INTERACŢIUNE OM-CALCULATOR 2008




  Volumul de lucrări ale celei de a cincea ediţii a
Conferinţei Naţionale de Interacţi...
ORGANIZARE



                       Preşedintele conferinţei
Sabin-Corneliu Buraga, Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Ia...
Conferinţă organizată cu sprijinul:




                    Sponsori principali:




                       Alţi sponsori:...
COMITETUL ŞTIINŢIFIC


          Constantin-Gelu Apostol, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureşti
                        ...
Evaluatori voluntari

            Lenuţa Alboaie, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi
    Andrei Băutu, Academia Navală Mircea ce...
Cuprins
Prefaţă .........................................................                                    v

Lucrare in...
Portal web de ştiri autonom bazat pe prelucrarea limbajului natural ................             85
Traian Rebedea, Costin...
Prefaţă



Iată-ne la a cincea ediţie a conferinţei anuale a grupului RoCHI – grupul local al ACM SIGCHI din
România. Obie...
Secţiunea Utilizabilitatea sistemelor interactive cuprinde trei lucrări. „Evaluarea utilizabilităţii
şi eficacităţii pedag...
de prelucrare a limbajului natural cu scopul de a facilita regăsirea informaţiilor de către utilizatori.
Lucrarea „Gestiun...
Volumul de faţă mai conţine rezumatele în engleză ale lucrărilor prezentate mai sus, precum şi
rezumatele extinse ale prez...
S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008




            Model-Driven Engineering of User Interfaces:
...
S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008



mon computing technologies. The following definition was a...
S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008



   tivity and, if needed, the context of use (user, platfo...
S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008




•     Task model: is a model describing the interactive t...
S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008




C3. Difficulty of identifying the minimal amount of model...
S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008



duced by this change. For instance, a particular organizat...
S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008




6. GLOBAL CHALLENGES                                     ...
S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008




                                                         ...
S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008




8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                       ...
S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008



[28] OMG: Model Driven Architecture (MDA). Document       ...
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008
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Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008

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Conține lucrările Conferinței Naționale de Interacțiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008: http://rochi2008.utcluj.ro/
Volum coordonat de Sabin Buraga (Universitatea "A.I.Cuza", Iaşi, Facultatea de Informatica) și Ion Juvină (Carnegie Mellon University).

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Transcript of "Volumul de lucrari ale Conferintei Nationale de Interactiune Om-Calculator -- RoCHI 2008"

