Ch 5 Motivation
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Ch 5 Motivation



this ppt helps to motivate the consumer to buy a product and the behaviors of related ventures

this ppt helps to motivate the consumer to buy a product and the behaviors of related ventures



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Ch 5 Motivation Ch 5 Motivation Presentation Transcript

  • Consumer Behavior: A Framework John C. Mowen Michael S. Minor Chapter 5: Consumer Motivation
  • Ten Key Concepts
    • Concept of Motivation
    • Consumer needs
    • Operant conditioning
    • Classical conditioning
    • Vicarious learning
    • Opponent-process theory
    • Optimum-stimulation level theory
    • Reactance theory
    • Perceived risk
    • Consumer attributions
  • What is Motivation?
    • Motivation refers to an activated state within a person that leads to goal-directed behavior.
      • It consists of the drives, urges, wishes, or desires that initiate the sequence of events leading to a behavior.
    • Motivation begins with the presence of a stimulus that spurs the recognition of a need.
    • Need recognition occurs when a perceived discrepancy exists between an actual and a desired state of being
      • Needs can be either innate or learned.
      • Needs are never fully satisfied.
      • Feelings and emotions (I.e., affect) accompany needs
    • Expressive needs involve desires by consumers to fulfill social and/or aesthetic requirements.
    • Utilitarian needs involve desires by consumers to solve basic problems (e.g. filling a car’s gas tank).
  • The Structure of Emotions
    • Ten Fundamental Emotions People Experience:
      • Disgust Interest
      • Joy Surprise
      • Sadness Anger
      • Fear Contempt
      • Shame Guilt
  • Some General Theories of Motivation
    • Maslow hierarchy: physical, safety, belongingness, ego, and self-actualiation
    • McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs
      • Achievement motivation is seeking to get ahead, to strive for success, and to take responsibility for solving problems.
      • Need for affiliation motivates people to make friends, to become members of groups, and to associate with others.
      • Need for power refers to the desire to obtain and exercise control over others.
      • Need for uniqueness refers to desires to perceive ourselves as original and different.
  • Classical Conditioning
    • A neutral stimulus, such as a brand name, is paired with a stimulus that elicits a response.
    • Through a repetition of the pairing, the neutral stimulus takes on the ability to elicit the response.
    • The conditioned stimulus (CS) is a previously neutral stimulus which is repeatedly paired with the eliciting stimulus.
    • The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is an eliciting stimulus.
    • The conditioned response (CR) is the response elicited by the CS.
    • The unconditioned response (UCR) is the reflexive response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
  • Classical Conditioning Relations Unconditioned/Secondary Stimulus Unconditioned Response Pairing Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Flag Emotions Political candidate Emotions
  • Requirements for Effective Conditioning
    • The neutral stimulus should precede in time the appearance of the unconditioned stimulus.
    • The product is paired consistently with the unconditioned stimulus.
    • Both the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are highly salient to the consumer.
  • Applications of Classical Conditioning
    • Applications: communications--advertising, public relations, personal selling.
    • Goal: identify powerful positive stimulus and associate brand with it.
    • Examples of powerful, emotion causing stimuli:
      • beautiful, sexy people
      • patriotic themes, religious symbols
      • Music, beautiful scenes
      • Also, negative stimuli can be associated with competitors.
      • Credit card insignia may elicit spending responses
  • Operant Conditioning . . .
    • . . . is the process in which the frequency of occurrence of a bit of behavior is modified by the consequences of the behavior.
      • If positively reinforced, the likelihood of the behavior being repeated increases.
      • If punished, the likelihood of the behavior being repeated decreases.
  • Reinforcement & Influencing Behavior
    • A reinforcer is anything that occurs after a behavior and changes the likelihood that it will be emitted again.
      • Positive reinforcers are positive rewards that follow immediately after a behavior occurs.
      • Negative reinforcers are the removal of an aversive stimulus.
  • Secondary reinforcers . . .
    • . . . are a previously neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcing properties through its association with a primary reinforcer.
      • Over a period of time, previously neutral stimuli can become secondary reinforcers.
      • In marketing, most reinforcers are secondary (e.g. a product performing well, a reduction in price)
  • A Punisher . . .
    • . . . is any stimulus whose presence after a behavior decreases the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring.
  • Extinction & Eliminating Behaviors
    • Once an operant response is conditioned, it will persist as long as it is periodically reinforced.
    • Extinction is the disappearance of a response due to lack of reinforcement.
  • Schedules of Reinforcement . . .
    • . . . determine if a behavior is reinforced after a certain number of repetitions or after a certain length of time has passed.
    • Example. Slot machines use a variable schedule based upon number of pulls of handle.
  • Discriminative Stimuli . . .
    • . . . are those stimuli that occur in the presence of a reinforcer and do not occur in its absence.
    Example: point of purchase display is a discriminative stimulus.
  • Stimulus Discrimination and Generalization
      • Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism behaves differently depending on the presence of one of two stimuli. Goal of differentiation is to cause stimulus discrimination.
      • Stimulus generalization occurs when an organism reacts similarly to two or more distinct stimuli. Goal of “knock-off” brands is to use stimulus generalization.
  • Shaping Consumer Responses . . .
