PDCA for Lean Service Design


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The Deming Cycle or The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) model is a proven framework for implementing continuous quality improvement. It originated in the 1920s with Walter A. Shewhart. These four steps provide the framework for continuous improvement. The PDCA cycle basically starts with a plan and ends with an action in accordance with the information learned during the process. In later years Dr. Deming actually changed the Check portion to the term Study to highlight the creation and validation of new knowledge during that portion of the cycle. There is a Slideshare presentation using this slideck.

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PDCA for Lean Service Design

  1. 1. Serviceby Joe Dager, Business901LeanDesignServiceEDCASDCAPDCA
  2. 2. Visual Management
  3. 3. EDCA PDCA SDCAImportance of PDCA?PDCA creates the little “i” of innovation
  4. 4. PDCAfor theLean EngagementTeam
  5. 5. The only competitive advantage you haveis the rate at which you learn from yourcustomers.Positioning your organization in your customer’splayground is the most important role marketing has.
  6. 6. Marketing with PDCAPDCA = Knowledge Creation• Knowledge is limited atbeginning• Key information not known• Feedback to justify hypotheses• Customers changes mind• Each cycle closer to the goal
  7. 7. PDCA is a Call to ActionStart with a problem that you don’t have the currentknowledge to solve.What don’t I understand that I need to learn?What change do I need to see?Close the knowledge gapbefore closing the performance gap.
  8. 8. Visual Management
  9. 9. Visual Management
  10. 10. SALES PDCADoCheckActPlanSelect the ImprovementEmpower the TeamLocate the people who understand the processAnalyze the current processSelect the initial Problem PerceptionActors
  11. 11. DoCheckActPlanSelect the ImprovementEmpower the TeamLocate the people who understand the processAnalyze the current processSelect the initial Problem Perception
  12. 12. Actors
  13. 13. S: Select the initial Problem Perception• What is the problem to be solved?• Describe the problem, issue or need that yourproject is intended to address.• Always Predict• Allows actions to be more focused• Ensures that relevant data will be collected.• Enables results to be obtained quickerActors
  14. 14. A: Analyze the current process• Review the Critical to Quality (CTQ) issues facingthis value stream and how they apply to thiscycle.• What should be involved in this step?• Have customers’ expectations and specificationsbeen examined and documented?• What are the points of concern?Actors
  15. 15. L: Locate people who understand the process• List the members of your team• Including position and role they will play.Name Position RoleActors
  16. 16. E: Empower the Team• Team is autonomous and completely responsible forthe tasks within this stage• Clarity is most critical factor for empowering a team• Why are we doing this project? Is it clear to all participants?• What are we going to do? How will it be measured?• Who is responsible for each task? Who does it involve?• How must it be accomplished? How do we review?• Where will it take place? Where can the data be found?• When must it be complete?• Outline Meetings, Daily Stand-ups, WeeklyTactical, Monthly Strategic and others Actors
  17. 17. S: Select the Improvement• Define the Gap that is to be completed in thiscycle• Team agrees to the goals and outcomes expectedfor this particular cycle• Team accepts responsibilities of outcomes.Actors
  18. 18. Plan is50% of effortActors
  19. 19. P: Plan• What are the detailed steps you will take to makean improvement?• Clarify the problem, breaking down customerdecision process and people involve.• Locate the point of concern or cause throughWho, What, Where, When• Identify root cause and verify with data.• Develop countermeasures utilizing user storiesand place on task board, prioritize. Actors
  20. 20. D: Do the plan• Build Project Plan or iteration through user stories• Provide line of sight through Kanban Board, TaskBoard, Action Planner.• Demonstrate work flow and problemsencountered.• Use daily stand-ups or Andon to signify problemsor hang-ups.Actors
  21. 21. C: Check (Study) see if improvement wasmade• Did the plan work? Study the results• Collect and analyze data to demonstrate if gapwas closed• Determine what changes worked and which onesdid notActors
  22. 22. A: Act (Adjust)• Has the gap been closed?• Has customers’ needs been completed?• If not, reconsider and continue improvement• If it has can customer can be handed off to nextstage/cycle, document steps taken.• Can action be turned into standard work?Start another PDCA cycle for the next phase of the projectActors
  23. 23. Example of Team Member Standard WorkActors
  24. 24. Provides Line of Sight for Team at Daily StandupActors
  25. 25. Team Coordinator/Leader Standard Work
  26. 26. Line of Site for resources needed at weekly tacticalProviding a visual,simple and easily accessdocument is the key.Actors
  27. 27. Value Stream Manager StandardWork
  28. 28. Line of Site for Goal review at Monthly StrategicActors
  29. 29. PDCA uses 7 Basic Tools• Affinity diagram: organizes a large number of ideas into their naturalrelationships.• Relations diagram: shows cause-and-effect relationships and helps youanalyze the natural links between different aspects of a complex situation.• Tree diagram: breaks down broad categories into finer and finer levels ofdetail, helping you move your thinking step by step from generalities tospecifics.• Matrix diagram: shows the relationship between groups of information andcan give information about the relationship, strengths, the roles played ormeasurements.• Matrix data analysis: a complex mathematical technique for analyzingmatrices, often replaced in this list by the similar prioritization matrix.• Arrow diagram: shows the required order of tasks in a project or process, thebest schedule for the entire project, and potential scheduling, problems andsolutions.• Process decision program chart (PDPC): systematically identifies whatmight go wrong in a plan under development.
  30. 30. What is your iCustomer Level?
  31. 31. PDCA is the Culture of LeanSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thingSolve one thing and prove one thing“Lean is not a revolution; it is solve one thing and prove one thing.”- Dr. Michael Balle
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  33. 33. http://leanmarketinglab.com• Over 130 Free eBooks• Regular Blog Posts• Free Tools• Discussion Groups• Podcast with Celebrated Authors, IndustryPractitioners and Leading Thought LeadersOur Mission is to bringContinuous Improvement to Sales and Marketing.