History

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History

  1. 1. Chapter (2) Engineering<br />Definition:<br />Engineering is the discipline, art and profession of acquiring and applying technical, scientific, and mathematical knowledge to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that safely realize a desired objective or invention.<br />The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD, the predecessor of ABET]) has defined engineering as follows:<br />The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property. <br />History<br />Offshore wind turbines represent a modern multi disciplinary engineering problem.<br />The concept of engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Each of these inventions is consistent with the modern definition of engineering, exploiting basic mechanical principles to develop useful tools and objects.<br />The term engineering itself has a much more recent etymology, deriving from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1325, when an engine’er (literally, one who operates an engine) originally referred to “a constructor of military engines.” In this context, now obsolete, an “engine” referred to a military machine, i. e., a mechanical contraption used in war (for example, a catapult). The word “engine” itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium (c. 1250), and meaning “innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention.” <br />Later, as the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineeringentered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the older discipline of military engineering (the original meaning of the word “engineering,” now largely obsolete, with notable exceptions that have survived to the present day such as military engineering corps, e.g., the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.<br />Engineer:<br />One who practices engineering is called an engineer, and those licensed to do so may have more formal designations such as Professional Engineer, Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, or European Engineer. The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized subdisciplines, each with a more specific emphasis on certain fields of application and particular areas of technology.<br />World greatest engineers:<br />-Robert. H. Goddard (although he was a physicist) for inventing the first liquid propellant rocket. USA.-Sergei Koroliev (URSS) for giving a definitive breakthrough to rocket science and designing the R-7 rocket (Sputnik launcher), in which it is based the current Soyuz TM. -W. Von Braun (GER), for giving another breakthrough to rocket science this time in occident, and for the successful Apollo Missions with Saturn V. -Rudolph Diesel (GER), for inventing the Diesel Engine.-Nicholas Otto (GER), for inventing the first 4 stroke gasoline engine.-Juan de la Cierva (Spain), for inventing the first " Auto-Giro" , in which it is based the current helicopters.   <br />Greatest engineering achievements of the 20TH century:<br /><ul><li>1.Electrification2.Automobile3.Airplane4.Water Supply and Distribution5.Electronics6.Radio and Television7.Agricultural Mechanization8.Computers9.Telephone10.Air Conditioningand Refrigeration11.Highways12.Spacecraft13.Internet14.Imaging15.Household Appliances16.Health Technologies17.Petroleum andPetrochemical Technologies18.Laser and Fiber Optics19.Nuclear Technologies20.High-performance Materials</li></ul>What do people say about engineering?<br />A scientist discovers that which exists. An engineer creates that which never was.Theodore von Karman <br />Engineering is the art of organizing and directing men and controlling the forces and materials of nature for the benefit of the human race. Henry G. Stott<br />Engineers participate in the activities which make the resources of nature available in a form beneficial to man and provide systems which will perform optimally and economically. L. M. K. Boelter<br />Engineering does not merely know and being knowledgeable, like a walking encyclopedia; engineering is not merely analysis; engineering is not merely the possession of the capacity to get elegant solutions to non-existent engineering problems; engineering is practicing the art of the organized forcing of technological change... Engineers operate at the interface between science and society... Dean Gordon Brown<br />Engineering is a great profession. There is the satisfaction of watching a figment of the imagination emerge through the aid of science to a plan on paper. Then it moves to realization in stone or metal or energy. Then it brings homes to men or women. Then it elevates the standard of living and adds to the comforts of life. This is the engineer's high privilege. Herbert Hoover<br />Inventing is the mixing of brains and materials. The more brains you use, the less materials you need.Charles F. Kettering <br />In mathematics you don't understand things, you just get used to them.J. von Neumann <br />Engineering is an activity other than purely manual and physical work which brings about the utilization of the materials and laws of nature for the good of humanity. R. E. Hellmund<br />Engineering is the professional art of applying science to the optimum conversion of natural resources to the benefit of man. Ralph J. Smith<br />Engineering is the science