Creating Lesson Plans - The BasicsPresentation Transcript
Creating Lesson Plans The Basics
Lesson Plans - Necessary?
I’ve heard many pre-service teachers complain about having to create lesson plans!
They feel they are a waste of time, and besides they see many teachers just scribble a few ideas in their plan book, and teach from there, so why should they be ‘forced’ to create tedious outlines of what “THEY” are going to do!?
Well…….. Lets see….
Lesson Plans Help You ..
Manage the Classroom
Meet the needs of all the students
Cover the Standards required
And basically communicates what you plan on doing and how!
An Effective Teacher PLANS !
A Good Thing to Consider When Writing Your Lesson Plan Is..
That you are writing directions so that someone else can easily teach your lesson….
A substitute -- fellow teacher -- or
Clear, precise directions
Step by Step, easy to follow
Creating Lesson Plans
There are hundreds … or thousands, maybe even MILLIONS of lesson plans out there!
On the Web
In Teaching Guides
In Resource Books
And…. Yes they are, for the most part, very effective --- however
As an Effective Teacher
You must be able to create your own plans
The “other” plans are great resources, but only YOU know your students and where you are going with the class.
As you consider your teaching style, content to be taught, etc - you should be able to gather all those resources and create your own plan
Or… adapt someone else’s plan to fit your own need.
Remember: Give CREDIT to any ‘borrowed’ lesson plans! Complete with working weblink - if applicable
Something to Remember
MANY school districts are requiring that their new teachers present their lesson plans in ADVANCE -
In other words -- you have to turn in your entire weeks worth of plans PRIOR to teaching!
So What Goes Into a Good Lesson Plan? Or -- Lesson Plan Writing 101
Many of you have already learned the basics of creating lesson plans
This might be review -- or serve as the basis for understanding current expectations.
In any case, I hope it is of help to you.
First things First
When writing lesson plans, you need to have a good idea what content is required for your grade level --
Have a listing of your state standards
Make sure that you are aware of any district or school wide expectations
It may be great to teach a unit on the history of.. Chocolate, but if you can’t relate it to any standards for your grade level -- there might be some serious problems.
Or.. If you are supposed to be teaching U.S. History, and you only focus on the History of Mexico!!!! Hmmmm…. Well… do you see the point?
Types of Lesson Plans
There are a lot out there --
Your text covers a few (pgs 122 - 124)
Madeline Hunter’s Model, (VERY POPULAR- YOU SHOULD AT LEAST BE FAMILIAR WITH! AT LEAST TWO INTERVIEWS THAT I SAT IN ON, SOMEONE ASKED THE CANDIDATE ABOUT THIS)
“ Backwards Design” by Wiggins and McTigue
Gagne and Briggs Model
From Traditional to Non-Traditional
Sometimes a school district will have a format that they require you to use
LCSC has a format as well!
So….. Confused YET?
LCSC Lesson Plan Format
You can find this in your PACE booklet on pg. 79
Some of your other professors might have presented you with their format
BUT… they all have similar components.
So let’s break down each portion of the lesson plan - and explain it…
Basic Lesson Plan Outline
There is really no ONE way to do a lesson plan.
There are many forms of Lesson Plans out there.
But, they all basically include the same things,
sometimes just different wording
sometimes a few different components,
however, there are some basic outlines that you should be aware of….
Lesson Plan Outline…
Here are some basics of most lesson plans…
Standards (word for word)
Learning or Instructional Objectives (derived from Standards)
Assessment (MUST be aligned with standards and objectives)
Materials (you need to know what you have to have together)
Include any modifications for students as needed
Lesson Plan Outline…
In addition, sometimes you are asked to include other things, such as:
Rationale or sometimes called an Overview
Prerequisites - what students need to know prior to this lesson
Introduction - as a separate component.
Modifications - sometimes you’re asked for a specific section detailing your plans
Cultural Responsiveness (expected on LCSC plans)
Now… lets go through the essentials and explain them
This is basic identification “stuff”
Date of your lesson
Topic of the lesson or activity
Time allocated for the lesson
For purpose of an assignment -- This can usually all be single spaced in the upper left-hand corner
Most often this is required when you have to turn in your lesson -- it communicates who the audience IS!
Broad, generalized statements about what you want students to learn.
They determine the purpose, aim, and rationale for what your students will be engaged in during the lesson.
Basically -- its your TARGET .. What you want to “Hit”
It is WHAT you want to accomplish
They are written in broad terms and they align to the State Standards.
Terms used are stated in NON-behavioral statements:
To appreciate To comprehend
To understand To become familiar with
To gain a skill To develop the ability to
To increase/gain knowledge To become proficient in
Your Lesson Goal must be aligned with the Goal in the standards!
