IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca PiteiuTheoretical foundation of health     campaign messages
Key Points        1. Relevance of behavioral theory        2. Theories of behavior change            2.1 Theories of Reaso...
1. Relevance of behavioral theory        •    messages: thought-out communications based on theory and            research...
2. Theories of behavior change        2.1 Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) & Planned Behavior (TPB)        •    behaviora...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2008, p. 70)IfK...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2008, p. 70)IfK...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2008, p. 70)IfK...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2008, p. 70)IfK...
2. Theories of behavior change        2.2 The Health Belief Model        •    necessary conditions for behavior change to ...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfK...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfK...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfK...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfK...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfK...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfK...
2. Theories of behavior change      •    weak point: undefined relationships  ambiguity in HBM applications              ...
2. Theories of behavior change        2.3 An Integrative Model        •    unites several theoretical perspectives        ...
2. Theories of behavior change                                                        (Fishbein & Cappella, 2006, p. 2)IfK...
3. Conclusions        •    complementary theories with significant degrees of overlap        • “the central issue is not w...
Theoretical foundation of health campaign messages    APPLICATIONSIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
Key Points        1. Relevance of behavioral theory        2. Theories of behavior change            2.1 Theories of Reaso...
Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco                    campaign                                        WHO?                    ...
Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco                    campaign        IT DID NOT TELL YOUTH         TO STOP SMOKINGIfKW • Simo...
Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco                    campaignIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco                    campaign                                      Targeted                  ...
Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco                    campaign               Campaign effects were consistent with hypotheses ...
Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco                    campaign                    Results       Success in changing           ...
HIV Prevention in Zimbabwe                    (Montano, Kasprzyk, 2008)  Identify    • Using condoms all the time with ste...
Communication approach for                    changing sexual behavior                         Community Popular Opinion L...
Reframing childhood obesity in USA                    The Framing theory “To frame is to select some aspects of a perceive...
Reframing childhood obesity in USA                    Woodruff, Dorfman, Berends, and Agron                    (2003)     ...
Reframing childhood obesity in USA                    Woodruff, Dorfman, Berends, and Agron                    (2003)     ...
Conclusions        • Theories of behavioral prediction and behavioral          change – identify which beliefs to target t...
References•    Champion, V. L. & Skinner, C. S. (2008). The Health Belief Model. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer & K. Viswanath (...
Many thanks for your attention!IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu                     35
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Theoretical foundation of health campaign messages

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Presentation for the health communication class at Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 2012

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Transcript of "Theoretical foundation of health campaign messages"

