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Creating Lesson Plans - The Basics

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Creating Lesson Plans - The Basics Creating Lesson Plans - The Basics Presentation Transcript

  • Creating Lesson Plans The Basics
  • Lesson Plans - Necessary?
    • I’ve heard many pre-service teachers complain about having to create lesson plans!
      • They feel they are a waste of time, and besides they see many teachers just scribble a few ideas in their plan book, and teach from there, so why should they be ‘forced’ to create tedious outlines of what “THEY” are going to do!?
      • Well…….. Lets see….
  • Lesson Plans Help You ..
    • Plan
    • Organize
    • Manage Instruction
    • Manage the Classroom
    • Meet the needs of all the students
    • Cover the Standards required
    • And basically communicates what you plan on doing and how!
    • ALSO…..
  • An Effective Teacher PLANS !
  • A Good Thing to Consider When Writing Your Lesson Plan Is..
    • That you are writing directions so that someone else can easily teach your lesson….
      • A substitute -- fellow teacher -- or
        • Principal????
      • Clear, precise directions
        • Step by Step, easy to follow
  • Creating Lesson Plans
    • There are hundreds … or thousands, maybe even MILLIONS of lesson plans out there!
    • On the Web
    • In Teaching Guides
    • In Resource Books
    • And…. Yes they are, for the most part, very effective --- however
  • As an Effective Teacher
    • You must be able to create your own plans
    • The “other” plans are great resources, but only YOU know your students and where you are going with the class.
      • As you consider your teaching style, content to be taught, etc - you should be able to gather all those resources and create your own plan
      • Or… adapt someone else’s plan to fit your own need.
    • Remember: Give CREDIT to any ‘borrowed’ lesson plans! Complete with working weblink - if applicable
  • Something to Remember
    • MANY school districts are requiring that their new teachers present their lesson plans in ADVANCE -
      • In other words -- you have to turn in your entire weeks worth of plans PRIOR to teaching!
  • So What Goes Into a Good Lesson Plan? Or -- Lesson Plan Writing 101
    • Many of you have already learned the basics of creating lesson plans
    • GREAT!!
      • This might be review -- or serve as the basis for understanding current expectations.
      • In any case, I hope it is of help to you.
  • First things First
    • When writing lesson plans, you need to have a good idea what content is required for your grade level --
      • Have a listing of your state standards
      • Make sure that you are aware of any district or school wide expectations
      • It may be great to teach a unit on the history of.. Chocolate, but if you can’t relate it to any standards for your grade level -- there might be some serious problems.
        • Or.. If you are supposed to be teaching U.S. History, and you only focus on the History of Mexico!!!! Hmmmm…. Well… do you see the point?
  • Types of Lesson Plans
    • There are a lot out there --
      • Your text covers a few (pgs 122 - 124)
        • Madeline Hunter’s Model, (VERY POPULAR- YOU SHOULD AT LEAST BE FAMILIAR WITH! AT LEAST TWO INTERVIEWS THAT I SAT IN ON, SOMEONE ASKED THE CANDIDATE ABOUT THIS)
        • “ Backwards Design” by Wiggins and McTigue
        • Gagne and Briggs Model
        • From Traditional to Non-Traditional
    • Sometimes a school district will have a format that they require you to use
    • LCSC has a format as well!
    • So….. Confused YET?
  • LCSC Lesson Plan Format
    • You can find this in your PACE booklet on pg. 79
    • Some of your other professors might have presented you with their format
    • BUT… they all have similar components.
    • So let’s break down each portion of the lesson plan - and explain it…
  • Basic Lesson Plan Outline
    • There is really no ONE way to do a lesson plan.
      • There are many forms of Lesson Plans out there.
    • But, they all basically include the same things,
      • sometimes just different wording
      • sometimes a few different components,
      • however, there are some basic outlines that you should be aware of….
  • Lesson Plan Outline…
    • Here are some basics of most lesson plans…
      • Basic Info
      • Lesson Goal
      • Standards (word for word)
      • Learning or Instructional Objectives (derived from Standards)
      • Assessment (MUST be aligned with standards and objectives)
      • Materials (you need to know what you have to have together)
      • Procedure
        • Include any modifications for students as needed
      • Closure
  • Lesson Plan Outline…
    • In addition, sometimes you are asked to include other things, such as:
    • Rationale or sometimes called an Overview
    • Prerequisites - what students need to know prior to this lesson
    • Teacher Resources
    • Introduction - as a separate component.