of economy, of conserving the energy, kinetic and potential, provided and stored up by nature for the use of man. It is the business of engineering to utilize this energy to the best advantage, so that there may be the least possible waste. William A. Smith <br />I have had my results for a long time, but I do not yet know how I am to arrive at them.Karl Friedrich Gauss<br />The burden of the lecture is just to emphasize the fact that it is impossible to explain honestly the beauty of the laws of nature in a way that people can feel, without their having some deep understanding of mathematics. I am sorry, but this seems to be the case.Richard Feynman <br />Engineering is the practice of safe and economic application of the scientific laws governing the forces and materials of nature by means of organization, design and construction, for the general benefit of mankind. S. E. Lindsay<br />Engineering is the professional and systematic application of science to the efficient utilization of natural resources to produce wealth. T. J. Hoover and J. C. L. Fish<br />An expert is a man who has made all the mistakes which can be made in a very narrow field.Niels Bohr <br />Research is what I'm doing when I don't know what I'm doing.Wernher von Braun <br />Chapter (3) Technology<br />Definition:<br />Technology is the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, and crafts, or is systems or methods of organization, or is a material product (such as clothing) of these things. The word technology comes from the Greek technología (τεχνολογία) — téchnē (τέχνη), 'craft' and -logía (-λογία), the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline. However, a strict definition is elusive.[citation needed] The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include " construction technology" , " medical technology" , or " state-of-the-art technology" .<br />Modern history (300 AD —)<br />Tools include both simple machines (such as the lever, the screw, and the pulley), and more complex machines (such as the clock, the engine, the electric generator and the electric motor, the computer, radio, and the Space Station, among many others). As tools increase in complexity, so does the type of knowledge needed to support them. Complex modern machines require libraries of written technical manuals of collected information that has continually increased and improved — their designers, builders, maintainers, and users often require the mastery of decades of sophisticated general and specific training. Moreover, these tools have become so complex that a comprehensive infrastructure of technical knowledge-based lesser tools, processes and practices (complex tools in themselves) exist to support them, including engineering, medicine, and computer science. Complex manufacturing and construction techniques and organizations are needed to construct and maintain them. Entire industries have arisen to support and develop succeeding generations of increasingly more complex tools. The relationship of technology with society (culture) is generally characterized as synergistic, symbiotic, co-dependent, co-influential, and co-producing, i.e. technology and society depend heavily one upon the other (technology upon culture, and culture upon technology). It is also generally believed that this synergistic relationship first occurred at the dawn of humankind with the invention of simple tools, and continues with modern technologies today. Today and throughout history, technology influences and is influenced by such societal issues/factors as economics, values, ethics, institutions, groups, the environment, government, among others. The discipline studying the impacts of science, technology, and society and vice versa is called Science and technology in society.<br />Role in human history<br />Paeolithic (2.5 million – 10,000 BC)<br />A primitive chopper<br />The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery, partly of evolution. Early humans evolved from a race of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third that of modern humans.[20] Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history, but approximately 50,000 years ago, a complex set of behaviors and tool use emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of fully-modern language. <br />Stone tools<br /> <br />Hand axes from the Acheulian period A Clovis point, made via pressure flaking<br />Human ancestors have been using stone and other tools since long before the emergence of Homo sapiens approximately 200,000 years ago. The earliest methods of stone tool making, known as the Oldowan " industry" , date back to at least 2.3 million years ago,[23] with the earliest direct evidence of tool usage found in Ethiopia within the Great Rift Valley, dating back to 2.5 million years ago. This era of stone tool use is called the Paleolithic, or " Old stone age" , and spans all of human history up to the development of agriculture approximately 12,000 years ago.