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3 - The Major Philosophies

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Produced by Pearson to go along with the textbook

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  • 1. CHAPTER 3 The Major Philosophies
  • 2. Overview of Chapter 3
    • Defining philosophy
    • Three branches of philosophy
      • Metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology
    • Traditional philosophies
      • Idealism, realism, and neo-theism
    • Contemporary philosophies
      • Pragmatism and existentialism
    • Analytic Philosophy
  • 3. Defining Philosophy
    • “ Study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence”
      • New Oxford American Dictionary, 2005
    • Helps us better understand who we are, why we are here, and where we are going.
    • Educational philosophy helps define views about learners, teachers, and schools.
    • Major philosophies include idealism, realism, and theistic realism
  • 4. Branches of Philosophy
    • Metaphysics – What is the nature of reality?
    • Epistemology – What is the nature of knowledge?
    • Axiology – What is the nature of values?
  • 5. Metaphysics
    • One of the key concepts in understanding philosophies
    • Concerned with reality and existence
    • Asks: What is the nature of reality?
    • Subdivided into two categories
      • Ontology: what is the nature of existence
      • Cosmology: origin and organization of the universe
  • 6. Epistemology
    • Raises questions about the nature of knowledge
    • Logic is a key dimension to epistemology
      • Deductive logic: from general to specific
      • Inductive logic: from specific facts to generalization
  • 7. Axiology
    • Explores the nature of values
      • Ethics: study of human conduct and examines moral values
      • Aesthetics: values beauty, nature, and aesthetic experience (often associated with music, art, literature, dance, theater, and other fine arts)
  • 8. Major Traditional Philosophy: Idealism
    • Considered oldest philosophy of Western culture
    • The world of mind, ideas and reason is primary
    • Metaphysics- stresses mind over matter (nothing is real except for an idea in the mind)
    • Epistemology- all knowledge includes a mental grasp of ideas and concepts
    • Axiology- values are rooted in reality
    • Idealists believe that values can be classified and ordered into a hierarchy
  • 9. Leading proponents of Idealism
    • Plato- Greek philosopher
      • Considered father of idealism
      • “ Allegory of the Cave” from The Republic
    • Augustine- theologian of 4 th & 5 th centuries
      • Applied Plato’s assumptions to Christian thought
    • Descartes, Kant & Hegel
      • Descarte: “I think, therefore I am”
      • Kant: certain universal moral laws- categorical imperitives
      • Hegel: approached reality as “contest of opposites”
  • 10. Major Traditional Philosophy : Realism
    • The antithesis of Idealism
    • Universe exists whether mind perceives it or not
    • Metaphysics- reality composed of matter (body) and form (mind)
    • Epistemology- sense realism (knowledge comes through senses)
    • Axiology- values derived from nature
  • 11. Leading proponents of Realism
    • Aristotle- father of realism
      • Student of Plato
      • Argued that knowledge can be acquired through senses
    • Francis Bacon
      • Advanced a rigorous form of inductive reason
    • John Locke
      • Theory of tabula rasa (no such thing as innate ideas)
    • Comenius, Rousseau, and Pestalozzi
  • 12. Major Traditional Philosophy: Neo-Thomism
    • Dates to the time of Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
    • Also known as theistic realism
    • “ God exists and can be known through faith and reason”
    • Metaphysics- God gives meaning to universe
    • Epistemology- hierarchy of knowing God
    • Axiology- unchanging moral laws
  • 13. Contemporary Philosophies: Pragmatism
    • Also known as experimentalism- experience or things that work
    • Philosophy of 20 th century developed by John Dewey
    • Metaphysics- regard reality as an event or process. Meaning is derived from experience in environment.
    • Epistemology- truth is not absolute but determined by consequences. Arrived at by inquiry, testing, questioning, retesting, ect.
    • Axiology- primarily focused on values. Determined by own experiences
  • 14. Leading Proponents of Pragmatism
    • Auguste Comte
    • Suggested science could solve social problems
    • Problem solving was key
    • Charles Darwin
    • Theory of natural selection implied reality was open ended, not fixed
    • Americans: Charles Pierce, William James and John Dewey
  • 15. Contemporary Philosophies: Existentialism
    • Appeared as a revolt against the mathematical, scientific philosophies that preceded it.
    • Focused on personal and subjective existence
    • Metaphysics- no purpose or meaning to universe. No world order or natural scheme of things
    • Epistemology- we come to know truth by choice. The authority is found in self.
    • Axiology- choice to determine value.
  • 16. Leading Proponents of Existentialism
    • Soren Kierkegaard
      • Danish philosopher/ theologian
      • Father of existentialism
      • Rejected scientific objectivity for subjectivity and choice
    • Martin Buber
      • Jewish philosopher/ theologian
      • “ I/Thou” relationship- divine and human are related
    • Husserl and Heidegger
    • Jean- Paul Sartre
      • We construct our own existence
  • 17. Other Proponents of Existentialism
    • Siberman & Kozol
      • Supporters of open schools, free schools, and alternative schools of 1960’s
    • Neill- Summerhill school
    • Nel Noddings
      • Educational model that includes caring
  • 18. Analytic Philosophy
    • Sought out to clarify, and define philosophies
    • Began in post WWI era- Vienna Circle
      • Studied the alienation between philosophy and science
      • Established the concept of logical positivism : there are logical and empirical types of scientific expression
      • Shifted to Analytic philosophy in 1950’s
      • Analytic philosophy has recently focused on political philosophy, ethics and philosophy of human sciences
  • 19. Review Questions for Chapter 3
    • What is a philosophy and why is it important for teachers?
    • Define the three branches of philosophy.
    • What is idealism and name a proponent of it?
    • What is realism and someone who supports it?
    • What is neo-Thomism and who is it named after?
    • What are two contemporary philosophies?
    • What are some key differences between the two contemporary philosophies?
    • Explain philosophic analysis.