PPTX - Research In Educational Technology: Expanding Possibilities
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  • Basic two site setup. CXP manages audio and video connections through venue. Sites will contribute multiple video streams. All information from venue is also put into the Archiver.CP3 runs on the instructor tablet withs student tablets connecting directly to the instructor. The instructor connects to displays at both sites. CP3 connects to the venue so that the content can also be stored in the archiver.
  • The 3 way setup between UW, Microsoft, and LUMS. The reason that two venues are used is that higher bandwidth is available between UW and MS – so high bandwidth video goes into venue 1, and lower bandwidth (256kbps) goes into venue 2

PPTX - Research In Educational Technology: Expanding Possibilities PPTX - Research In Educational Technology: Expanding Possibilities Presentation Transcript

  • Expanding the reach of education through technology
    Richard Anderson
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering
    University of Washington
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    1
  • Research in Educational Technology
    • How can computing technology enhance education?
    • Focus on classroom instruction
    • Challenges:
    • Extending reach of education
    • Increasing interaction
    • Addressing problems of scale
    • Facilitating expression of ideas
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    2
  • Past and Current Research Projects
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    3
    Video conferenced
    distance education
    UW PMP
    DISC
    ConferenceXP
    Center for
    Collaborative
    Technologies
    Presentation
    systems
    Classroom
    Presenter 2.0
    Classroom
    Presenter 3.0
    Classroom
    interaction systems
    Classroom Feedback
    System
    CATs for CS1
    Structured Interaction
    Presentations
    (SIP)
    Student submissions
    with CP
    Tutored Video
    Instruction
    UW CC TVI
    Project
    Beihang TVI project
    Digital StudyHall
  • Research Approach
    • Deployment driven
    • Classroom use
    • Technology development and promotion
    • Goals and success criteria
    • Adoption of technology and methodology
    • Influence educational practice
    • Target specific deployments
    • Innovate in some aspect of deployment
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    4
  • Today’s Talk
    Distance Learning and Video Conferenced Classes
    Tutored Video Instruction
    Digital Study Hall
    Educational Technology for Low Resource Environments
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    5
  • Video Conferenced Teaching
    • Multi-site internet based audio-video conferencing
    • UW Master’s Program
    • Site-to-site courses between UW and Microsoft since Winter 1997
    • www.cs.washington.edu/education/dl/course_index.html
    • Master’s level courses
    • Goal: interaction across sites
    • Approximate single classroom
    • Various technologies have been used since the program was introduced
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    6
  • Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    7
  • Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    8
  • Distance Classes in UW CSE Master's Program
    • Initial phase
    • Winter 1997 – Winter 2002
    • Polycom + Netmeeting for PPT and SmartBoard
    • MSR DISC Project
    • Target: UW, CMU, UCB, Brown graduate class
    • Spring 2002
    • ConferenceXP
    • Since Spring 2003
    • Four way courses, Autumn 2004, Autumn 2005, Autumn 2006
    • UW, MSR, UCB, UCSD
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    9
  • ConferenceXP
    • High quality, low latency video to support interactive classes
    • High bandwidth internet video conferencing
    • Internet2
    • Multicast
    • Single machine deployment
    • High end PC
    • Performance limit: handling multiple high resolutions video streams
    • Innovative presentation tools
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    10
  • Initial Challenges (Spring 2002)
    • What went wrong
    • Technology and systems failures
    • Multicast networking
    • High cost of interruptions
    • Audio
    • Loss of trust
    • Room configuration issues
    • Lack of control of lecture room
    • Production quality
    • Meta lesson
    • Learn more from failures than from successes
    • How to Fail at VideoConferenced Teaching
    • Microsoft Faculty Summit 2002
    • Anderson & Beavers
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    11
  • Success in distance classes
    Goals
    Real time interaction between sites
    High quality video
    Challenges
    High bandwidth connections
    Multicast vs. Unicast
    Classroom Audio
    Establishing a pattern of interaction
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    12
  • Going International
    March 29, 2008, LACCIR Meeting
    Latin American and Carribbean Collaboration for ICT Research
    Seattle and University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Seminar presentation
    October 15, 2008
    CXP Unicast reflector
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    13
  • Masters class, UW - Pakistan
    Masters class
    University of Washington
    Lahore University of Management Science
    Microsoft
    Computing for the Developing world
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    14
  • Technical Challenges
    Ensuring adequate bandwidth
    Limited bandwidth to Pakistan
    Reliability
    Multicast
    Ensuring this did not compromise UW-MS class
    Limited time to prepare
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    15
  • Basic PMP setup (2 sites)