<br />To make a stone tool, a " core" of hard stone with specific flaking properties (such as flint) was struck with a hammerstone. This flaking produced a sharp edge on the core stone as well as on the flakes, either of which could be used as tools, primarily in the form of choppers or scrapers. These tools greatly aided the early humans in their hunter-gatherer lifestyle to perform a variety of tasks including butchering carcasses (and breaking bones to get at the marrow); chopping wood; cracking open nuts; skinning an animal for its hide; and even forming other tools out of softer materials such as bone and wood. <br />The earliest stone tools were crude, being little more than a fractured rock. In the Acheulian era, beginning approximately 1.65 million years ago, methods of working these stone into specific shapes, such as hand axes emerged. The Middle Paleolithic, approximately 300,000 years ago, saw the introduction of the prepared-core technique, where multiple blades could be rapidly formed from a single core stone.[25] The Upper Paleolithic, beginning approximately 40,000 years ago, saw the introduction of pressure flaking, where a wood, bone, or antler punch could be used to shape a stone very finely. <br />Fire<br />The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind. The exact date of its discovery is not known; evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1,000,000 BC;[29] scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus had controlled fire by between 500,000 BC and 400,000 BC. Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and broadening the number of foods that could be eaten. <br />Clothing and shelter<br />Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both technologies cannot be dated exactly, but they were a key to humanity's progress. As the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became more sophisticated and more elaborate; as early as 380,000 BC, humans were constructing temporary wood huts. Clothing, adapted from the fur and hides of hunted animals, helped humanity expand into colder regions; humans began to migrate out of Africa by 200,000 BC and into other continents, such as Eurasia. <br />Humans began to work bones, antler, and hides, as evidenced by burins and racloirs produced during this period.[citation needed]<br />Neolithic through Classical Antiquity (10,000BC – 300AD)<br />An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.<br />Man's technological ascent began in earnest in what is known as the Neolithic period (" New stone age" ). The invention of polished stone axes was a major advance because it allowed forest clearance on a large scale to create farms. The discovery of agriculture allowed for the feeding of larger populations, and the transition to a sedentist lifestyle increased the number of children that could be simultaneously raised, as young children no longer needed to be carried, as was the case with the nomadic lifestyle. Additionally, children could contribute labor to the raising of crops more readily than they could to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle. <br />With this increase in population and availability of labor came an increase in labor specialization. What triggered the progression from early Neolithic villages to the first cities, such as Uruk, and the first civilizations, such as Sumer, is not specifically known; however, the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures, the specialization of labor, trade and war amongst adjacent cultures, and the need for collective action to overcome environmental challenges, such as the building of dikes and reservoirs, are all thought to have played a role. <br />Metal tools<br />Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided the ability to smelt and forge native metals (naturally occurring in relatively pure form). Gold, copper, silver, and lead, were such early metals. The advantages of copper tools over stone, bone, and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of Neolithic times (about 8000 BC).[41] Native copper does not naturally occur in large amounts, but copper ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wood or charcoal fires. Eventually, the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass (about 4000 BC). The first uses of iron alloys such as steel dates to around 1400 BC.<br />Energy and Transport<br />Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. The earliest known use of wind power is the sailboat. The earliest record of a ship under sail is shown on an Egyptian pot dating back to 3200 BC.[ From prehistoric times, Egyptians probably used " the power of the Nile" annual floods to irrigate their lands, gradually learning to regulate much of it through purposely-built irrigation channels and 'catch' basins. Similarly, the early peoples of Mesopotamia, the Sumerians, learned to use the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for much the same purposes. But more extensive use of wind and water (and even human) power required another invention.<br />The wheel was invented in circa 4000 BC.