Hearing impairment


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a simple lecture on hearing impairment

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Hearing impairment

  1. 1. HEARING IMPAIRMENT Understanding
  2. 2. Course Outline <ul><li>Understanding Hearing Impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of the Hearing Impaired </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul>II. Rehabilitation Programs for the Hearing Impaired <ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Options </li></ul><ul><li>Programs </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Visual Gestural Communication </li></ul><ul><li>The Sign Language Continuum </li></ul><ul><li>The Joy of Signing </li></ul>III. Communicating with the Hearing Impaired
  4. 4. Hearing Impairment Understanding Module 1
  5. 5. What is HEARING IMPAIRMENT? “ The difficulty to hear clearly as much as others normally do.”
  6. 6. “ Hearing impairment is not only the handicap of not being able to hear. It encompasses emotional problems, problems in socialization, and even in learning …” Helen Keller says… “ The problems of deafness are deeper and more complex. It is a much worse misfortune for it means the loss of the most vital stimulus, the sound of voice, that brings language, sets thoughts astir and keeps us in the company of man. “
  7. 7. <ul><li>Deaf - those who do not have sufficient residual hearing to enable them to understand speech successfully without special instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard of hearing – those with hearing impairments mild enough for them to learn without great difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>deaf - audiological condition of not hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Deaf – particular group of people who share a language and culture </li></ul>
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF H.I. 1. According to the age at onset of deafness <ul><li>Congenitally deaf – born deaf </li></ul><ul><li>Adventitiously deaf – born with normal hearing and became deaf through accident/illness </li></ul>2. According to language development <ul><li>Prelingually deaf – born deaf oer lost hearing before speech and language were developed </li></ul><ul><li>Post lingually deaf - lost hearing after development of spontaneous speech and language </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classification 3. According to place of impairment <ul><li>conductive hearing loss – hearing loss due to the interference in the transmission of sound to and through the sense organ (outer or middle ear) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory-neural hearing loss – due to the abnormality of the inner ear or the auditory nerve, or both </li></ul><ul><li>mixed hearing loss - combination of both; sometimes called a flat loss </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classification 4. According to degree of hearing loss Classification Degree of Hearing Loss Slight 27-40 dB Mild 41-55 dB Moderate 56-70 dB Severe 71-90 dB Profound 91 dB or more
  11. 11. CAUSES OF H.I. 1. Pre-Natal Causes <ul><li>german measles </li></ul><ul><li>excessive alcohol intake </li></ul><ul><li>toxins </li></ul>2. Peri-Natal <ul><li>trauma during delivery </li></ul><ul><li>congenital defects (closed outer ear, undeveloped inner ear parts) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Causes 3. Post-Natal <ul><li>ear infections </li></ul><ul><li>accidents </li></ul><ul><li>noise pollution </li></ul><ul><li>over medications </li></ul><ul><li>poor ear hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>physical abuse </li></ul><ul><li>old age </li></ul><ul><li>severe illnesses </li></ul>
  13. 13. CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Over/Under reaction </li></ul>EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS ABILITIES <ul><li>artistic </li></ul><ul><li>creative </li></ul><ul><li>poor language skills </li></ul>
  14. 14. Characteristics SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Curious </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Good observers </li></ul><ul><li>Dysinhibition </li></ul>
  15. 15. Rehabilitation Programs for the Hearing Impaired Module 2
  16. 16. ASSESSMENT OF HEARING LOSS In the absence of an AUDIOMETER, the following simple tests may be administered: <ul><li>Noise Maker Test </li></ul><ul><li>Whisper Test </li></ul><ul><li>Calling Name Test </li></ul><ul><li>Watch-Tick Test </li></ul><ul><li>Ballpen-Click Test </li></ul><ul><li>Command Test </li></ul>
  17. 17. Assessment Significant Observations <ul><li>Watches face, especially the mouth of the speaker when talked to </li></ul><ul><li>Makes use of more natural gestures, signs, movements to express himself </li></ul><ul><li>Shows strained expression when listening </li></ul><ul><li>Cocks ear/tilts head at an angle towards the source of the sound </li></ul><ul><li>Pays more attention to vibration and vibrating objects </li></ul><ul><li>Often asks for repetition of questions or statements </li></ul>
  18. 18. Assessment-observations 7. Fails to respond immediately 8. Has blank facial expression when talked to 9. Often unable to follow oral directions/instructions 10. Is less responsive to noise, voice or music 11. Shows marked imitativeness at work/play 12. Has difficulty associating concrete with abstract ideas 13. Has poor general learning performance
