Expanding the reach of education through technology<br />Richard Anderson<br />Department of Computer Science and Engineer...
Research in Educational Technology<br /><ul><li>How can computing technology enhance education?
Focus on classroom instruction
Challenges:
Extending reach of education
Increasing interaction
Addressing problems of scale
Facilitating expression of ideas</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />2<br />
Past and Current Research Projects<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />3<br />Video conferenced<br />distance e...
Research Approach<br /><ul><li>Deployment driven
Classroom use
Technology development and promotion
Goals and success criteria
Adoption of technology and methodology
Influence educational practice
Target specific deployments
Innovate in some aspect of deployment</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />4<br />
Today’s Talk<br />Distance Learning and Video Conferenced Classes<br />Tutored Video Instruction<br />Digital Study Hall<b...
Video Conferenced Teaching<br /><ul><li>Multi-site internet based audio-video conferencing
UW Master’s Program
Site-to-site courses between UW and Microsoft since Winter 1997
www.cs.washington.edu/education/dl/course_index.html
Master’s level courses
Goal: interaction across sites
Approximate single classroom
Various technologies have been used since the program was introduced</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />6<...
Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />7<br />
Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />8<br />
Distance Classes in UW CSE Master's Program<br /><ul><li>Initial phase
Winter 1997 – Winter 2002
Polycom + Netmeeting for PPT and SmartBoard
MSR DISC Project
Target: UW, CMU, UCB, Brown graduate class
Spring 2002
ConferenceXP
Since Spring 2003
Four way courses, Autumn 2004, Autumn 2005, Autumn 2006
UW, MSR, UCB, UCSD</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />9<br />
ConferenceXP<br /><ul><li>High quality, low latency video to support interactive classes
High bandwidth internet video conferencing
Internet2
Multicast
Single machine deployment
High end PC
Performance limit: handling multiple high resolutions video streams
Innovative presentation tools</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />10<br />
Initial Challenges (Spring 2002)<br /><ul><li>What went wrong
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PPTX - Research In Educational Technology: Expanding Possibilities

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  • Basic two site setup. CXP manages audio and video connections through venue. Sites will contribute multiple video streams. All information from venue is also put into the Archiver.CP3 runs on the instructor tablet withs student tablets connecting directly to the instructor. The instructor connects to displays at both sites. CP3 connects to the venue so that the content can also be stored in the archiver.
  • The 3 way setup between UW, Microsoft, and LUMS. The reason that two venues are used is that higher bandwidth is available between UW and MS – so high bandwidth video goes into venue 1, and lower bandwidth (256kbps) goes into venue 2
  • Transcript of "PPTX - Research In Educational Technology: Expanding Possibilities"

    1. 1. Expanding the reach of education through technology<br />Richard Anderson<br />Department of Computer Science and Engineering<br />University of Washington<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />1<br />
    2. 2. Research in Educational Technology<br /><ul><li>How can computing technology enhance education?
    3. 3. Focus on classroom instruction
    4. 4. Challenges:
    5. 5. Extending reach of education
    6. 6. Increasing interaction
    7. 7. Addressing problems of scale
    8. 8. Facilitating expression of ideas</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />2<br />
    9. 9. Past and Current Research Projects<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />3<br />Video conferenced<br />distance education<br />UW PMP<br />DISC<br />ConferenceXP<br />Center for<br />Collaborative<br />Technologies<br />Presentation<br />systems<br />Classroom<br />Presenter 2.0<br />Classroom <br />Presenter 3.0<br />Classroom <br />interaction systems<br />Classroom Feedback<br />System<br />CATs for CS1<br />Structured Interaction<br />Presentations<br />(SIP)<br />Student submissions <br />with CP<br />Tutored Video <br />Instruction<br />UW CC TVI <br />Project<br />Beihang TVI project<br />Digital StudyHall<br />
    10. 10. Research Approach<br /><ul><li>Deployment driven
    11. 11. Classroom use
    12. 12. Technology development and promotion
    13. 13. Goals and success criteria
    14. 14. Adoption of technology and methodology
    15. 15. Influence educational practice
    16. 16. Target specific deployments
    17. 17. Innovate in some aspect of deployment</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />4<br />
    18. 18. Today’s Talk<br />Distance Learning and Video Conferenced Classes<br />Tutored Video Instruction<br />Digital Study Hall<br />Educational Technology for Low Resource Environments<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />5<br />
    19. 19. Video Conferenced Teaching<br /><ul><li>Multi-site internet based audio-video conferencing
