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Creating Lesson Plans - The Basics
 

Creating Lesson Plans - The Basics

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    Creating Lesson Plans - The Basics Creating Lesson Plans - The Basics Presentation Transcript

    • Creating Lesson Plans The Basics
    • Lesson Plans - Necessary?
      • I’ve heard many pre-service teachers complain about having to create lesson plans!
        • They feel they are a waste of time, and besides they see many teachers just scribble a few ideas in their plan book, and teach from there, so why should they be ‘forced’ to create tedious outlines of what “THEY” are going to do!?
        • Well…….. Lets see….
    • Lesson Plans Help You ..
      • Plan
      • Organize
      • Manage Instruction
      • Manage the Classroom
      • Meet the needs of all the students
      • Cover the Standards required
      • And basically communicates what you plan on doing and how!
      • ALSO…..
    • An Effective Teacher PLANS !
    • A Good Thing to Consider When Writing Your Lesson Plan Is..
      • That you are writing directions so that someone else can easily teach your lesson….
        • A substitute -- fellow teacher -- or
          • Principal????
        • Clear, precise directions
          • Step by Step, easy to follow
    • Creating Lesson Plans
      • There are hundreds … or thousands, maybe even MILLIONS of lesson plans out there!
      • On the Web
      • In Teaching Guides
      • In Resource Books
      • And…. Yes they are, for the most part, very effective --- however
    • As an Effective Teacher
      • You must be able to create your own plans
      • The “other” plans are great resources, but only YOU know your students and where you are going with the class.
        • As you consider your teaching style, content to be taught, etc - you should be able to gather all those resources and create your own plan
        • Or… adapt someone else’s plan to fit your own need.
      • Remember: Give CREDIT to any ‘borrowed’ lesson plans! Complete with working weblink - if applicable
    • Something to Remember
      • MANY school districts are requiring that their new teachers present their lesson plans in ADVANCE -
        • In other words -- you have to turn in your entire weeks worth of plans PRIOR to teaching!
    • So What Goes Into a Good Lesson Plan? Or -- Lesson Plan Writing 101
      • Many of you have already learned the basics of creating lesson plans
      • GREAT!!
        • This might be review -- or serve as the basis for understanding current expectations.
        • In any case, I hope it is of help to you.
    • First things First
      • When writing lesson plans, you need to have a good idea what content is required for your grade level --
        • Have a listing of your state standards
        • Make sure that you are aware of any district or school wide expectations
        • It may be great to teach a unit on the history of.. Chocolate, but if you can’t relate it to any standards for your grade level -- there might be some serious problems.
          • Or.. If you are supposed to be teaching U.S. History, and you only focus on the History of Mexico!!!! Hmmmm…. Well… do you see the point?
    • Types of Lesson Plans
      • There are a lot out there --
        • Your text covers a few (pgs 122 - 124)
          • Madeline Hunter’s Model, (VERY POPULAR- YOU SHOULD AT LEAST BE FAMILIAR WITH! AT LEAST TWO INTERVIEWS THAT I SAT IN ON, SOMEONE ASKED THE CANDIDATE ABOUT THIS)
          • “ Backwards Design” by Wiggins and McTigue
          • Gagne and Briggs Model
          • From Traditional to Non-Traditional
      • Sometimes a school district will have a format that they require you to use
      • LCSC has a format as well!
      • So….. Confused YET?
    • LCSC Lesson Plan Format
      • You can find this in your PACE booklet on pg. 79
      • Some of your other professors might have presented you with their format
      • BUT… they all have similar components.
      • So let’s break down each portion of the lesson plan - and explain it…
    • Basic Lesson Plan Outline
      • There is really no ONE way to do a lesson plan.
        • There are many forms of Lesson Plans out there.
      • But, they all basically include the same things,
        • sometimes just different wording
        • sometimes a few different components,
        • however, there are some basic outlines that you should be aware of….
    • Lesson Plan Outline…
      • Here are some basics of most lesson plans…
        • Basic Info
        • Lesson Goal
        • Standards (word for word)
        • Learning or Instructional Objectives (derived from Standards)
        • Assessment (MUST be aligned with standards and objectives)
        • Materials (you need to know what you have to have together)
        • Procedure
          • Include any modifications for students as needed
        • Closure
    • Lesson Plan Outline…
      • In addition, sometimes you are asked to include other things, such as:
      • Rationale or sometimes called an Overview
      • Prerequisites - what students need to know prior to this lesson
      • Teacher Resources
      • Introduction - as a separate component.
