIMAL NUMBERS• THE BOTTOM LINE CONTAINS A DATE
Part Three:FINDING A BOOK IN A BOOK COLLECTION
What is thisfingercalled?Why?It is calledthe INDEXfingerbecause it isused topoint.
An index is apointer toinformation.Many bookshave an indexon the last fewpages.The catalog is anindex to thebooks (andother items)contained in the An old card catalog containinglibrary. “pointers” to the books in the library.
Your Textbook Has an Index in the Back.• A “SE E ” R E F ER EN C E TEL L S YO U THA TYO U M US T L O O K UN DER A DI F F ER EN TWO R D, THER E I S N O EN TR Y UN DERTHE WO R D YO U L O O KED UP .• A “S E E A L S O ” R EF ER EN C E G I V ES YO UA DDI TI O N A L WO R DS YO U C A N L O O KUP .
Library Catalogs are Indexes(Pointers) to the Books in the Library FIND THE TNCC LIBRARY CATALOG AT: HTTP://WWW.TNCC.EDU FIND WORLD CAT AT: HTTP://WWW.TNCC.EDU
Amazon. com Is an Accidental Index CREATED TO SELL BOOKS POINTS TO BOOKS THAT ARE AVAILABLE TO PURCHASE HTTP://WWW.AMAZON.COM
Referencebooks arebooks that werefer to for aspecific pieceofinformation. Reference books usually cannot be checked out of the library.
Homework AssignmentTOPIC SELECTION FORMCLASSIFICATION EXERCISEREFERENCE BOOKS AND ONLINESOURCES
Extra CreditWatch the DVD “TheDay the UniverseChanged” by JamesBurke. Disc 2, Program 4 .(DVD CB69 .S4161986 Disc 1-2)“Printing TransformsKnowledge”
Just for fun watch: YOUTUBETHE MEDIEVAL HELP DESKHTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=PQHX -SJGQVQ