    20. 20. UW Master’s Program
    21. 21. Site-to-site courses between UW and Microsoft since Winter 1997
    22. 22. www.cs.washington.edu/education/dl/course_index.html
    23. 23. Master’s level courses
    24. 24. Goal: interaction across sites
    25. 25. Approximate single classroom
    26. 26. Various technologies have been used since the program was introduced</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />6<br />
    27. 27. Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />7<br />
    28. 28. Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />8<br />
    29. 29. Distance Classes in UW CSE Master's Program<br /><ul><li>Initial phase
    30. 30. Winter 1997 – Winter 2002
    31. 31. Polycom + Netmeeting for PPT and SmartBoard
    32. 32. MSR DISC Project
    33. 33. Target: UW, CMU, UCB, Brown graduate class
    34. 34. Spring 2002
    35. 35. ConferenceXP
    36. 36. Since Spring 2003
    37. 37. Four way courses, Autumn 2004, Autumn 2005, Autumn 2006
    38. 38. UW, MSR, UCB, UCSD</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />9<br />
    39. 39. ConferenceXP<br /><ul><li>High quality, low latency video to support interactive classes
    40. 40. High bandwidth internet video conferencing
    41. 41. Internet2
    42. 42. Multicast
    43. 43. Single machine deployment
    44. 44. High end PC
    45. 45. Performance limit: handling multiple high resolutions video streams
    46. 46. Innovative presentation tools</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />10<br />
    47. 47. Initial Challenges (Spring 2002)<br /><ul><li>What went wrong
    48. 48. Technology and systems failures
    49. 49. Multicast networking
    50. 50. High cost of interruptions
    51. 51. Audio
    52. 52. Loss of trust
    53. 53. Room configuration issues
    54. 54. Lack of control of lecture room
    55. 55. Production quality
    56. 56. Meta lesson
    57. 57. Learn more from failures than from successes
    58. 58. How to Fail at VideoConferenced Teaching
    59. 59. Microsoft Faculty Summit 2002
    60. 60. Anderson & Beavers</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />11<br />
    61. 61. Success in distance classes<br />Goals<br />Real time interaction between sites<br />High quality video<br />Challenges<br />High bandwidth connections<br />Multicast vs. Unicast<br />Classroom Audio<br />Establishing a pattern of interaction<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />12<br />
    62. 62. Going International<br />March 29, 2008, LACCIR Meeting<br />Latin American and Carribbean Collaboration for ICT Research<br />Seattle and University of Chile, Santiago, Chile<br />Seminar presentation<br />October 15, 2008<br />CXP Unicast reflector<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />13<br />
    63. 63. Masters class, UW - Pakistan<br />Masters class<br />University of Washington<br />Lahore University of Management Science<br />Microsoft<br />Computing for the Developing world<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />14<br />
    64. 64. Technical Challenges<br />Ensuring adequate bandwidth<br />Limited bandwidth to Pakistan<br />Reliability<br />Multicast<br />Ensuring this did not compromise UW-MS class<br />Limited time to prepare<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />15<br />
    65. 65. Basic PMP setup (2 sites)<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />16<br />CXP<br />Video cameras<br />Video cameras<br />PMP VENUE<br />Audio<br />Audio<br />Video Displays<br />Video Displays<br />Speakers<br />Speakers<br />UW<br />Microsoft<br />Archiver<br />Student Tablets<br />Student Tablets<br />CP3<br />Display<br />CP3<br />Instructor<br />CP3<br />Display<br />CP3<br />
    66. 66. 3-way setup for UW, MS, LUMS<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />17<br />Microsoft<br />LUMS<br />CP3<br />CP3<br />PMP Venue 1<br />PMP Venue 2<br />Archiver<br />UW<br />CP3<br />Server<br />CP3<br />
    67. 67. Use of Classroom Presenter<br />Tablet PC based presentation and classroom interaction system<br />Ink based presentation<br />Classroom Activites<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />18<br />
    68. 68. Classroom Presenter<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />19<br />Student<br />Instructor<br />Public Display<br />Student<br />
    69. 69. Classroom Activities<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />20<br />
    70. 70. Project status<br />High connectivity for 9 out of 10 classes<br />One lecture originated from Pakistan<br />Only failure was on the UW-Microsoft Link (which also brought down UW-Pakistan)<br />Improved audio (microphone issues)<br />Participation of students from Pakistan<br />Student submissions<br />Questions and discussions<br />Multiple rounds of audio communication<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />21<br />
    71. 71. Key lessons<br />Participants must have incentive for a distance course<br />Instructor need to make an effort to create multisite interaction<br />Active participants at remote sites help<br />Time zones and scheduling are major issues<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />22<br />
    72. 72. Tutored Video Instruction<br /><ul><li>Video recorded lectures shown with facilitator