    • Modifications - sometimes you’re asked for a specific section detailing your plans
    • Cultural Responsiveness (expected on LCSC plans)
    • Now… lets go through the essentials and explain them
  • General Information
    • This is basic identification “stuff”
        • Your name
        • Date of your lesson
        • Grade Level
        • Subject
        • Topic of the lesson or activity
        • Time allocated for the lesson
    • For purpose of an assignment -- This can usually all be single spaced in the upper left-hand corner
    • Most often this is required when you have to turn in your lesson -- it communicates who the audience IS!
  • Lesson Goal
    • Broad, generalized statements about what you want students to learn.
    • They determine the purpose, aim, and rationale for what your students will be engaged in during the lesson.
    • Basically -- its your TARGET .. What you want to “Hit”
      • It is WHAT you want to accomplish
  • Lesson Goal
    • They are written in broad terms and they align to the State Standards.
    • Terms used are stated in NON-behavioral statements:
    • To appreciate To comprehend
    • To understand To become familiar with
    • To gain a skill To develop the ability to
    • To increase/gain knowledge To become proficient in
  • Goal
    • Your Lesson Goal must be aligned with the Goal in the standards!
      • One way to do this is to reword the standard to include your lesson topic, thus creating your goal statement.
    • Sometimes you are asked just to take your goal FROM the standards.
    • Your objectives can also be formulated from the standards.
      • But more about that in a bit…
  • Standards
    • Standards act as the framework of your lesson.
    • They are clearly defined statements of what the student should know and be able to do
    • They are the basis for your lesson!
    • They act as a springboard for developing our plan.
  • Standards in Your Lesson Plan
    • The State Standards that are covered in your lesson should be directly from the state wording.
    • List AS MANY as apply for this lesson
    • If you cross over subjects, organize them so they are easy to read
    • You can essentially “copy and paste” them! You do NOT have to restate them in your own words.
  • Standards in Your Lesson Plan
    • When indicating the standards that you will be covering, keep in mind that for ONE lesson, you will not cover a lot of standards! You will have more objectives - but you will have only a few standards.
    • It is OK to copy and paste them from the I.D.E. documents
      • You will likely have to reformat them…
  • For Our Lesson Plans
    • WE will try to maintain consistency with the other content courses.
    • You should include:
      • Standard Area
        • Ex: Standard 1: History, Standard 2: Geography, Standard 3: Economics, etc.
      • Grade Level that YOU are focusing on in your lesson
      • Objective and Indicator Number….
        • 6-12.USH1.2.3.1 Illustrate westward migration across North America.
  • Example
    • Standards
    • 11th grade
    • Geography - Goal 2.3: Trace the migration and settlement of human populations on the earth’s surface.
      • 6-12.USH1.2.3.1 Illustrate westward migration across North America
    • Civics and Government - Goal 4.4: Build an understanding of the evolution of democracy.
      • 6-12.USH1.4.4.1 Describe the role of gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and national origin on the development of individual/political rights. (474.01e)
    Standard Benchmark
  • Idaho Standards
    • The “Goal” in the Idaho standards. Identifies the broad standard
      • Goal 1.1: Build an understanding of the cultural and social development of the U.S.
    • The “Objective” indicates the benchmark that is to be reached.
      • A benchmark is the statement of knowledge or the skill that define the standard
        • 9-12.USH2.1.1.2 Discuss the causes and effects of various conflicts in American history.
      • The indicator number identifies what area.. 9-12.USH2.1.1.2
        • Grade 9-12
        • U.S. History 2 Standards
        • Goal 1.1 (Goal 1 = History)
        • Objective 2
    • Idaho Standards
      • Can be downloaded:
        • http://www.sde.idaho.gov/ContentStandards/ssstandards.asp
      • After 5th gr. the content to be taught is not as clearly defined as Washington standards.
      • It takes some “work” as you pull the various expectations together across content areas!
        • But.. You can do it! :) After a few trys you will become familiar with them and it will get easy.