  1. 1. IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca PiteiuTheoretical foundation of health campaign messages
  2. 2. Key Points 1. Relevance of behavioral theory 2. Theories of behavior change 2.1 Theories of Reasoned Action & Planned Behavior 2.2 The Health Belief Model 2.3 An Integrative Model 3. Conclusion 4. Application of theories 4.1 Florida‘s „truth“ campaign 4.2 HIV Prevention in Zimbabwe 4.3 Childhood obesity 11.Conclusion 12.ReferencesIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  3. 3. 1. Relevance of behavioral theory • messages: thought-out communications based on theory and research • theories to understand how behavior change occurs • theory as “the support beam on which everything else is hung” (Weinreich, 1999, p. 91) • theories of behavior change as a framework to help identify the determinants of any given behaviorIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 3
  4. 4. 2. Theories of behavior change 2.1 Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) & Planned Behavior (TPB) • behavioral intention as the best predictor of a behavior • direct determinants: TRA: attitude subjective norm TPB: + perceived control • major strength: causal chain  causal relationshipsIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 4
  5. 5. 2. Theories of behavior change (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2008, p. 70)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 5
  6. 6. 2. Theories of behavior change (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2008, p. 70)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 6
  7. 7. 2. Theories of behavior change (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2008, p. 70)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 7
  8. 8. 2. Theories of behavior change (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2008, p. 70)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 8
  9. 9. 2. Theories of behavior change 2.2 The Health Belief Model • necessary conditions for behavior change to occur • primary concepts predict reasons for actionIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 9
  10. 10. 2. Theories of behavior change (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 10
  11. 11. 2. Theories of behavior change (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 11
  12. 12. 2. Theories of behavior change (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 12
  13. 13. 2. Theories of behavior change (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 13
  14. 14. 2. Theories of behavior change (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 14
  15. 15. 2. Theories of behavior change (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 15
  16. 16. 2. Theories of behavior change • weak point: undefined relationships  ambiguity in HBM applications (Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 49)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 16
  17. 17. 2. Theories of behavior change 2.3 An Integrative Model • unites several theoretical perspectives • most important determinant: intention to perform a behaviorIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 17
  18. 18. 2. Theories of behavior change (Fishbein & Cappella, 2006, p. 2)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 18
  19. 19. 3. Conclusions • complementary theories with significant degrees of overlap • “the central issue is not which model is superior to other models or which variables may be more important but the relative utility and changes in relative utility with different behaviors and situations over time” (Maddux, Ingram & Desmond, 1995; cited after Champion & Skinner, 2008, p. 61) • key factors: population and behavior specific • link between: theories of behavioral prediction and change & theories of communicationIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 19
  20. 20. Theoretical foundation of health campaign messages APPLICATIONSIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  21. 21. Key Points 1. Relevance of behavioral theory 2. Theories of behavior change 2.1 Theories of Reasoned Action & Planned Behavior 2.2 The Health Belief Model 2.3 An Integrative Model 3. Conclusion 4. Application of theories: 4.1 Florida‘s „truth“ campaign 4.2 HIV Prevention in Zimbabwe 4.3 Childhood obesity 11.Conclusion 12.ReferencesIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  22. 22. Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco campaign WHO? WHERE? Truth TV, radio, HOW? billboard, Anti- Counter- print, tobacco marketing events, website campaign WHY? Alert youth of tobacco marketing strategiesIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  23. 23. Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco campaign IT DID NOT TELL YOUTH TO STOP SMOKINGIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  24. 24. Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco campaignIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  25. 25. Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco campaign Targeted beliefs Quitting smoking does less harm to others Quitting shows independence Quitting shows youth are not manipulated by tobacco companiesIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  26. 26. Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco campaign Campaign effects were consistent with hypotheses derived from The Theory of Reasoned Action (Hersey&Co, 2005) - more negative beliefs about tobacco industry practices Higher level of exposure to the - negative attitudes toward the campaign were industry associated with: - lower receptivity to tobacco advertisingIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  27. 27. Florida’s “truth” anti-tobacco campaign Results Success in changing Reach and results tobacco-related • 6 months – 92% • Beliefs target group awareness • Attitudes • 1 year – high school • Smoking prevalence smoking rate: down among youth by 8% and by 19.4% in middle schoolIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  28. 28. HIV Prevention in Zimbabwe (Montano, Kasprzyk, 2008) Identify • Using condoms all the time with steadyall the time with Using (ACTION) condoms (TARGET) partners in steady partners (CONTEXT) in the next three months the next three months behavior (TIME) Elicitation • 8 people aged 18-30 in each village (½ males, ½ interviews females) in Shone or Ndebele (local languages) • Questionnaire was tested in 2 villages • N=5,546 (185 residents in each of the 32 villages) Survey instrument • N’= 2,212 had steady partners and could answer the questionnaire • Identify which beliefs (behavioral, Analyze normative, efficacy) to target through persuasive communication • Behaviors (e.g. use the Develop condom) are easier to persuasive change than behavioral arguments categories (safe sex) or goals (not get HIV).IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  29. 29. Communication approach for changing sexual behavior Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) model identifies and trains popular opinion leaders (POLs) to have conversations with peers and to model themselves as having adopted the behaviors that are being promoted (Montano, Kasprzyk, 2008, 90)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  30. 30. Reframing childhood obesity in USA The Framing theory “To frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality “The agenda setting and make process is an ongoing them more salient in a competition among issue FRAMING communication context, in AGENDA proponents to gain the such a way as to THEORY promote a particular problem SETTING attention of media professionals, the public, definition, causal and policy elites.” interpretation, moral (Dearing and Rogers, evaluation, and/or treatment 1996) recommendation for the item described.” (Entmann, 1993)IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  31. 31. Reframing childhood obesity in USA Woodruff, Dorfman, Berends, and Agron (2003) Research Goal to find out how childhood obesity has been framed in the media Method Content analyzed all major newspapers in California from 1998-2000 Upstream public health issue (policy solutions) or individual and family responsibility? Framing 1/3 of the articles proposed a solution with only “individual responsibility”– children and parents need to change their eating and exercise habitsIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  32. 32. Reframing childhood obesity in USA Woodruff, Dorfman, Berends, and Agron (2003) Action Publish an article which aims at equipping health practitioners and advocates with skills to reframe news coverage of public health issues, including childhood obesity Reframing influence the public agenda setting and the policy agenda setting Advocate childhood obesity solutions as a shared responsibility Result Substantial more news articles and opinion pieces found in Californian newspapers reflecting the frame shared in the articleIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  33. 33. Conclusions • Theories of behavioral prediction and behavioral change – identify which beliefs to target trough persuasive communication techniques • Further research needs: • focus the efforts towards developing comprehensive theories of message effectivenessIfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu
  34. 34. References• Champion, V. L. & Skinner, C. S. (2008). The Health Belief Model. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer & K. Viswanath (eds.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice (S. 45-65), San Francisco, CA: Wiley & Sons.• Earl, S., Lloyd, C., Sidell, M., Spurr, S. (2007). Theory and Research in Promoting Public Health (S. 129-160), Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.• Finnegan, J. R. & Viswanath, K. (2008). Communication Theory and Health Behavior Change. The Media Studies Framework. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer & K. Viswanath (Hrsg.), Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice (S. 363-387), San Francisco, CA: Wiley & Sons.• Fishbein, M. & Cappella, J. N. (2006). The role of theory in developing effective health communications. Journal of Communication, 56, S. 1-17.• Montano, D. E. & Kasprzyk, D. (2008). Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer & K. Viswanath (Hrsg.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (S. 67-96). San Francisco, CA: Wiley & Sons.• Rossmann, C. (2010). Zur theorie-und evidenzbasierten Fundierung massenmedialer Gesundheitskampagnen. Public Health Forum, 18, S. 16-17.• Weinreich, Klein, Kendra (1999). Hands-on Social Marketing: A step by step guide (S. 91-96), Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.• http://www.tobaccofreedom.org/msa/articles/truth_review.html, 22.04.2012• http://www.gwumc.edu/sphhs/departments/pch/phcm/casesjournal/volume1/sponsored/cases_1_14.pdf, 23.04.2012 IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 34
  35. 35. Many thanks for your attention!IfKW • Simona Fodor & Raluca Piteiu 35

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