    73. 73. Original model: lectures stopped by students for discussion
    74. 74. Peer tutors
    75. 75. Developed by Jim Gibbons at Stanford University
    76. 76. Positive results reported in Science [1977]</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />23<br />
    77. 77. UW TVI Projects<br />Introductory programming<br />Address community college articulation<br />Experiment with alternate approaches to introductory computing instruction<br />UW – Beihang Algorithms course<br />Offering of UW Algorithms course in China<br />Digital StudyHall<br />Primary education in rural India<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />24<br />
    78. 78. Tutored Video Instruction<br />Recorded lecture materials<br />Generally based on live classes<br />Class model<br />Lecture playback alternating with facilitator led discussion<br />Facilitation models<br />Gibbons: Peer instruction<br />Active facilitation<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />25<br />
    79. 79. UW-Beihang Algorithms Class<br />Offer a course in Beijing based on UW course<br />UW instructor could not teach the course in China<br />Scheduling prevented a live course offering<br />1:30 pm in Seattle is 4:30 am in Beijing<br />Materials captured from live class<br />Tutored Video Instruction<br />Slides, talking head, digital ink<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />26<br />
    80. 80. Involvement with Remote Site<br />Set up visit<br />Met with Teaching Assistants<br />Tested all technology<br />Trained Teaching Assistants in facilitation<br />Gave classes to students to demonstrate technology and TVI<br />Midterm visit<br />Observed classes<br />Gave lecture without recorded video<br />Regular communication with Teaching Assistants<br />Data collection<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />27<br />
    81. 81. Course Delivery<br />Applications displayed<br />Webviewer for video replay<br />Classroom Presenter<br />Teaching Assistants would show video or show CP for inking on slides or classroom interaction<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />28<br />
    82. 82. Summary of Project Results<br />Offering successful<br />Technology, institutional relationship<br />Cross-cultural issues<br />English language materials were comprehensible<br />Classroom discussion primarily in Chinese<br />Facilitation model<br />Significant support for facilitators <br />Classroom activities successful (and popular)<br />Facilitators innovative and reproduced some of the instruction<br />Interactive and informal classroom atmosphere<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />29<br />
    83. 83. Language Issues<br />Lectures delivered in English<br />Language exposure consider to be a positive side effect of the course<br />Teaching assistants facilitated in English<br />But discussions were generally in Chinese<br />Students reported using lectures outside of class<br />Instructor observations from site visit<br />Chinese students had substantially more English listening than speaking experience<br />Recorded lectures did contain some colloquial usage and cultural specific references which were lost<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />30<br />
    84. 84. Facilitation<br />Support provided for facilitators<br />Lecture notes<br />Activities<br />Facilitators invested a larger effort in preparation<br />Studying videos<br />Planning how to cover content<br />Active facilitation<br />Worked through lecture examples<br />Led activities<br />Asked questions to students<br />Example: facilitators working through example from lecture slides<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />31<br />Instructor<br />Facilitator A<br />Facilitator C<br />Facilitator B<br />
    85. 85. Classroom Activities<br />Tablet PC supported activities<br />Student submission model<br />Used for every lecture<br />Technology generally successful<br />Considered very positive by students<br />High rate of participation<br />Provided a structure for active learning<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />32<br />
    86. 86. Classroom Environment<br />Contrast to traditional large lecture class<br />Highly interactive class<br />Interaction episodes measured by observation logs and videos of Beihang classes<br />Average of 13 interaction episodes per class, 10 with students speaking<br />UW class averaged about 20 interaction episodes per equivalent length of time<br />Beihang episodes averaged a greater number of rounds of communication<br />Class atmosphere was informal<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />33<br />
    87. 87. Results<br /><ul><li>Offering successful
    88. 88. Technology, institutional relationship
    89. 89. Cross-cultural issues
    90. 90. English language materials were comprehensible
    91. 91. Classroom discussion primarily in Chinese
    92. 92. Facilitation model
    93. 93. Significant support for facilitators
    94. 94. Classroom activities successful (and popular)
    95. 95. Facilitators innovative and reproduced some of the instruction
    96. 96. Interactive and informal classroom atmosphere</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />34<br />
    97. 97. Digital StudyHall<br /><ul><li>Affiliated Project
