Defining "multicultural". Start by underlining the prefix "multi" and asking your students what this prefix means. Responses will include "many," "varied or various," "different," etc. Affirm all answers, then sum them up. This portion should only take a couple minutes. Next, move on to "-cultural." What does this term mean? Encourage students to define "cultural" both in terms of what they believe a dictionary-type definition to be and what it means to them individually. MUSIC – FOOD - …. ALSO: FAITH, RELIGION, VALUES, LANGUAGE, FAMILY STRUCTURE NOT MENTIONED?? Race, gender, sexual orientation, social class If your class or workshop is one of the 4 (out of 5) that does not suggest one or more of these items, point this out and ask why the participants believe they didn't think of these dimensions. This will be an interesting introduction to the following steps, as you will see. It's often the case that when participants are suggesting items for the list from their own experience, and thus through how they define themselves, race, gender, etc., don't come directly to their minds. But, if they're suggesting items for the list based on how OTHERS define them, or how they define OTHERS, these items immediately come to mind.
What do you consider important itmes for defining yourself – NOT the ways in which others define you
Student-centered instruction differs from the traditional teacher-centered instruction. Learning is cooperative, collaborative, and community-oriented. Students are encouraged to direct their own learning and to work with other students on research projects and assignments that are both culturally and socially relevant to them. Students become self-confident, self-directed, and proactive.
ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING – INTERVENTION STRATEGY THAT ATTEMPTS TO GIVE STUDENTS A LOCUS OF CONTROL – ATTEMPTS TO INDUCE CHANGES IN STUFENTS ’ TENDENCY TO ATTRIBUTE FAILURE TO LACK OF ABILITY INSTEAD OF A CAUSE THAT CAN BE CHANGED, SUCH AS INSUFFICIENT EFFORT – INAPPROPRIATE STRATEGY, LACK OF CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING ….. LEARNED HELPLESSNESS ….
School practices often underestimate and disregard what Hispanic students are able to demonstrate intellectually in schools by not recognizing and mobilizing students ’ funds of knowledge.
Cognitively guided instruction In effective classrooms students ’ sense of autonomy and efficacy are developed through explicit instruction on cognitive strategies
Diversity - Culturally Responsive Classroom
By Dr. Melinda Butler
Lewis Clark State College
Three Levels of Culture
Concrete: This is the most visible and tangible level of culture, and
includes the most surface-level dimensions such as clothes, music,
food, games, etc. These aspects of culture are often those which
provide the focus for multicultural "festivals" or "celebrations.”
Behavioral: This level of culture clarifies how we define our social
roles, the language we speak, and our approaches to nonverbal
communication. The Behavioral level REFLECTS our values. Aspects
to be listed in this category include language, gender roles, family
structure, political affiliation, and other items that situation us
organizationally in society.
Symbolic: This level of culture includes our values and beliefs. It can
be abstract, but it is most often the key to how individuals define
themselves. It includes values systems, customs, spirituality, religion,
worldview, beliefs, mores, etc.
Hidalgo, N. 1993. Multicultural teacher introspection. In Perry, T. and Fraser, J. (Eds.) Freedom's
Plow: Teaching in the Multicultural Classroom. New York: Routledge.
How Do YOU Define
Concrete Behavioral Symbolic
What is your focus as
Concrete Behavioral Symbolic
How Has Education Generally
Tried to Be “Multicultural”?
What are the aspects or dimensions of culture that are often the
focus of classrooms trying to be “multicultural”?
Is it consistent with how
we know people want to
What is Culturally Responsive
Validating – Comprehensive – Multidimensional
Empowering -- Transformative – Emancipatory
Uses Cultural Knowledge, Prior
Experiences and Performance Styles of
Diverse Students to make learning more
appropriate and effective for them
It Teaches to the Strengths of Students
It Acknowledges the legitimacy of cultural heritages of
different ethnic groups represented in the classroom
and how this affects student dispositions, attitudes,
and approaches to learning
It builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and
school experiences developing positive perspectives on
Parents and Families.
It uses a wide variety of Instructional Strategies that are
connected to different learning styles – Maintaining
HIGH Expectations for ALL!
It creates an environment that encourages and embraces
cultural heritages – teaching students to value their own
and each other’s cultural heritage.
It incorporates multicultural information, resources, and
materials in all the subjects and skills routinely taught in
It teaches to the WHOLE Child
Sets High Expectations
Culturally responsive teachers realize not only the
importance of academic achievement, but also the
maintaining of cultural identity and heritage (Gay,
Empowerment =academic competence, self-efficacy,
Students’ strength in one subject area will support new
learning in another
Teachers must demonstrate ambitious and appropriate
expectations and exhibit support for students in their
efforts toward academic achievement.