      • Modifications - sometimes you’re asked for a specific section detailing your plans
      • Cultural Responsiveness (expected on LCSC plans)
      • Now… lets go through the essentials and explain them
    • General Information
      • This is basic identification “stuff”
          • Your name
          • Date of your lesson
          • Grade Level
          • Subject
          • Topic of the lesson or activity
          • Time allocated for the lesson
      • For purpose of an assignment -- This can usually all be single spaced in the upper left-hand corner
      • Most often this is required when you have to turn in your lesson -- it communicates who the audience IS!
    • Lesson Goal
      • Broad, generalized statements about what you want students to learn.
      • They determine the purpose, aim, and rationale for what your students will be engaged in during the lesson.
      • Basically -- its your TARGET .. What you want to “Hit”
        • It is WHAT you want to accomplish
    • Lesson Goal
      • They are written in broad terms and they align to the State Standards.
      • Terms used are stated in NON-behavioral statements:
      • To appreciate To comprehend
      • To understand To become familiar with
      • To gain a skill To develop the ability to
      • To increase/gain knowledge To become proficient in
    • Goal
      • Your Lesson Goal must be aligned with the Goal in the standards!
        • One way to do this is to reword the standard to include your lesson topic, thus creating your goal statement.
      • Sometimes you are asked just to take your goal FROM the standards.
      • Your objectives can also be formulated from the standards.
        • But more about that in a bit…
    • Standards
      • Standards act as the framework of your lesson.
      • They are clearly defined statements of what the student should know and be able to do
      • They are the basis for your lesson!
      • They act as a springboard for developing our plan.
    • Standards in Your Lesson Plan
      • The State Standards that are covered in your lesson should be directly from the state wording.
      • List AS MANY as apply for this lesson
      • If you cross over subjects, organize them so they are easy to read
      • You can essentially “copy and paste” them! You do NOT have to restate them in your own words.
    • Standards in Your Lesson Plan
      • When indicating the standards that you will be covering, keep in mind that for ONE lesson, you will not cover a lot of standards! You will have more objectives - but you will have only a few standards.
      • It is OK to copy and paste them from the I.D.E. documents
        • You will likely have to reformat them…
    • For Our Lesson Plans
      • WE will try to maintain consistency with the other content courses.
      • You should include:
        • Standard Area
          • Ex: Standard 1: History, Standard 2: Geography, Standard 3: Economics, etc.
        • Grade Level that YOU are focusing on in your lesson
        • Objective and Indicator Number….
          • 6-12.USH1.2.3.1 Illustrate westward migration across North America.
    • Example
      • Standards
      • 11th grade
      • Geography - Goal 2.3: Trace the migration and settlement of human populations on the earth’s surface.
        • 6-12.USH1.2.3.1 Illustrate westward migration across North America
      • Civics and Government - Goal 4.4: Build an understanding of the evolution of democracy.
        • 6-12.USH1.4.4.1 Describe the role of gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and national origin on the development of individual/political rights. (474.01e)
      Standard Benchmark
    • Idaho Standards
      • The “Goal” in the Idaho standards. Identifies the broad standard
        • Goal 1.1: Build an understanding of the cultural and social development of the U.S.
      • The “Objective” indicates the benchmark that is to be reached.
        • A benchmark is the statement of knowledge or the skill that define the standard
          • 9-12.USH2.1.1.2 Discuss the causes and effects of various conflicts in American history.
        • The indicator number identifies what area.. 9-12.USH2.1.1.2
          • Grade 9-12
          • U.S. History 2 Standards
          • Goal 1.1 (Goal 1 = History)
          • Objective 2
      • Idaho Standards
        • Can be downloaded:
          • http://www.sde.idaho.gov/ContentStandards/ssstandards.asp
        • After 5th gr. the content to be taught is not as clearly defined as Washington standards.
        • It takes some “work” as you pull the various expectations together across content areas!
          • But.. You can do it! :) After a few trys you will become familiar with them and it will get easy.