    • . . . is creating totally new operant behaviors by selectively reinforcing behaviors that successively approximate the desired instrumental response.
  • Vicarious Learning . . .
    • . . . is the phenomenon where people observe the actions of others to develop “patterns of behavior.”
  • Three important ideas:
    • People are viewed as symbolic beings who foresee the probable consequences of their behavior.
    • People learn by watching the actions of others and the consequences of these actions (i.e. vicarious learning).
    • People have the ability to regulate their own behavior.
  • Factors Increasing a Model’s Effectiveness
    • The model is physically attractive.
    • The model is credible.
    • The model is successful.
    • The model is similar to the observer.
    • The model is shown overcoming difficulties and then succeeding.
  • Three Major Uses of Social-Learning Theory
    • A model’s actions can be used to create entirely new types of behaviors
    • A model can be used to decrease the likelihood that an undesired behavior will occur
    • The model can be used to facilitate the occurrence of a previously learned behavior
  • Midrange Theories of Motivation
    • Opponent-Process Theory
    • Optimum Stimulation Levels
    • The Desire to Maintain Behavioral Freedom
    • The Motivation to Avoid Risk
    • The Motivation to Attribute Causality
  • Opponent-Process Theory
    • . . . explains that two things occur when a person receives a stimulus that elicits an immediate positive or negative emotional reaction:
      • The immediate positive or negative emotional reaction is felt.
      • A second emotional reaction occurs that has a feeling opposite to that initially experienced.
      • The combination of the two emotional reactions results in the overall feeling experienced by the consumer.
      • Explains addictive behaviors
      • Explains priming—the effects of a small exposure to a stimulus.
  • Optimum Stimulation Level
    • . . . is a person’s preferred amount of physiological activation or arousal.
      • Activation may vary from very low levels (e.g. sleep) to very high levels (e.g. severe panic).
      • Individuals are motivated to maintain an optimum level of stimulation and will take action to correct the level when it becomes to high or too low.
      • Accounts for high vs. low sensation seeking people.
      • Accounts for variety seeking
      • Accounts for hedonic consumption—I.e., the need of people to create fantasies, gain feelings through the senses, and obtain emotional arousal.
  • The Desire to Maintain Behavioral Freedom
    • Psychological reactance is the motivational state resulting from the response to threats to behavioral freedom.
      • Two types of threats can lead to reactance:
        • Social threats involve external pressure from other people to induce a consumer to do something
        • Impersonal threats are barriers that restrict the ability to buy a particular product or service
      • Frequent in marketing: e.g., pushy salesperson
      • Scarcity effects: scarce products are valued more. Limited time offer, limited supply.
  • The Motivation to Avoid Risk
      • Perceived risk is a consumer’s perception of the overall negativity of a course of action based upon as assessment of the possible negative outcomes and of the likelihood that these outcomes will occur.
      • Perceived risk consists of two major concepts - the negative outcomes of a decision and the probability these outcomes will occur.
  • 7 Types of Consumer Risks.
    • Financial
    • Performance
    • Physical
    • Psychological
    • Social
    • Time
    • Opportunity Loss
  • Factors Influencing Risk Perception
    • Characteristics of the person—e.g., need for stimulation
    • Nature of the task
      • Voluntary risks are perceived as less risky than involuntary tasks.
    • Characteristics of the product—price
    • Salience of negative outcomes
  • Six risk-reduction strategies
      • Be brand loyal and consistently purchase the same brand.
      • Buy through brand image and purchase a quality national brand.
      • Buy through store image from a retailer that you trust.
      • Seek out information in order to make a well informed decision.
      • Buy the most expensive brand, which is likely to have high quality.
      • Buy the least expensive brand in order to reduce financial risk.
  • The Motivation to Attribute Causality
      • Attribution theory describes the processes through which people make determinations of the causality of action.
      • Internal attribution is when a consumer decides that an endorser recommended the product because he or she actually liked the product.
      • External attribution is when a consumer decides that an endorser recommended the product because he or she was paid for endorsing it.
  • Augmentation-Discounting Model
    • Discounting occurs if external pressures exist that could provoke someone to act in a particular way - so actions would be expected given the circumstances.
    • The augmenting principle states that when a person moves against the forces of the environment to do something unexpected, the belief that the action represents the person’s actual opinions, feelings, and desires is increased.
    • Fundamental Attribution error : One consistent finding is that people are biased to make internal attributions to others.
  • Applications of attribution theory
      • endorsers: seek to get consumers to perceive internal motives for making endorsement.
      • satisfaction: seek to get consumers to perceive external reasons for product problem.
      • sales promotion: find ways to avoid consumers attributing the cause of the purchase to the sale rather than to the excellence of the product.
  • Managerial Applications of Motivation
    • Positioning/differentiation: use discriminative stimuli distinguish one brand from another.
    • Environmental analysis: identify the reinforcers and punishers that impact consumers; identify factors that influence risk perception.
    • Market research: measure motivational needs (e.g., McClelland’s needs and need for arousal), measure risk perception.
    • Marketing mix: use motivational needs to design products (e.g., safe cars) and to develop promotional strategy that meets needs. Develop messages to influence consumer attributions. Use in-store promotions to prime consumers.
    • Segmentation: Segment market based upon motivational needs.