One way to do this is to reword the standard to include your lesson topic, thus creating your goal statement.
Sometimes you are asked just to take your goal FROM the standards.
Your objectives can also be formulated from the standards.
But more about that in a bit…
Standards act as the framework of your lesson.
They are clearly defined statements of what the student should know and be able to do
They are the basis for your lesson!
They act as a springboard for developing our plan.
Standards in Your Lesson Plan
The State Standards that are covered in your lesson should be directly from the state wording.
List AS MANY as apply for this lesson
If you cross over subjects, organize them so they are easy to read
You can essentially “copy and paste” them! You do NOT have to restate them in your own words.
Standards in Your Lesson Plan
When indicating the standards that you will be covering, keep in mind that for ONE lesson, you will not cover a lot of standards! You will have more objectives - but you will have only a few standards.
It is OK to copy and paste them from the I.D.E. documents
You will likely have to reformat them…
For Our Lesson Plans
WE will try to maintain consistency with the other content courses.
You should include:
Ex: Standard 1: History, Standard 2: Geography, Standard 3: Economics, etc.
Grade Level that YOU are focusing on in your lesson
Objective and Indicator Number….
6-12.USH22.214.171.124 Illustrate westward migration across North America.
Geography - Goal 2.3: Trace the migration and settlement of human populations on the earth’s surface.
6-12.USH126.96.36.199 Illustrate westward migration across North America
Civics and Government - Goal 4.4: Build an understanding of the evolution of democracy.
6-12.USH188.8.131.52 Describe the role of gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and national origin on the development of individual/political rights. (474.01e)
The “Goal” in the Idaho standards. Identifies the broad standard
Goal 1.1: Build an understanding of the cultural and social development of the U.S.
The “Objective” indicates the benchmark that is to be reached.
A benchmark is the statement of knowledge or the skill that define the standard
9-12.USH184.108.40.206 Discuss the causes and effects of various conflicts in American history.
The indicator number identifies what area.. 9-12.USH220.127.116.11
Content covered in each grade level is clearly outlined
Standards in Your Lesson Plan
In some cases -- for some profs. You might be asked to list other standards, such as:
We talked about the Ten Strands in the NCSS standards
In addition there are
National Geography Standards
National History Standards
National Economic Standards
These other standards are often used when submitting your lesson plans for various reasons.
What teachers should know or do in order to teach this!
Based on my previous example this might cover the following:
1.3.1 The teacher provides opportunities to trace and analyze chronological periods and to examine the relationships of significant historical concepts. Social Studies Standard 1 - Performance
Clearly written statements that indicate the learning or behavior that the student demonstrates during the lesson.
Objectives ARE NOT lists of activities that you want the students to complete!
They ensure that learning is taking place and the teacher knows what is going on!
They are the foundation that you use to build on what you teach -- and
They prove that you have met your overall goals for both the course as well as the lesson.
They usually begin with… The student will be able to: and followed by verbs that spell out what they WILL be able to do after your lesson.
There are Three basic types of objectives..
Three Common Types or Domains of Learning….
Psychomotor - the body, focus on “doing” or with learning physical skills
Cognitive - the mind, focus is on thinking
Affective - the, emotions or “affect” - highlights attitudes and feelings
Writing Hint: Use the Objectives from the standards and add words to make them more specific to your lesson!
The student will consider multiple resources to illustrate the westward migration of the African-American from 1865 to 1890
Some Things to Watch
Don’t make it too Broad or too Complex
You should have only one general learning outcome for each objective
Focus on the “Observable”
Steer clear of words .. Know, learn, appreciate, understand. We WANT students to achieve those goals, but they are NOT performances that are observable or measurable.
Describe instructional outcomes, not activities you want them to complete.
Incorporate Higher Order Thinking Skills
Revisit Bloom’s Taxonomy
You should revisit pages 104 - 106 in your textbook.
There is a great list of helpful verbs for creating objectives.
State a Rule, Measure the distance, locate… etc.
Sometimes these are included within the goal - sometimes expected as a separate part. For our purpose - it will be separate.
It is a brief summary of your lesson, written in a way that your students would understand
It is written as if you were speaking to your students!
Rationale - For OUR lessons
Written as if you were speaking to your students telling them:
What they will be learning
Why it is important to learn this concept
How they are going to learn this concept
Describe the Instructional Strategy that you will use.
Tell the students the NAME of the strategy
How Long you will spend on the concept, overall
How they will be assessed
This can be a part of your lesson opening, but it is NOT considered the “hook”
This is adapted from Dr. Elliot’s format
These should not be the FINAL consideration!
Think about your assessment first!