  • Washington Standards
    • Washington Standards
      • They are based on “Enduring Understandings”
      • Can be found at:
        • http://www.k12.wa.us/curriculumInstruct/SocStudies/frameworks.aspx
      • Content covered in each grade level is clearly outlined
  • Standards in Your Lesson Plan
    • In some cases -- for some profs. You might be asked to list other standards, such as:
      • National Standards
        • We talked about the Ten Strands in the NCSS standards
        • In addition there are
          • National Geography Standards
          • National History Standards
          • National Economic Standards
        • These other standards are often used when submitting your lesson plans for various reasons.
    • Professional Standards
        • What teachers should know or do in order to teach this!
        • Based on my previous example this might cover the following:
    1.3.1 The teacher provides opportunities to trace and analyze chronological periods and to examine the relationships of significant historical concepts. Social Studies Standard 1 - Performance
  • Instructional Objectives
    • Are:
      • SPECIFIC
      • MEASURABLE
      • SHORT-TERM
      • OBSERVABLE
      • Clearly written statements that indicate the learning or behavior that the student demonstrates during the lesson.
    • Objectives ARE NOT lists of activities that you want the students to complete!
    • They ensure that learning is taking place and the teacher knows what is going on!
  • Instructional Objectives
    • They are the foundation that you use to build on what you teach -- and
    • They prove that you have met your overall goals for both the course as well as the lesson.
    • They usually begin with… The student will be able to: and followed by verbs that spell out what they WILL be able to do after your lesson.
    • There are Three basic types of objectives..
  • Three Common Types or Domains of Learning….
    • Psychomotor - the body, focus on “doing” or with learning physical skills
    • Cognitive - the mind, focus is on thinking
    • Affective - the, emotions or “affect” - highlights attitudes and feelings
    • Writing Hint: Use the Objectives from the standards and add words to make them more specific to your lesson!
      • The student will consider multiple resources to illustrate the westward migration of the African-American from 1865 to 1890
  • Some Things to Watch
    • Don’t make it too Broad or too Complex
      • You should have only one general learning outcome for each objective
    • Focus on the “Observable”
      • Steer clear of words .. Know, learn, appreciate, understand. We WANT students to achieve those goals, but they are NOT performances that are observable or measurable.
    • Describe instructional outcomes, not activities you want them to complete.
    • Incorporate Higher Order Thinking Skills
      • Revisit Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • Your Textbook
    • You should revisit pages 104 - 106 in your textbook.
    • There is a great list of helpful verbs for creating objectives.
      • State a Rule, Measure the distance, locate… etc.
  • Rationale
    • Sometimes these are included within the goal - sometimes expected as a separate part. For our purpose - it will be separate.
    • It is a brief summary of your lesson, written in a way that your students would understand
    • It is written as if you were speaking to your students!
  • Rationale - For OUR lessons
    • Written as if you were speaking to your students telling them:
      • What they will be learning
      • Why it is important to learn this concept
      • How they are going to learn this concept
      • Describe the Instructional Strategy that you will use.
        • Tell the students the NAME of the strategy
      • How Long you will spend on the concept, overall
      • How they will be assessed
    • This can be a part of your lesson opening, but it is NOT considered the “hook”
      • This is adapted from Dr. Elliot’s format
  • Assessments
    • These should not be the FINAL consideration!
    • Think about your assessment first!
      • If you start with the end in mind, you will know exactly what material you need to cover.
          • I’m sure you have been frustrated at times by tests that didn’t really cover what the core of the lesson was!
      • Think about what you would accept as evidence that your students have attained the desired knowledge, understanding and skills.
        • This is often considered a part of the “Backward Design” an instructional model developed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, that promotes student understanding and engagement.
  • Three Types of Assessment
    • Wiggins and McTighe define 3 types of assessment:
      • Performance Task - an “authentic test of understanding”
        • Students APPLY what they have learned through performance tasks or Projects
        • Rubrics are excellent tools in this assessment
      • Criteria Referenced Assessment
        • Quizzes, Tests, Prompts
      • Unprompted Assessment and Self Assessment
        • Observations, dialogues
        • informal
  • Assessing for Understanding
    • Evidence of a student “understanding” is more of a challenge than evidence that they know the “right answer”
    • You REALLY understand something when you are able to
      • Explain it, Make other connections, Systematize and make predictions, Show its meaning or importance, Look at it from other perspectives, and Apply it and Adapt it to different situations.