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    16
    CXP
    Video cameras
    Video cameras
    PMP VENUE
    Audio
    Audio
    Video Displays
    Video Displays
    Speakers
    Speakers
    UW
    Microsoft
    Archiver
    Student Tablets
    Student Tablets
    CP3
    Display
    CP3
    Instructor
    CP3
    Display
    CP3
  • 3-way setup for UW, MS, LUMS
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    17
    Microsoft
    LUMS
    CP3
    CP3
    PMP Venue 1
    PMP Venue 2
    Archiver
    UW
    CP3
    Server
    CP3
  • Use of Classroom Presenter
    Tablet PC based presentation and classroom interaction system
    Ink based presentation
    Classroom Activites
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    18
  • Classroom Presenter
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    19
    Student
    Instructor
    Public Display
    Student
  • Classroom Activities
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    20
  • Project status
    High connectivity for 9 out of 10 classes
    One lecture originated from Pakistan
    Only failure was on the UW-Microsoft Link (which also brought down UW-Pakistan)
    Improved audio (microphone issues)
    Participation of students from Pakistan
    Student submissions
    Questions and discussions
    Multiple rounds of audio communication
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    21
  • Key lessons
    Participants must have incentive for a distance course
    Instructor need to make an effort to create multisite interaction
    Active participants at remote sites help
    Time zones and scheduling are major issues
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    22
  • Tutored Video Instruction
    • Video recorded lectures shown with facilitator
    • Original model: lectures stopped by students for discussion
    • Peer tutors
    • Developed by Jim Gibbons at Stanford University
    • Positive results reported in Science [1977]
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    23
  • UW TVI Projects
    Introductory programming
    Address community college articulation
    Experiment with alternate approaches to introductory computing instruction
    UW – Beihang Algorithms course
    Offering of UW Algorithms course in China
    Digital StudyHall
    Primary education in rural India
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    24
  • Tutored Video Instruction
    Recorded lecture materials
    Generally based on live classes
    Class model
    Lecture playback alternating with facilitator led discussion
    Facilitation models
    Gibbons: Peer instruction
    Active facilitation
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    25
  • UW-Beihang Algorithms Class
    Offer a course in Beijing based on UW course
    UW instructor could not teach the course in China
    Scheduling prevented a live course offering
    1:30 pm in Seattle is 4:30 am in Beijing
    Materials captured from live class
    Tutored Video Instruction
    Slides, talking head, digital ink
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    26
  • Involvement with Remote Site
    Set up visit
    Met with Teaching Assistants
    Tested all technology
    Trained Teaching Assistants in facilitation
    Gave classes to students to demonstrate technology and TVI
    Midterm visit
    Observed classes
    Gave lecture without recorded video
    Regular communication with Teaching Assistants
    Data collection
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    27
  • Course Delivery
    Applications displayed
    Webviewer for video replay
    Classroom Presenter
    Teaching Assistants would show video or show CP for inking on slides or classroom interaction
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    28
  • Summary of Project Results
    Offering successful
    Technology, institutional relationship
    Cross-cultural issues
    English language materials were comprehensible
    Classroom discussion primarily in Chinese
    Facilitation model
    Significant support for facilitators
    Classroom activities successful (and popular)
    Facilitators innovative and reproduced some of the instruction
    Interactive and informal classroom atmosphere
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    29
  • Language Issues
    Lectures delivered in English
    Language exposure consider to be a positive side effect of the course
    Teaching assistants facilitated in English
    But discussions were generally in Chinese
    Students reported using lectures outside of class
    Instructor observations from site visit
    Chinese students had substantially more English listening than speaking experience
    Recorded lectures did contain some colloquial usage and cultural specific references which were lost
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    30
  • Facilitation
    Support provided for facilitators
    Lecture notes
    Activities
    Facilitators invested a larger effort in preparation
    Studying videos
    Planning how to cover content
    Active facilitation
    Worked through lecture examples
    Led activities
    Asked questions to students
    Example: facilitators working through example from lecture slides
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    31
    Instructor
    Facilitator A
    Facilitator C
    Facilitator B
  • Classroom Activities
    Tablet PC supported activities
    Student submission model
    Used for every lecture
    Technology generally successful
    Considered very positive by students
    High rate of participation
    Provided a structure for active learning
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    32
  • Classroom Environment
    Contrast to traditional large lecture class