<br />According to archaeologists, the wheel was invented around 4000 B.C. The wheel was probably independently invented in Mesopotamia (in present-day Iraq) as well. Estimates on when this may have occurred range from 5500 to 3000 B.C., with most experts putting it closer to 4000 B.C. The oldest artifacts with drawings that depict wheeled carts date from about 3000 B.C.; however, the wheel may have been in use for millennia before these drawings were made. There is also evidence from the same period of time that wheels were used for the production of pottery. (Note that the original potter's wheel was probably not a wheel, but rather an irregularly shaped slab of flat wood with a small hollowed or pierced area near the center and mounted on a peg driven into the earth. It would have been rotated by repeated tugs by the potter or his assistant.) More recently, the oldest-known wooden wheel in the world was found in the Ljubljana marshes of Slovenia. <br />The invention of the wheel revolutionized activities as disparate as transportation, war, and the production of pottery (for which it may have been first used). It didn't take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads and fast (rotary) potters' wheels enabled early mass production of pottery. But it was the use of the wheel as a transformer of energy (through water wheels, windmills, and even treadmills) that revolutionized the application of nonhuman power sources.<br />What do people say about technology?<br />All of the biggest technological inventions created by man - the airplane, the automobile, and the computer - says little about his intelligence, but speaks volumes about his laziness.  ~Mark KennedyInventor:  A person, who makes an ingenious arrangement of wheels, levers and springs, and believes it civilization.  ~Ambrose Bierce, the Devil's DictionaryModern technology owes ecology An apology.~Alan M. EdisonIt has become appallingly obvious that our technology has exceeded our humanity.  ~Albert EinsteinOne machine can do the work of fifty ordinary men.  No machine can do the work of one extraordinary man.  ~Elbert Hubbard, the Roycroft Dictionary and Book of Epigrams, 1923For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for Nature cannot be fooled.  ~Richard P. FeynmanIf it keeps up, man will atrophy all his limbs but the push-button finger.  ~Frank Lloyd WrightSoon silence will have passed into legend.  Man has turned his back on silence.  Day after day he invents machines and devices that increase noise and distract humanity from the essence of life, contemplation, meditation...tooting, howling, screeching, booming, crashing, whistling, grinding, and trilling bolster his ego.  His anxiety subsides.  His inhuman void spreads monstrously like gray vegetation.  ~Jean ArpTechnological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going backwards.  ~ Aldous HuxleyTechnology ... the knack of so arranging the world that we don't have to experience it.  ~ Max FrischDo you realize if it weren't for Edison we'd be watching TV by candlelight?  ~Al BoliskaWestern society has accepted as unquestionable a technological imperative that is quite as arbitrary as the most primitive taboo:  not merely the duty to foster invention and constantly to create technological novelties, but equally the duty to surrender to these novelties unconditionally, just because they are offered, without respect to their human consequences.  ~Lewis MumfordGod never made his work for man to mend.~John DrydenIt is a medium of entertainment which permits millions of people to listen to the same joke at the same time, and yet remain lonesome.  ~T.S. Eliot, about radioTechnology... is a queer thing.  It brings you great gifts with one hand, and it stabs you in the back with the other.  ~C.P. Snow, New York Times, 15 March 1971don’t get smart Aleksey with the galaxy Leave the atom alone.~E.Y. Harburg, " Leave the Atom Alone," 1957The drive toward complex technical achievement offers a clue to why the U.S. is good at space gadgetry and bad at slum problems.  ~John Kenneth GalbraithThe system of nature, of which man is a part, tends to be self-balancing, self-adjusting, self-cleansing.  Not so with technology.  ~E.F. Schumacher, Small is Beautiful, 1973I am sorry to say that there is too much point to the wisecrack that life is extinct on other planets because their scientists were more advanced than ours.  ~John F. KennedyThe most important and urgent problems of the technology of today are no longer the satisfactions of the primary needs or of archetypal wishes, but the reparation of the evils and damages by the technology of yesterday.  ~Dennis Gabor, Innovations:  Scientific, Technological and Social, 1970This is perhaps the most beautiful time in human history; it is really pregnant with all kinds of creative possibilities made possible by science and technology which now constitute the slave of man - if man is not enslaved by it.  ~Jonas Salknever trusts anything that can think for itself if you can't see where it keeps its brain.  ~J.K. RowlingAs far as I'm concerned, progress peaked with frozen pizza.  ~From the movie Die Hard 2, spoken by the character John McLane regarding technological advances, screenplay by Steven E. de Souza and Doug Richardson, based on the novel 58 Minutes by Walter Wager<br />I like my new telephone, my computer works just fine, my calculator is perfect, but Lord, I miss my mind!  ~Author Unknownthe production of too many useful things results in too many useless people.  ~Karl Marx<br />Chapter (4) Conclusion<br />-No one can deny that the pharaonic civilization has impressed the whole world and that the pharaohs were our grand-parents but we cannot talk about our past and neglect our present or our future.<br />-If we want to be like pharaohs or even better than them we have to know the secret of their success which was knowledge and knowing how to apply it.<br />

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