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Statistical Machine Learning from Data - Introduction to ...

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  • 1. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations Content of the Course Documentation Statistical Machine Learning from Data Introduction to Machine Learning Samy Bengio IDIAP Research Institute, Martigny, Switzerland, and Ecole Polytechnique F´d´rale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland e e bengio@idiap.ch http://www.idiap.ch/~bengio November 30, 2005 Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 1
  • 2. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations Content of the Course Documentation 1 What is Machine Learning? 2 Types of Problems and Situations 3 Content of the Course 4 Documentation Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 2
  • 3. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations What is Machine Learning? Content of the Course Why Learning is Difficult? Documentation 1 What is Machine Learning? 2 Types of Problems and Situations 3 Content of the Course 4 Documentation Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 3
  • 4. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations What is Machine Learning? Content of the Course Why Learning is Difficult? Documentation What is Machine Learning? (Graphical View) Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 4
  • 5. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations What is Machine Learning? Content of the Course Why Learning is Difficult? Documentation What is Machine Learning? Learning is an essential human property Learning means changing in order to be better (according to a given criterion) when a similar situation arrives Learning IS NOT learning by heart Any computer can learn by heart, the difficulty is to generalize a behavior to a novel situation Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 5
  • 6. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations What is Machine Learning? Content of the Course Why Learning is Difficult? Documentation Why Learning is Difficult? Given a finite amount of training data, you have to derive a relation for an infinite domain In fact, there is an infinite number of such relations How should we draw the relation? Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 6
  • 7. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations What is Machine Learning? Content of the Course Why Learning is Difficult? Documentation Why Learning is Difficult? (2) Given a finite amount of training data, you have to derive a relation for an infinite domain In fact, there is an infinite number of such relations Which relation is the most appropriate? Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 7
  • 8. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations What is Machine Learning? Content of the Course Why Learning is Difficult? Documentation Why Learning is Difficult? (3) Given a finite amount of training data, you have to derive a relation for an infinite domain In fact, there is an infinite number of such relations ... the hidden test points... Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 8
  • 9. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations What is Machine Learning? Content of the Course Why Learning is Difficult? Documentation Occam’s Razor’s Principle William of Occam: Monk living in the 14th century Principle of Parcimony: One should not increase, beyond what is necessary, the number of entities required to explain anything When many solutions are available for a given problem, we should select the simplest one But what do we mean by simple? We will use prior knowledge of the problem to solve to define what is a simple solution Example of a prior: smoothness Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 9
  • 10. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations What is Machine Learning? Content of the Course Why Learning is Difficult? Documentation Learning as a Search Problem Initial solution Set of solutions chosen a priori Optimal solution Set of solutions compatible with training set Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 10
  • 11. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems Types of Problems and Situations Types of Learning Situations Content of the Course Types of Applications Documentation 1 What is Machine Learning? 2 Types of Problems and Situations 3 Content of the Course 4 Documentation Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 11
  • 12. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems Types of Problems and Situations Types of Learning Situations Content of the Course Types of Applications Documentation Types of Problems There are 3 kinds of problems: regression Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 12
  • 13. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems Types of Problems and Situations Types of Learning Situations Content of the Course Types of Applications Documentation Types of Problems There are 3 kinds of problems: regression, classification Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 13
  • 14. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems Types of Problems and Situations Types of Learning Situations Content of the Course Types of Applications Documentation Types of Problems There are 3 kinds of problems: regression, classification, density estimation P(X) X Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 14
  • 15. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems Types of Problems and Situations Types of Learning Situations Content of the Course Types of Applications Documentation Types of Learning Supervised learning: The training data contains the desired behavior (desired class, outcome, etc) Reinforcement learning: The training data contains partial targets (for instance, simply whether the machine did well or not). Unsupervised learning: The training data is raw, no class or target is given There is often a hidden goal in that task (compression, maximum likelihood, etc) Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 15
  • 16. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems Types of Problems and Situations Types of Learning Situations Content of the Course Types of Applications Documentation Applications Vision Processing Face detection/verification Handwritten recognition Speech Processing Phoneme/Word/Sentence/Person recognition Others Indexing: google, text mining, information retrieval Finance: asset prediction, portfolio and risk management Telecom: traffic prediction Data mining: make use of huge datasets kept by large corporations Games: Backgammon, go Control: robots ... and plenty of others of course! Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 16
  • 17. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations Content of the Course Documentation 1 What is Machine Learning? 2 Types of Problems and Situations 3 Content of the Course 4 Documentation Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 17
  • 18. What is Machine Learning? Types of Problems and Situations Content of the Course Documentation Content of the Course Theoretical Issues What are the theoretical foundations for statistical learning? How can we measure the expected performance of a model? Modeling Issues Models specialized for classification, regression, distributions, sequences, images, etc For each model, we need to devise a training algorithm Others Other practical issues, such as feature selection, parameter sharing, etc. Laboratories About one third of the course will be through practical laboratories, using the python programming language Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 18
  • 19. What is Machine Learning? Journals and Conferences Types of Problems and Situations Books and Lecture Notes Content of the Course Electronic Resources Documentation 1 What is Machine Learning? 2 Types of Problems and Situations 3 Content of the Course 4 Documentation Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 19
  • 20. What is Machine Learning? Journals and Conferences Types of Problems and Situations Books and Lecture Notes Content of the Course Electronic Resources Documentation Journals and Conferences Journals: Journal of Machine Learning Research Neural Computation IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence Conferences: NIPS: Neural Information Processing Systems COLT: Computational Learning Theory ICML: International Conference on Machine Learning Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 20
  • 21. What is Machine Learning? Journals and Conferences Types of Problems and Situations Books and Lecture Notes Content of the Course Electronic Resources Documentation Books and Lecture Notes Books: C. Bishop. Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition, 1995. V. Vapnik. The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory, 1995. T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, J. Friedman. The elements of Statistical Learning, 2001. B. Sch¨lkopf, A. J. Smola. Learning with Kernels, 2002. o Other lecture notes: (some are in french...) Bengio, Y.: http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/˜pift6266/A03/ Kegl, B.: http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/˜kegl/ift6266/ Jordan, M.: http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/˜jordan/courses/281A-fall04/ LeCun, Y.: http://www.cs.nyu.edu/˜yann/2005f-G22-2565-001/ Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 21
  • 22. What is Machine Learning? Journals and Conferences Types of Problems and Situations Books and Lecture Notes Content of the Course Electronic Resources Documentation Electronic Resources Search engines: NIPS online: http://nips.djvuzone.org Citeseer: http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/ Google scholar: http://scholar.google.com/ Machine learning libraries: Torch: http://www.Torch.ch Lush: http://lush.sf.net Samy Bengio Statistical Machine Learning from Data 22