  19. 19. AREAS OF ASSESSMENT 1. Physical-Motor Area <ul><li>difficulties on tests of balance and general coordination </li></ul>2. Perceptual and Cognitive Areas <ul><li>no proof of sensory-compensation </li></ul><ul><li>no limitations on cognitive abilities </li></ul><ul><li>functions within the normal range of intelligence </li></ul>
  20. 20. 3. Language and Speech Area <ul><li>basic deprivation of deafness is not the loss of sound but the deprivation of language </li></ul><ul><li>deficits in receptive, expressive or integrative language </li></ul>Assessment-Areas 4. Psychosocial Area <ul><li>emotional and social characteristics </li></ul>
  21. 21. EDUCATIONAL OPTIONS The education of the deaf has three constant underlying sources of tension, friction and controversy: WHERE should deaf students be taught? HOW should deaf students be taught? WHAT should deaf students be taught?
  22. 22. WHERE should deaf students be taught? Residential Institutions Special Schools and Units <ul><li>SPED Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Contained Tutorials </li></ul>Community Services <ul><li>inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>integration </li></ul><ul><li>mainstreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Homebound instruction </li></ul>
  23. 23. WHERE should deaf students be taught? Baguio City SPED Center San Lorenzo Ruiz Institute (SLRI) Baguio School for the Deaf (BSD) SPED Easter College Other Areas: STAC
  24. 24. HOW should deaf students be taught? <ul><li>Oral-Aural Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Manual Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Total Communication/Simultaneous Method </li></ul>-use of residual hearing, development of speech and speech reading - use of sign language, finger spelling, pantomime and natural gestures - combination of both methods
  25. 25. WHAT should deaf students be taught? <ul><li>General Education Subject Matter Content </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Areas of Education of the Deaf </li></ul><ul><li>(Special Curriculum Features for the Deaf) </li></ul>- English, Math, Science, Filipino, P.E., etc. - Rhythm, Auditory Training, Speech and Language
  26. 26. Communicating with the Hearing Impaired Module 3
  27. 27. The Sign Language Continuum 1. Non-verbal Communication <ul><li>natural gestures, mimes, facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>used by Deaf without formal education </li></ul>2. Sign Language <ul><li>concept-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>syntax: most important concept first </li></ul>1 5 2 3 4 3. Signed English <ul><li>follows English syntax </li></ul><ul><li>used by hearing persons who learned sign language </li></ul>4. Finger Spelling <ul><li>letters of the alphabet thru hand signs </li></ul>5.Simultaneous Method - speech in conjunction with manual communication
  28. 28. The Nature of the Language of Signs <ul><li>It is a language of natural gestures and pantomimes </li></ul><ul><li>Signs are made within the signing area: top of the head and just above the waist </li></ul><ul><li>The sight-line is an imaginary line between the signer and the observer </li></ul><ul><li>The body of the signer greatly aids in manual signs (ex: tenses, tone, gender) </li></ul><ul><li>When the basic sign is initialized, it attains a special meaning </li></ul>
  29. 29. Nature of Signs <ul><li>Reduplication of signs denotes plurality or continuous action </li></ul><ul><li>Signs are directional </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms are signed lightly or forcefully according to the intent of the word </li></ul><ul><li>Antonyms are signed mostly in reverse of the synonym </li></ul><ul><li>Very large signs are equivalent to shouting </li></ul>
  30. 30. Conduct in Communicating By Signs <ul><li>Get the deaf person’s attention before signing </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your hands and face toward the deaf person with whom you are speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your signs and finger spelling smooth and flowing with appropriate pauses and rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust your signs and finger spelling within the language level of the deaf with whom you are conversing </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conduct <ul><li>Put across the proper amount of facial expressions, body movements and emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get upset or confused when you find that there multiple variations in a given sign </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient with the deaf when their signs appear to be brutally frank in their expressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy signing! </li></ul>
  32. 32. I CAN I can live, I can love I can reach the heaven’s above I can right what is wrong, I can sing just any song I can dance, I can fly And touch the rainbow in the sky I can be your good friend I can love you until the end. What took you so long to make me feel I can give love, a love so real What took you so long to let me know What took you so long to make me see How lucky I am cause I am free Free to do the things I want to be