    • Washington Standards
      • Washington Standards
        • They are based on “Enduring Understandings”
        • Can be found at:
          • http://www.k12.wa.us/curriculumInstruct/SocStudies/frameworks.aspx
        • Content covered in each grade level is clearly outlined
    • Standards in Your Lesson Plan
      • In some cases -- for some profs. You might be asked to list other standards, such as:
        • National Standards
          • We talked about the Ten Strands in the NCSS standards
          • In addition there are
            • National Geography Standards
            • National History Standards
            • National Economic Standards
          • These other standards are often used when submitting your lesson plans for various reasons.
      • Professional Standards
          • What teachers should know or do in order to teach this!
          • Based on my previous example this might cover the following:
      1.3.1 The teacher provides opportunities to trace and analyze chronological periods and to examine the relationships of significant historical concepts. Social Studies Standard 1 - Performance
    • Instructional Objectives
      • Are:
        • SPECIFIC
        • MEASURABLE
        • SHORT-TERM
        • OBSERVABLE
        • Clearly written statements that indicate the learning or behavior that the student demonstrates during the lesson.
      • Objectives ARE NOT lists of activities that you want the students to complete!
      • They ensure that learning is taking place and the teacher knows what is going on!
    • Instructional Objectives
      • They are the foundation that you use to build on what you teach -- and
      • They prove that you have met your overall goals for both the course as well as the lesson.
      • They usually begin with… The student will be able to: and followed by verbs that spell out what they WILL be able to do after your lesson.
      • There are Three basic types of objectives..
    • Three Common Types or Domains of Learning….
      • Psychomotor - the body, focus on “doing” or with learning physical skills
      • Cognitive - the mind, focus is on thinking
      • Affective - the, emotions or “affect” - highlights attitudes and feelings
      • Writing Hint: Use the Objectives from the standards and add words to make them more specific to your lesson!
        • The student will consider multiple resources to illustrate the westward migration of the African-American from 1865 to 1890
    • Some Things to Watch
      • Don’t make it too Broad or too Complex
        • You should have only one general learning outcome for each objective
      • Focus on the “Observable”
        • Steer clear of words .. Know, learn, appreciate, understand. We WANT students to achieve those goals, but they are NOT performances that are observable or measurable.
      • Describe instructional outcomes, not activities you want them to complete.
      • Incorporate Higher Order Thinking Skills
        • Revisit Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • Your Textbook
      • You should revisit pages 104 - 106 in your textbook.
      • There is a great list of helpful verbs for creating objectives.
        • State a Rule, Measure the distance, locate… etc.
    • Rationale
      • Sometimes these are included within the goal - sometimes expected as a separate part. For our purpose - it will be separate.
      • It is a brief summary of your lesson, written in a way that your students would understand
      • It is written as if you were speaking to your students!
    • Rationale - For OUR lessons
      • Written as if you were speaking to your students telling them:
        • What they will be learning
        • Why it is important to learn this concept
        • How they are going to learn this concept
        • Describe the Instructional Strategy that you will use.
          • Tell the students the NAME of the strategy
        • How Long you will spend on the concept, overall
        • How they will be assessed
      • This can be a part of your lesson opening, but it is NOT considered the “hook”
        • This is adapted from Dr. Elliot’s format
    • Assessments
      • These should not be the FINAL consideration!
      • Think about your assessment first!
        • If you start with the end in mind, you will know exactly what material you need to cover.
            • I’m sure you have been frustrated at times by tests that didn’t really cover what the core of the lesson was!
        • Think about what you would accept as evidence that your students have attained the desired knowledge, understanding and skills.
          • This is often considered a part of the “Backward Design” an instructional model developed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, that promotes student understanding and engagement.
    • Three Types of Assessment
      • Wiggins and McTighe define 3 types of assessment:
        • Performance Task - an “authentic test of understanding”
          • Students APPLY what they have learned through performance tasks or Projects
          • Rubrics are excellent tools in this assessment
        • Criteria Referenced Assessment
          • Quizzes, Tests, Prompts
        • Unprompted Assessment and Self Assessment
          • Observations, dialogues
          • informal
    • Assessing for Understanding
      • Evidence of a student “understanding” is more of a challenge than evidence that they know the “right answer”
      • You REALLY understand something when you are able to
        • Explain it, Make other connections, Systematize and make predictions, Show its meaning or importance, Look at it from other perspectives, and Apply it and Adapt it to different situations.