If you start with the end in mind, you will know exactly what material you need to cover.
I’m sure you have been frustrated at times by tests that didn’t really cover what the core of the lesson was!
Think about what you would accept as evidence that your students have attained the desired knowledge, understanding and skills.
This is often considered a part of the “Backward Design” an instructional model developed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, that promotes student understanding and engagement.
Three Types of Assessment
Wiggins and McTighe define 3 types of assessment:
Performance Task - an “authentic test of understanding”
Students APPLY what they have learned through performance tasks or Projects
Rubrics are excellent tools in this assessment
Criteria Referenced Assessment
Quizzes, Tests, Prompts
Unprompted Assessment and Self Assessment
Assessing for Understanding
Evidence of a student “understanding” is more of a challenge than evidence that they know the “right answer”
You REALLY understand something when you are able to
Explain it, Make other connections, Systematize and make predictions, Show its meaning or importance, Look at it from other perspectives, and Apply it and Adapt it to different situations.
Lesson Plans & Assessment
You need to keep in mind that what you assess is CLEARLY connected to your objectives!!
You want to make sure that your objective is accomplished!
You do not assess “behaviors” unrelated to the objective, example
“ the student will be assessed by observing if they are paying attention”
This has been an “assessment” that I have frequently seen in Lesson Plans!
It is NOT an ASSESSMENT of Learning! Not in the standards! Not an objective!
How do YOU KNOW they are paying attention or not -- anyway?
Assessments: Lesson Plan Format
It seems to work best if you place the “Assessment” after the Standards and Objectives instead of at the end of the lesson plan
Some choose to put it after each objective
Objective 1: "The students will be able to construct a map of …. displaying ......(whatever you want them to display) Assessment: The product is assessed using a rubric (Dr. Elliot’s format)
It doesn’t matter to me, I will be more concerned with what I see you ‘assessing’
Include a copy of your rubric or assessment, unless otherwise directed.
List teaching or learning materials that are needed.
This is your “quick reference” section to make sure that you are ready to teach your lesson.
Just list what you will use for the lesson
Include Page Numbers in texts or other resources as well as websites if applicable.
Step by Step description of how the lesson unfolds - to reach your objectives
HOW you will begin
Directions for grouping, if necessary.
Questions to be asked
How you will transition during the lesson and at the end
Now let’s look at some important “parts” of procedures….
Sometimes included -- it helps with organizing for the lesson
You basically list the things you need to do prior to the lesson --
BEFORE the students are there --
The last thing you want is to be scurrying around trying to test your media source, gather materials, make copies….
You may include this in your lesson to me -- but it is not a requirement.
Motivate and Engage
The OPENING --
Anticipatory Set or The Hook
A Lead into the lesson that captures the student’s interest and draws them into learning.
A Springboard to what comes next…
IT is FUN! Interesting - Creative or Funny
Whatever works to open their eyes/ minds to what you have coming next!
Write it as if you were speaking to your students.
Procedure: Motivate - Engage
It specifically connects with your objectives
An interesting book or other reading source
Picture books are NOT just for little kids! They are fantastic ways to open a lesson and even BIG kids like to be read to! You will be surprised to find just about every topic out there that could relate!
If you are unsure of a book -- Ask a children’s librarian for help -- they love it.
A cartoon - A photograph or painting - an artifact
A question or statement that draws on their prior knowledge and motivates them to think
A video or video clip, a speaker
Procedure - Development
Continue with step by step “directions” or details as to how the lesson unfolds.
Include a place for explaining your rationale to students.
How will you introduce new material? How will you draw on prior knowledge?
What will your students do to process this information?
Include how students will be actively engaged
Make sure you identify the instructional strategy that you have chosen
Your ‘steps’ will show how you integrate it into the lesson.
Include the specific directions that students will need to transition to any activity,
including HOW you will group them AND get them into those groups
Think about “checking for understanding” after presenting any directions
Your procedure will flow showing how you plan to go about fulfilling your objectives
Yes - THIS needs planning too!
You don’t get to the end of a lesson and just say… “OK, we’re done, bye”
You want to summarize the lesson
Ask a question related to the concept that was addressed
Explain homework, “Checking for understanding”
Lay a brief foundation for what will come “next time”
Write it as if you were speaking to your students!
This should be included to show how you will modify your lesson for students in your class with various challenges…
Students with Learning Disability
Other Things to Consider
A requirement that will be present within the context of your lesson plan
It will be present in the reading material, handouts, classroom environment
It integrates other ways of knowing or viewing what is being taught
It addresses MORE than just he concept of the lesson by addressing distinct ethnicities within the global environment.
This area is a requirement within the LCSC Teacher Education and is present on other lesson plans!