K 2comprehensionlockwood

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  • Oral Language
    Assist students in language acquisition
    Develop and increase vocabulary
    Promote the use of accurate language structure
    Vocabulary
    Builds a foundation for comprehension
    Models, supports, and develops strategic reading strategies
    Comprehension
    Encourage students to understand that reading and writing have meaning and purpose
    Application of the Sensational Seven Comprehension Strategies
    Guides students to use their prior knowledge to assist in learning new things
    Phonological Skills
    Builds a foundation of phonemic awareness for explicit skill acquisition
    Teaches systematic phonics through writing, spelling, and reading
    Supports development of accurate spelling
    Uses oral language to access reading and writing
    Comprehension
    Encourage students to understand that reading and writing have meaning and purpose
    Application of the Sensational Seven Comprehension Strategies
    Guides students to use their prior knowledge to assist in learning new things
  • Thinking about one’s own thinking
    Check for understanding
  • Predicting
    Purpose:
    Predicting is a strategy that assists students in setting a purpose for reading and in monitoring their reading comprehension. It allows them to interact with the text.
    Involves previewing the text to anticipate what happens next
    Students are predicting what they think they will learn
    Stop periodically in the text to ask students to gather information and make a logical prediction for the next portion of the book / text
    Background knowledge and newly learning information is used to make logical predictions
    Going back and revisiting previous predictions solidifies the purpose of predicting…gathering meaning
    This strategy is done before and during reading
    Inferring
    Purpose:
    To read between the lines… gathering information from their background knowledge and adding it to the information the author has provided. The bedrock of comprehension
    Predicting is related to inferring: we predict outcomes, events, or actions that are confirmed or contradicted by the end of the text
    Inferences are open-ended and may remain unresolved when the story draws to a close
    Inferences can be made from the cover and illustrations as well as the text
  • Purpose:
    Connections enhance our understanding of the text.
    Connecting
    Connect themes, characters, and issues from one book to another.
    Make connections between what students read and the larger world.
    This nudges them into thinking about bigger, more expansive issues beyond their universe of home, school, and neighborhood.
    Connecting Language
    “This reminds me of…”
    “I remember when...”
    “I read another book that reminds me of…”
    “I have a connection…”
  • Purpose:
    Questioning automatically increases their reading comprehension when they read the text, process the meaning, make inferences and connections to prior knowledge, and, finally, generate a question.
    Questioning
    Good readers constantly question throughout the reading process
    When students know, prior to reading, that they need to come up with a question, their awareness of the text and comprehension is heightening
    Teach students to ask several types of questions - both literal and inferential - however, initially have students focus on asking literal questions
    Students often start out asking unimportant questions but continue modeling and it eventually comes to them
    Use a variety of devices to encourage questioning while reading - written or not written - (examples provided)
    Students must have the answer to their question
  • Purpose:
    Visualizing enables readers to make the words on a page real and concrete. It’s a movie text in your head which increases the student’s level of engagement and attention. Visualizing also strengthens inferential thinking.
    Encourage students to use their own background knowledge, plus what the author provides in illustrations or text to create their own mental image
    Make a movie in their minds to help them better understand the actual text
    Think-aloud Language:
    “I can picture in my mind …”
    “I can almost taste the …”
    “I could hear the …”
    “I can imagine what it is like to …”
    “I visualize …”
    Eliciting Responses:
    “What pictures come to your mind?”
    “Do the pictures or images that you just told me about help you to understand the story (text) better? How?”
    “How can you place yourself in the text?”
  • Determining Importance
    Sift and sort information dependent on the purpose of reading
    Synthesizing
    Combining new information with existing knowledge to form a new line of thinking
    Purpose:
    Taking information in and reconstructing how we think about the world based on what we just learned. Think of something going into a music synthesizer and coming out something different. It is the same concept.
  • Make a judgment about what you are reading.