    • Lesson Plans & Assessment
      • You need to keep in mind that what you assess is CLEARLY connected to your objectives!!
        • You want to make sure that your objective is accomplished!
        • You do not assess “behaviors” unrelated to the objective, example
          • “ the student will be assessed by observing if they are paying attention”
            • This has been an “assessment” that I have frequently seen in Lesson Plans!
            • It is NOT an ASSESSMENT of Learning! Not in the standards! Not an objective!
            • How do YOU KNOW they are paying attention or not -- anyway?
    • Assessments: Lesson Plan Format
      • It seems to work best if you place the “Assessment” after the Standards and Objectives instead of at the end of the lesson plan
        • Some choose to put it after each objective
            • Objective 1: "The students will be able to construct a map of …. displaying ......(whatever you want them to display) Assessment: The product is assessed using a rubric (Dr. Elliot’s format)
        • It doesn’t matter to me, I will be more concerned with what I see you ‘assessing’
      • Include a copy of your rubric or assessment, unless otherwise directed.
    • Materials
      • List teaching or learning materials that are needed.
      • This is your “quick reference” section to make sure that you are ready to teach your lesson.
      • Just list what you will use for the lesson
        • Include Page Numbers in texts or other resources as well as websites if applicable.
    • Procedure
      • Step by Step description of how the lesson unfolds - to reach your objectives
        • Includes:
          • HOW you will begin
          • Directions for grouping, if necessary.
          • Questions to be asked
          • How you will transition during the lesson and at the end
      • Now let’s look at some important “parts” of procedures….
    • Teacher Preparation
      • Sometimes included -- it helps with organizing for the lesson
      • You basically list the things you need to do prior to the lesson --
        • BEFORE the students are there --
        • The last thing you want is to be scurrying around trying to test your media source, gather materials, make copies….
      • You may include this in your lesson to me -- but it is not a requirement.
    • Motivate and Engage
      • The OPENING --
        • Anticipatory Set or The Hook
      • A Lead into the lesson that captures the student’s interest and draws them into learning.
        • A Springboard to what comes next…
      • IT is FUN! Interesting - Creative or Funny
      • Whatever works to open their eyes/ minds to what you have coming next!
      • Write it as if you were speaking to your students.
    • Procedure: Motivate - Engage
      • It specifically connects with your objectives
      • Ideas:
        • An interesting book or other reading source
          • Picture books are NOT just for little kids! They are fantastic ways to open a lesson and even BIG kids like to be read to! You will be surprised to find just about every topic out there that could relate!
          • If you are unsure of a book -- Ask a children’s librarian for help -- they love it.
        • A cartoon - A photograph or painting - an artifact
        • A question or statement that draws on their prior knowledge and motivates them to think
        • A video or video clip, a speaker
        • A game
    • Procedure - Development
      • Continue with step by step “directions” or details as to how the lesson unfolds.
      • Include a place for explaining your rationale to students.
      • How will you introduce new material? How will you draw on prior knowledge?
      • What will your students do to process this information?
        • Include how students will be actively engaged
      • Make sure you identify the instructional strategy that you have chosen
        • Your ‘steps’ will show how you integrate it into the lesson.
    • Procedure
      • Include the specific directions that students will need to transition to any activity,
        • including HOW you will group them AND get them into those groups
      • Think about “checking for understanding” after presenting any directions
      • Your procedure will flow showing how you plan to go about fulfilling your objectives
    • Closure
      • Yes - THIS needs planning too!
      • You don’t get to the end of a lesson and just say… “OK, we’re done, bye”
      • You want to summarize the lesson
        • Ask a question related to the concept that was addressed
        • Explain homework, “Checking for understanding”
        • Lay a brief foundation for what will come “next time”
      • Write it as if you were speaking to your students!
    • Modifications
      • This should be included to show how you will modify your lesson for students in your class with various challenges…
        • Students with Learning Disability
        • ESL/ENL
        • Other need…
    • Other Things to Consider
      • Cultural Responsiveness
        • A requirement that will be present within the context of your lesson plan
        • It will be present in the reading material, handouts, classroom environment
        • It integrates other ways of knowing or viewing what is being taught
        • It addresses MORE than just he concept of the lesson by addressing distinct ethnicities within the global environment.
        • This area is a requirement within the LCSC Teacher Education and is present on other lesson plans!