  • Lesson Plans & Assessment
    • You need to keep in mind that what you assess is CLEARLY connected to your objectives!!
      • You want to make sure that your objective is accomplished!
      • You do not assess “behaviors” unrelated to the objective, example
        • “ the student will be assessed by observing if they are paying attention”
          • This has been an “assessment” that I have frequently seen in Lesson Plans!
          • It is NOT an ASSESSMENT of Learning! Not in the standards! Not an objective!
          • How do YOU KNOW they are paying attention or not -- anyway?
  • Assessments: Lesson Plan Format
    • It seems to work best if you place the “Assessment” after the Standards and Objectives instead of at the end of the lesson plan
      • Some choose to put it after each objective
          • Objective 1: "The students will be able to construct a map of …. displaying ......(whatever you want them to display) Assessment: The product is assessed using a rubric (Dr. Elliot’s format)
      • It doesn’t matter to me, I will be more concerned with what I see you ‘assessing’
    • Include a copy of your rubric or assessment, unless otherwise directed.
  • Materials
    • List teaching or learning materials that are needed.
    • This is your “quick reference” section to make sure that you are ready to teach your lesson.
    • Just list what you will use for the lesson
      • Include Page Numbers in texts or other resources as well as websites if applicable.
  • Procedure
    • Step by Step description of how the lesson unfolds - to reach your objectives
      • Includes:
        • HOW you will begin
        • Directions for grouping, if necessary.
        • Questions to be asked
        • How you will transition during the lesson and at the end
    • Now let’s look at some important “parts” of procedures….
  • Teacher Preparation
    • Sometimes included -- it helps with organizing for the lesson
    • You basically list the things you need to do prior to the lesson --
      • BEFORE the students are there --
      • The last thing you want is to be scurrying around trying to test your media source, gather materials, make copies….
    • You may include this in your lesson to me -- but it is not a requirement.
  • Motivate and Engage
    • The OPENING --
      • Anticipatory Set or The Hook
    • A Lead into the lesson that captures the student’s interest and draws them into learning.
      • A Springboard to what comes next…
    • IT is FUN! Interesting - Creative or Funny
    • Whatever works to open their eyes/ minds to what you have coming next!
    • Write it as if you were speaking to your students.
  • Procedure: Motivate - Engage
    • It specifically connects with your objectives
    • Ideas:
      • An interesting book or other reading source
        • Picture books are NOT just for little kids! They are fantastic ways to open a lesson and even BIG kids like to be read to! You will be surprised to find just about every topic out there that could relate!
        • If you are unsure of a book -- Ask a children’s librarian for help -- they love it.
      • A cartoon - A photograph or painting - an artifact
      • A question or statement that draws on their prior knowledge and motivates them to think
      • A video or video clip, a speaker
      • A game
  • Procedure - Development
    • Continue with step by step “directions” or details as to how the lesson unfolds.
    • Include a place for explaining your rationale to students.
    • How will you introduce new material? How will you draw on prior knowledge?
    • What will your students do to process this information?
      • Include how students will be actively engaged
    • Make sure you identify the instructional strategy that you have chosen
      • Your ‘steps’ will show how you integrate it into the lesson.
  • Procedure
    • Include the specific directions that students will need to transition to any activity,
      • including HOW you will group them AND get them into those groups
    • Think about “checking for understanding” after presenting any directions
    • Your procedure will flow showing how you plan to go about fulfilling your objectives
  • Closure
    • Yes - THIS needs planning too!
    • You don’t get to the end of a lesson and just say… “OK, we’re done, bye”
    • You want to summarize the lesson
      • Ask a question related to the concept that was addressed
      • Explain homework, “Checking for understanding”
      • Lay a brief foundation for what will come “next time”
    • Write it as if you were speaking to your students!
  • Modifications
    • This should be included to show how you will modify your lesson for students in your class with various challenges…
      • Students with Learning Disability
      • ESL/ENL
      • Other need…
  • Other Things to Consider
    • Cultural Responsiveness
      • A requirement that will be present within the context of your lesson plan
      • It will be present in the reading material, handouts, classroom environment
      • It integrates other ways of knowing or viewing what is being taught
      • It addresses MORE than just he concept of the lesson by addressing distinct ethnicities within the global environment.
      • This area is a requirement within the LCSC Teacher Education and is present on other lesson plans!