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K 2comprehensionlockwood

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  • Oral Language Assist students in language acquisition Develop and increase vocabulary Promote the use of accurate language structure Vocabulary Builds a foundation for comprehension Models, supports, and develops strategic reading strategies Comprehension Encourage students to understand that reading and writing have meaning and purpose Application of the Sensational Seven Comprehension Strategies Guides students to use their prior knowledge to assist in learning new things Phonological Skills Builds a foundation of phonemic awareness for explicit skill acquisition Teaches systematic phonics through writing, spelling, and reading Supports development of accurate spelling Uses oral language to access reading and writing Comprehension Encourage students to understand that reading and writing have meaning and purpose Application of the Sensational Seven Comprehension Strategies Guides students to use their prior knowledge to assist in learning new things
  • Thinking about one’s own thinking Check for understanding
  • Predicting Purpose: Predicting is a strategy that assists students in setting a purpose for reading and in monitoring their reading comprehension. It allows them to interact with the text. Involves previewing the text to anticipate what happens next Students are predicting what they think they will learn Stop periodically in the text to ask students to gather information and make a logical prediction for the next portion of the book / text Background knowledge and newly learning information is used to make logical predictions Going back and revisiting previous predictions solidifies the purpose of predicting…gathering meaning This strategy is done before and during reading Inferring Purpose: To read between the lines… gathering information from their background knowledge and adding it to the information the author has provided. The bedrock of comprehension Predicting is related to inferring: we predict outcomes, events, or actions that are confirmed or contradicted by the end of the text Inferences are open-ended and may remain unresolved when the story draws to a close Inferences can be made from the cover and illustrations as well as the text
  • Purpose: Connections enhance our understanding of the text. Connecting Connect themes , characters , and issues from one book to another. Make connections between what students read and the larger world. This nudges them into thinking about bigger, more expansive issues beyond their universe of home, school, and neighborhood. Connecting Language “ This reminds me of…” “ I remember when...” “ I read another book that reminds me of…” “ I have a connection…”
  • Purpose: Questioning automatically increases their reading comprehension when they read the text, process the meaning, make inferences and connections to prior knowledge, and, finally, generate a question. Questioning Good readers constantly question throughout the reading process When students know, prior to reading, that they need to come up with a question, their awareness of the text and comprehension is heightening Teach students to ask several types of questions - both literal and inferential - however, initially have students focus on asking literal questions Students often start out asking unimportant questions but continue modeling and it eventually comes to them Use a variety of devices to encourage questioning while reading - written or not written - (examples provided) Students must have the answer to their question
  • Purpose: Visualizing enables readers to make the words on a page real and concrete. It’s a movie text in your head which increases the student’s level of engagement and attention. Visualizing also strengthens inferential thinking. Encourage students to use their own background knowledge, plus what the author provides in illustrations or text to create their own mental image Make a movie in their minds to help them better understand the actual text Think-aloud Language: “ I can picture in my mind …” “ I can almost taste the …” “ I could hear the …” “ I can imagine what it is like to …” “ I visualize …” Eliciting Responses: “ What pictures come to your mind?” “ Do the pictures or images that you just told me about help you to understand the story (text) better? How?” “ How can you place yourself in the text?”
  • Determining Importance Sift and sort information dependent on the purpose of reading Synthesizing Combining new information with existing knowledge to form a new line of thinking Purpose: Taking information in and reconstructing how we think about the world based on what we just learned. Think of something going into a music synthesizer and coming out something different. It is the same concept.
  • Make a judgment about what you are reading.
  • Metacognition - monitor your use of strategies “ Thinking about your thinking” (schema) Promotes conscious thinking and reflection of comprehension strategies Think-alouds Make your thinking public Cooperative Learning Promotes student learning and academic achievement Develops skills in oral communication Deepens understanding through social interactions Scaffolding Levels of Support and Release Zone of Proximal Development Modeling, monitoring, and checking for understanding
  • Supplies a rich context for vocabulary building Introduces quality children’s literature Increases repertoire of language and its use Develops comprehension strategies Improves listening skills Promotes phonemic awareness
  • Develop an understanding of phonology and word analysis Model comprehension strategies Increase fluency Demonstrate the process of reading
  • Exposes students to a variety of purposes for writing Instructs students in the writing process Develops an understanding of the connection between reading and writing Allows direct and explicit instruction in phonology and word analysis Provides tools for independent writing success
  • Identify the essential nouns and verbs while maintaining the original meaning of the text Build oral language structure and vocabulary Create meaningful discussions in the content areas Help students understand the reciprocity of reading and writing Teach writing to both proficient and struggling readers
  • Allows observation of strategic reading in selected text Provides direct instruction of problem-solving strategies Allows for classroom intervention of reading difficulties Teaches comprehension strategies
  • Construct meaning with in-depth and rich discussion Help readers in a shared experience make personal and textual connections Help students develop a deeper appreciation for and understanding of literature
  • Improve reading comprehension using the Fabulous Four Help students monitor their reading comprehension Guide students to become metacognitive and reflective in the use of the strategies
  • Allows self-selection of texts Allows students to practice comprehension strategies Develops fluency using familiar texts Fosters love of reading
  • Encourages writing for different purposes and audiences Fosters creativity Allows opportunity to practice
  • Develop awareness of oral language Communicate to an audience through self-expression Modeling, application, and feedback