    98. 98. Collaboration with Randy Wang in Lucknow
    99. 99. Tutored Video Instruction for primary education in rural India
    100. 100. YouTube + Netflix </li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />35<br />
    101. 101. Key components<br />A people’s database<br />Mediation based pedagogy<br />Hub and spoke model<br />Content distribution by DVD<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />36<br />
    102. 102. Status: network of hubs and spokes<br /><ul><li>Operational hubs in Lucknow, Calcutta, Pune, and Bangladesh
    103. 103. Each hub works with a number of poor village or slum schools</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />37<br />
    104. 104. Digital StudyHall Evaluation Study<br />Classroom study starts July 2009<br />Two year study<br />12 schools in Uttar Pradesh<br />12 DSH Classrooms<br />12 Traditional Classrooms<br />Evaluate Learning gains through pretest/posttest<br />Classroom observations<br />Study impact on teachers<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />38<br />
    105. 105. What we’ve learned from all of this<br /><ul><li>Value of electronic materials in the process of classroom instruction
    106. 106. Tools for teaching
    107. 107. Teacher and students drive the process
    108. 108. Flexible and unpredictable use
    109. 109. Importance of high reliability
    110. 110. And attention to address issues
    111. 111. Broader context – interplay of technology and other issues</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />39<br />
    112. 112. Educational Technology for Low Resource Environments<br />Facilitated Video Instruction<br />Biggest opportunity to enhance expertise<br />Synchronous Distance<br />Limited applications – but some specific cases of interest<br />Classroom capture<br />Classroom Computing<br />Computer lab and individual devices<br />Computing Education<br />Lack of technical literacy is a limiting factor<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />40<br />
    113. 113. Facilitated Video Instruction<br />Recorded video with a facilitator<br />Take advantage of expertise<br />Facilitator has very important role<br />Applicable to a broad range of educational domains<br />Primary and secondary<br />Health <br />Agriculture<br />Vocational <br />College<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />41<br />
    114. 114. Facilitated Video Instruction<br />Applicability for low resource environments<br />Low cost<br />Replay (TV + DVD)<br />Digital Video + PC based editing<br />Locally created content<br />Key components<br />Facilitation methodology<br />Support for facilitator<br />Program structure<br />Content creation through delivery<br />Technology<br />Video production tool chain<br />Content distribution<br />Delivery<br />Feedback and monitoring<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />42<br />
    115. 115. Synchronous Distance Education<br />Bandwidth is a significant issue<br />Low bandwidth + high cost<br />May be relevant for institutional outreach programs<br />Arvind Eye Hospital, Tamil Nadu, India<br />International medical education<br />Positive side effect: classroom capture<br />Risk: Driven by need to justify infrastructure – not for educational needs<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />43<br />
    116. 116. Classroom Computing<br />School based computing<br />Risk: deployments leading educational goals<br />Challenge: maximize benefits of “computers for schools initiatives”<br />Models<br />Low cost educational devices <br />Classmate, OLPC, Asus eee, …<br />Shared use<br />Multipoint<br />School server<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />44<br />
    117. 117. Computing Education<br />Shortage of trained professionals<br />Hostile Computing Ecosystem<br />Very high virus infection<br />Poorly administered machines<br />Solutions<br />Computing practices and maintenance<br />Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />45<br />
    118. 118. For more information <br /><ul><li>Richard Anderson
    119. 119. anderson@cs.washington.edu
    120. 120. Classroom Presenter
    121. 121. http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/dl/presenter/
    122. 122. Center for Collaborative Technologies at UW
    123. 123. http://cct.cs.washington.edu/
    124. 124. Digital StudyHall
    125. 125. http://dsh.cs.washington.edu/</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />46<br />
    126. 126. Acknowledgements<br /><ul><li>Support from Microsoft Research, National Science Foundation, HP, Ford, UW CSE
    127. 127. Jay Beavers, Jane Prey, Randy Hinrichs, Chris Moffatt, Jason Van Eaton, Paul Oka, Steve Wolfman, Ken Yasuhara, Andrew Whitaker, Ruth Anderson, Craig Prince, Valentin Razmov, Natalie Linnell, Krista Davis, Jonathon Su, Sara Su, Peter Davis, Tammy VanDeGrift, Joe Tront, Alon Halevy, Gaetano Borriello, Ed Lazowska, Hal Perkins, Susan Eggers, Fred Videon, Rod Prieto, Oliver Chung, Crystal Hoyer, Beth Simon, Eitan Feinberg, Julia Schwarz, Jim Fridley, Tom Hinkley, Ning Li, Jing Li, Luo Jie, Jiangfeng Chen, Melody Kadenko, Julie Svendsen, Shannon Gillmore</li></ul>Dec 15, 2008<br />Microsoft Learning<br />47<br />
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