    Highly interactive class
    Interaction episodes measured by observation logs and videos of Beihang classes
    Average of 13 interaction episodes per class, 10 with students speaking
    UW class averaged about 20 interaction episodes per equivalent length of time
    Beihang episodes averaged a greater number of rounds of communication
    Class atmosphere was informal
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    33
  • Results
    • Offering successful
    • Technology, institutional relationship
    • Cross-cultural issues
    • English language materials were comprehensible
    • Classroom discussion primarily in Chinese
    • Facilitation model
    • Significant support for facilitators
    • Classroom activities successful (and popular)
    • Facilitators innovative and reproduced some of the instruction
    • Interactive and informal classroom atmosphere
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    34
  • Digital StudyHall
    • Affiliated Project
    • Collaboration with Randy Wang in Lucknow
    • Tutored Video Instruction for primary education in rural India
    • YouTube + Netflix
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    35
  • Key components
    A people’s database
    Mediation based pedagogy
    Hub and spoke model
    Content distribution by DVD
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    36
  • Status: network of hubs and spokes
    • Operational hubs in Lucknow, Calcutta, Pune, and Bangladesh
    • Each hub works with a number of poor village or slum schools
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    37
  • Digital StudyHall Evaluation Study
    Classroom study starts July 2009
    Two year study
    12 schools in Uttar Pradesh
    12 DSH Classrooms
    12 Traditional Classrooms
    Evaluate Learning gains through pretest/posttest
    Classroom observations
    Study impact on teachers
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    38
  • What we’ve learned from all of this
    • Value of electronic materials in the process of classroom instruction
    • Tools for teaching
    • Teacher and students drive the process
    • Flexible and unpredictable use
    • Importance of high reliability
    • And attention to address issues
    • Broader context – interplay of technology and other issues
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    39
  • Educational Technology for Low Resource Environments
    Facilitated Video Instruction
    Biggest opportunity to enhance expertise
    Synchronous Distance
    Limited applications – but some specific cases of interest
    Classroom capture
    Classroom Computing
    Computer lab and individual devices
    Computing Education
    Lack of technical literacy is a limiting factor
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    40
  • Facilitated Video Instruction
    Recorded video with a facilitator
    Take advantage of expertise
    Facilitator has very important role
    Applicable to a broad range of educational domains
    Primary and secondary
    Health
    Agriculture
    Vocational
    College
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    41
  • Facilitated Video Instruction
    Applicability for low resource environments
    Low cost
    Replay (TV + DVD)
    Digital Video + PC based editing
    Locally created content
    Key components
    Facilitation methodology
    Support for facilitator
    Program structure
    Content creation through delivery
    Technology
    Video production tool chain
    Content distribution
    Delivery
    Feedback and monitoring
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    42
  • Synchronous Distance Education
    Bandwidth is a significant issue
    Low bandwidth + high cost
    May be relevant for institutional outreach programs
    Arvind Eye Hospital, Tamil Nadu, India
    International medical education
    Positive side effect: classroom capture
    Risk: Driven by need to justify infrastructure – not for educational needs
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    43
  • Classroom Computing
    School based computing
    Risk: deployments leading educational goals
    Challenge: maximize benefits of “computers for schools initiatives”
    Models
    Low cost educational devices
    Classmate, OLPC, Asus eee, …
    Shared use
    Multipoint
    School server
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    44
  • Computing Education
    Shortage of trained professionals
    Hostile Computing Ecosystem
    Very high virus infection
    Poorly administered machines
    Solutions
    Computing practices and maintenance
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    45
  • For more information
    • Richard Anderson
    • anderson@cs.washington.edu
    • Classroom Presenter
    • http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/dl/presenter/
    • Center for Collaborative Technologies at UW
    • http://cct.cs.washington.edu/
    • Digital StudyHall
    • http://dsh.cs.washington.edu/
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    46
  • Acknowledgements
    • Support from Microsoft Research, National Science Foundation, HP, Ford, UW CSE
    • Jay Beavers, Jane Prey, Randy Hinrichs, Chris Moffatt, Jason Van Eaton, Paul Oka, Steve Wolfman, Ken Yasuhara, Andrew Whitaker, Ruth Anderson, Craig Prince, Valentin Razmov, Natalie Linnell, Krista Davis, Jonathon Su, Sara Su, Peter Davis, Tammy VanDeGrift, Joe Tront, Alon Halevy, Gaetano Borriello, Ed Lazowska, Hal Perkins, Susan Eggers, Fred Videon, Rod Prieto, Oliver Chung, Crystal Hoyer, Beth Simon, Eitan Feinberg, Julia Schwarz, Jim Fridley, Tom Hinkley, Ning Li, Jing Li, Luo Jie, Jiangfeng Chen, Melody Kadenko, Julie Svendsen, Shannon Gillmore
    Dec 15, 2008
    Microsoft Learning
    47