Transcript

  • 1. Building a Proficient Reader A Brief Overview of the Tools
  • 2. Instructional Framework Foundations Oral Language Phonological Skills Vocabulary Comprehension Strategies Individual Independent Reading Independent Writing Oral Presentation Small Group Guided Reading Book Clubs Reciprocal Teaching Whole Group Read Aloud Shared Reading Interactive Writing Interactive Editing Whole Group Small Group Individual
  • 3. Super Six + Comprehension Strategies
  • 4. Monitoring/Clarifying
  • 5. Predicting and Inferring
  • 6. Making Connections
  • 7. Questioning
  • 8. Visualizing
  • 9. Summarizing/Synthesizing
  • 10. Evaluating
  • 11. Instructional Framework Foundations Oral Language Phonological Skills Vocabulary Comprehension Individual Independent Reading Independent Writing Oral Presentation Small Group Guided Reading Book Clubs Reciprocal Teaching Whole Group Read Aloud Shared Reading Interactive Writing Interactive Editing Metacognition Think-Alouds Cooperative Learning Scaffolding Whole Group Small Group Individual
  • 12. TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY A Model for Success for All Students Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Focus Lesson Guided Instruction “ I do it” “ We do it” “ You do it together” Collaborative Independent “ You do it alone”
  • 13. I do it. We do it. You do it together Yo u do it alone . TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Interactive Read Aloud Shared Reading Interactive Writing Interactive Editing Whole Group Instruction Guided Reading Book Clubs Reciprocal Teaching Small Group Instruction Independent Reading Independent Writing Oral Presentation Individual
  • 14. Interactive Read-Aloud
  • 15. Shared Reading
  • 16. Interactive Writing
  • 17. Interactive Editing
  • 18. Guided Reading
  • 19. Book Clubs
  • 20. Reciprocal Teaching
  • 21. Independent Reading
  • 22. Independent Writing
  • 23. Oral Presentation
  • 24. Web Links
    • Beth Newingham’s Website
    • Reading A-Z
  • 25. Resources
    • Oczkus, L. (2004). Super six comprehension strategies: 35 sessions and more for reading success. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon.
    • Keene, E., & and Zimmerman, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a reader’s workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
    • Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. York, ME: Stenhouse.
  • 26. Resources
    • Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. S. (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    • Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. S. (2001). Guiding readers and writers grades 3–6. Teaching comprehension, genre, and content literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    • Oczkus, L. (2003). Reciprocal teaching at work: Strategies for improving comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  • 27. Resources
    • Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.