  • Metacognition - monitor your use of strategies
    “Thinking about your thinking” (schema)
    Promotes conscious thinking and reflection of comprehension strategies
    Think-alouds
    Make your thinking public
    Cooperative Learning
    Promotes student learning and academic achievement
    Develops skills in oral communication
    Deepens understanding through social interactions
    Scaffolding
    Levels of Support and Release
    Zone of Proximal Development
    Modeling, monitoring, and checking for understanding
  • Supplies a rich context for vocabulary building
    Introduces quality children’s literature
    Increases repertoire of language and its use
    Develops comprehension strategies
    Improves listening skills
    Promotes phonemic awareness
  • Develop an understanding of phonology and word analysis
    Model comprehension strategies
    Increase fluency
    Demonstrate the process of reading
  • Exposes students to a variety of purposes for writing
    Instructs students in the writing process
    Develops an understanding of the connection between reading and writing
    Allows direct and explicit instruction in phonology and word analysis
    Provides tools for independent writing success
  • Identify the essential nouns and verbs while maintaining the original meaning of the text
    Build oral language structure and vocabulary
    Create meaningful discussions in the content areas
    Help students understand the reciprocity of reading and writing
    Teach writing to both proficient and struggling readers
  • Allows observation of strategic reading in selected text
    Provides direct instruction of problem-solving strategies
    Allows for classroom intervention of reading difficulties
    Teaches comprehension strategies
  • Construct meaning with in-depth and rich discussion
    Help readers in a shared experience make personal and textual connections
    Help students develop a deeper appreciation for and understanding of literature
  • Improve reading comprehension using the Fabulous Four
    Help students monitor their reading comprehension
    Guide students to become metacognitive and reflective in the use of the strategies
  • Allows self-selection of texts
    Allows students to practice comprehension strategies
    Develops fluency using familiar texts
    Fosters love of reading
  • Encourages writing for different purposes and audiences
    Fosters creativity
    Allows opportunity to practice
  • Develop awareness of oral language
    Communicate to an audience through self-expression
    Modeling, application, and feedback
  • K 2comprehensionlockwood

    1. 1. Building a Proficient Reader A Brief Overview of the Tools
    2. 2. Instructional Framework Foundations Oral Language Phonological Skills Vocabulary Comprehension Strategies Foundations Oral Language Phonological Skills Vocabulary Comprehension Strategies Individual Independent Reading Independent Writing Oral Presentation Individual Independent Reading Independent Writing Oral Presentation Small Group Guided Reading Book Clubs Reciprocal Teaching Small Group Guided Reading Book Clubs Reciprocal Teaching Whole Group Read Aloud Shared Reading Interactive Writing Interactive Editing Whole Group Read Aloud Shared Reading Interactive Writing Interactive Editing Whole Group Small Group Individual
    3. 3. Super Six + Comprehension Strategies QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    4. 4. Monitoring/Clarifying
    5. 5. Predicting and Inferring
    6. 6. Making Connections QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    7. 7. Questioning QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    8. 8. Visualizing
    9. 9. Summarizing/Synthesizing
    10. 10. Evaluating
    11. 11. Instructional Framework Foundations Oral Language Phonological Skills Vocabulary Comprehension Foundations Oral Language Phonological Skills Vocabulary Comprehension Individual Independent Reading Independent Writing Oral Presentation Individual Independent Reading Independent Writing Oral Presentation Small Group Guided Reading Book Clubs Reciprocal Teaching Small Group Guided Reading Book Clubs Reciprocal Teaching Whole Group Read Aloud Shared Reading Interactive Writing Interactive Editing Whole Group Read Aloud Shared Reading Interactive Writing Interactive Editing Whole Group Small Group Individual Metacognition Think-Alouds Cooperative Learning Scaffolding
    12. 12. TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction “I do it” “We do it” “You do it together”Collaborative Independent “You do it alone” A Model for Success for All Students Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    13. 13. I do it. We do it. You do it together You do it alone. Interactive Read Aloud Shared Reading Interactive Writing Interactive Editing Whole Group Instruction Guided Reading Book Clubs Reciprocal Teaching Small Group Instruction Independent Reading Independent Writing Oral Presentation Individual TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY
    14. 14. Interactive Read-Aloud
    15. 15. Shared Reading
    16. 16. Interactive Writing
    17. 17. Interactive Editing
    18. 18. Guided Reading
    19. 19. Book Clubs
    20. 20. Reciprocal Teaching
    21. 21. Independent Reading
    22. 22. Independent Writing
    23. 23. Oral Presentation
    24. 24. Web Links Beth Newingham’s Website Reading A-Z
    25. 25. Resources Oczkus, L. (2004). Super six comprehension strategies: 35 sessions and more for reading success. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon. Keene, E., & and Zimmerman, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a reader’s workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. York, ME: Stenhouse.
    26. 26. Resources Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. S. (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. S. (2001). Guiding readers and writers grades 3–6. Teaching comprehension, genre, and content literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Oczkus, L. (2003). Reciprocal teaching at work: Strategies for improving comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    27. 27. Resources Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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