Challenge students to develop higher order knowledge
This can be done through attribution retraining,
providing resources and personal assistance, modeling
positive self-efficacy beliefs, and celebrating individual
and collective accomplishments (Gay, 2000)
It appreciates the existing strengths and
accomplishments of all students and develops
them further in instruction.
Respects the cultures and experiences of
various groups and then uses these as resources
for teaching and learning
Banks (1991) asserts that if education is to
empower marginalized groups, it must be
Culturally responsive teaching is liberating
This freedom results in improved achievement
of many kinds, including increased
concentration on academic learning tasks.
Asante, 1991/1992; Au, 1993; Erickson, 1987; Gordon, 1993; Lipman,
1995; Pewewardy, 1994; Philips, 1983
This freedom results in improved
achievement of many kinds, including
increased concentration on academic
Other improved achievements can include:
clear and insightful thinking; more caring,
concerned, and humane interpersonal
skills; better understanding of
interconnections among individual, local,
national, ethnic, global, and human
identities; and acceptance of knowledge as
something to be continuously shared,
critiqued, revised, and renewed
Chapman, 1994; M. Foster, 1995; Hollins, 1996; Hollins, King, & Hayman, 1994; Ladson-Billings, 1992, 1994, 1995a and
1995b; Lee, 1993; Lee & Slaughter-Defoe, 1995.
What are OUR Responsibilities as
Educators in a Culturally
To Create a POSITIVE Environment in
the Classroom where ALL Students have
the opportunity to be successful
To Cultivate a climate of Respect and
Dignity for ALL in the classroom
To Be an agent of change
How Do We Celebrate Diversity?
And Create a Culturally Responsive Classroom….
Studies have shown that the use of
Best Practices in teaching is a
significant factor in closing the
achievement gap that persist by
language, and disability
Expectations are internal processes that arise from our
belief systems and values
Low teacher expectations is the MAJOR contributor to
the achievement gap.
Educators must be willing to explore our beliefs,
attitudes, and assumptions that lead to low
expectations and accept responsibility for the influence
they have on student learning.
1. Students are taught challenging, rigorous curriculum in ways that capitalize on
the strengths of their learning style.
2. Students receive praise for their effort to foster motivation to and responsibility
for their own learning.
3. Talk in the school reflects the belief that “all children can learn to high levels.”
Children are believed to be “at-promise,” not at-risk.
4. Teachers demonstrate persistence in their efforts to help students meet standards
by changing instructional approaches to meet the needs of each student.
5. Teachers provide equitable opportunities for students to respond and
6. Provide ample wait time for thinking and responding.
7. Teachers provide specific and timely feedback to students about their work.
8. Students are asked high-level, open-ended questions that require them to
interpret, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate
Implementation of Culturally
Culturally relevant instruction includes
using the language and understandings that students
have acquired in their families and communities to
bridge the gap between what students know and are
able to do and what they need to learn in school.
incorporating the everyday issues and concerns of
families and the community into curriculum and
actively engaging students in the learning process.
using equitable grouping practices.
Consistently shown to be an effective
teaching strategy in diverse
Cooperative learning provides
learners with essential
opportunities to use language in
meaningful, purposeful, and
interesting ways, build self-
esteem and self-confidence, and
communication, and social
Capitalize on the funds of
knowledge in families and the
Funds of knowledge refer to the
practical and intellectual
knowledge and skills found
among the social networks in
students’ homes and
When this knowledge is
untapped and used to plan and
deliver instruction, it becomes a
social and intellectual resource
Cognitively guided instruction
Teaching cognitive strategies scaffolds
instruction for students and enables
them to self-monitor learning and to
know how to navigate successfully
through difficult learning situations
In technology -enriched instruction teachers
use multimedia and other technology to
facilitate student learning through active
Multimedia facilitates auditory skill
development of English language learners by
integrating visual and auditory input.
• Instructional conversations are
extended dialogues between
teachers and students for the
purpose of developing students’
language and thinking skills and
to guide the learning process.
• These interactive discussions
provide teachers with essential
opportunities to know students,
assess their learning, and to
contextualize instruction to meet
students’ academic needs and
base of experience.
Establishment of Caring
• In effective classrooms the strengths
of every student are recognized,
respected, and valued as students
and teachers share the roles of
expert, researcher, teacher, and
Parent and Community
• Parent and community involvement in schools has
long been linked as having a positive effect on student
• Recent studies indicate that effective home-school
partnerships increase grades, test scores, attendance,
graduation rates, post-secondary enrollments, and
“No significant learning can
occur without a significant
Dr. James P. Coomer
ARE YOU THE FAVORITE PERSO
Click on the Box above to view the video