  1. 1. INTERACŢIUNE OM-CALCULATOR 2008 Volumul de lucrări ale celei de a cincea ediţii a Conferinţei Naţionale de Interacţiune Om-Calculator Universitatea „A. I. Cuza” din Iaşi 18-19 septembrie 2008 Editori: Sabin-Corneliu Buraga Ion Juvină MATRIX ROM BUCUREŞTI 2008
  2. 2. ORGANIZARE Preşedintele conferinţei Sabin-Corneliu Buraga, Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Iaşi, Romania Preşedintele comitetului ştiinţific Ion Juvină, Carnegie Melon University, USA Preşedinte al comitetului de organizare Vlad Rădulescu, Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Iaşi, Romania Administrare sit Web al conferinţei RoCHI Dorian Gorgan, Universitatea Tehnică din Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  3. 3. Conferinţă organizată cu sprijinul: Sponsori principali: Alţi sponsori: Partener: Fundaţia Alumni a Universităţii „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Iaşi
  4. 4. COMITETUL ŞTIINŢIFIC Constantin-Gelu Apostol, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureşti Alexandru Balog, ICI Bucureşti Boldur-Eugen Bărbat, Universitatea Lucian Blaga, Sibiu Mihaela Brut, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Sabin-Corneliu Buraga, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Cristina Chisăliţă, Twente University Alexandra Gălătescu, ICI Bucureşti Dorian Gorgan, Universitatea Tehnica Cluj-Napoca Gheorghe Iosif, Institutul de Filozofie şi Psihologie al Academiei Române, Bucureşti Ion Juvină, Carnegie Mellon University Ana-Maria Marhan, Institutul de Filozofie şi Psihologie al Academiei Române, Bucureşti Adrian Mihalache, Universitatea Politehnică Bucureşti Delia Mitrea, Universitatea Tehnica Cluj-Napoca Ioana Moisil, Universitatea Lucian Blaga, Sibiu Cristina Niculescu, Institutul de Cercetări pentru Inteligenţă Artificială, Bucureşti Horia Pitariu, Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca Dorin Mircea Popovici, Universitatea Ovidius din Constanta Costin Pribeanu, ICI Bucureşti Cristian Rusu, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso Adriana Mihaela Guran, Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca Stefan Trăuşan-Matu, Universitatea Politehnică Bucureşti Dan-Ioan Tufiş, Institutul de Cercetări pentru Inteligenţă Artificială, Bucureşti Gabriel Zamfir, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureşti
  5. 5. Evaluatori voluntari Lenuţa Alboaie, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Andrei Băutu, Academia Navală Mircea cel Bătrân, Constanţa Elena Băutu, Universitatea Ovidius din Constanţa Eugeniu Cristescu, STS Bucureşti Mihai Diac, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Diana Elena Diaconu, CNIVT Mircea Giurgiu, Universitatea Tehnică Cluj-Napoca Laurian Gridinoc, Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, UK Adrian Groza, Universitatea Tehnică Cluj-Napoca Dragoş Iordache, ICI Bucureşti Alexandru Daniel Iordan, IPAR Bucureşti Adrian Plop, INPCESPH Bucureşti Adina Manoli, Cognos Romania Traian Eugen Rebedea, Universitatea Politehnică Bucureşti Teodor Ştefănuţ, Universitatea Tehnica Cluj-Napoca Emil Stănescu, ICI Bucureşti Ileana Stănescu, ICI Bucureşti Radu-Daniel Vătavu, USMS Organizatori locali Lenuţa Alboaie, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Mihai Diac, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Sergiu Dumitriu Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Marta Gîrdea, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Cristian Leonte, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Anca-Paula Luca, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Simona Pintilie, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi Ecaterina Valică, Universitatea A.I.Cuza, Iaşi
  6. 6. Cuprins Prefaţă ......................................................... v Lucrare invitată Model-Driven Engineering of User Interfaces: Promises, Successes, Failures, and Challenges 1 Jean Vanderdonckt Egalitate de şanse prin promovarea accesibilităţii în dezvoltarea sistemelor interactive .... 11 Constantin-Gelu Apostol Evaluarea accesibilităţii unei aplicaţii Web pentru persoane cu deficienţe de vedere ...... 15 Cristina Simona Alecu Evaluarea utilizabilităţii şi eficacităţii pedagogice a unui scenariu de învăţare bazat pe realitate îmbogăţită ........................................... 19 Costin Pribeanu, Dragoş Daniel Iordache, Vincentas Lamanauskas, Rytis Vilkonis MovieRatings: Utilizabilitate Web 2.0 ..................................... 25 Adrian Buzgar, Simona Lazarovici Aplicaţii colaborative bazate pe ontologii ................................... 29 Vlad Posea, Ovidiu Mara Managementul hărţilor temporale într-un mediu colaborativ ...................... 37 Cosmin Vârlan O îmbunătăţire a performanţelor algoritmului KNN în sistemele de recomandare pe web ... 41 Costin-Gabriel Chiru, Ştefan Trăuşan-Matu, Traian Rebedea Evaluare comparativă a două scenarii de învăţare bazate pe realitate îmbogăţită ........ 49 Alexandru Balog, Dragoş Daniel Iordache, Costin Pribeanu Noi abordări în evaluarea automată a utilizabilităţii ........................... 53 Adriana-Mihaela Guran, Daniela-Maria Onaca, Horia D. Pitariu Bornă interactivă informativă bazată pe realităţi augmentate ..................... 57 Mihai Polceanu, Dorin-Mircea Popovici Soluţii Java pentru transmisie vocală în timp real utilizând protocolul UDP ............ 61 Titus Felix Furtună, Marian Dârdală DAISY - cărţi digitale accesibile pentru persoanele cu deficienţe vizuale şi dificultăţi de citire 65 Marian Pădure Sistem multimedia distribuit pentru interacţiunea om-calculator .................... 69 Adriana Reveiu Ignorarea informaţiei irelevante de pe ecran ................................. 73 Ion Juvină Comunicare vizuală prin intermediul infograficelor ........................... 77 Ecaterina Valică O abordare centrată pe utilizator în dezvoltarea unui asistent în alegerea carierei (profesiei) 81 Daniela-Maria Onacă, Adriana Mihaela Guran
  7. 7. Portal web de ştiri autonom bazat pe prelucrarea limbajului natural ................ 85 Traian Rebedea, Costin-Gabriel Chiru, Ştefan Trăuşan-Matu Gestiunea datelor personale bazată pe microformate ........................... 93 Marius Butuc, Sabin-Corneliu Buraga Analiza imaginarului din texte .......................................... 97 Lidia Trăuşan-Matu, Valentin-Andrei Canciu, Ştefan Trăuşan-Matu ASAP – Sistem avansat de evaluare a participanţilor la un chat .................... 105 Mihai Dascălu, Erol-Valeriu Chioaşcă, Ştefan Trăuşan-Matu Prezenţa socială şi afectivă în comunicarea online ............................ 113 Ana Maria Marhan Comunităţile online: abordări, principii, dileme .............................. 117 Irina Cristescu Folosirea serviciilor Web de pe dispozitive mobile. Aplicaţie pentru mediul universitar ..... 121 Emil Stănescu, Ileana Stănescu, Răzvan Zota, Laura Stănescu Abordări privind evaluarea calităţii serviciilor publice on-line (E-ServEval) ............ 125 Alexandru Balog Atribute hedonice şi pragmatice în determinarea experienţei utilizatorului de telefonie mobilă 129 Daniela-Maria Onacă, Andreia Daniela Mureşan Colaborarea în mediile de e-learning – aspecte psihologice şi tehnologii actuale ......... 133 Alexandru D. Iordan Creşterea eficienţei didactice a jocului pe calculator prin procesarea informaţiei la nivel acţional, iconic şi verbal ...................... 139 Verginia Creţu Tehnici de adnotare grafică în eLearning ................................... 143 Teodor Ştefănuţ, Dorian Gorgan Atelier de lucru: Tehnologiile informaţiei şi comunicaţiilor în sprijinul persoanelor cu nevoi speciale.... 147 Moderatori: Elena Jitaru, Aurelia Băndilă, Adriana Reveiu Atelier de lucru: Şabloane de interacţiune............................................. 163 Moderator: Ecaterina Valică Abstracts of the papers presented at RoCHI 2008 ............................ 169
  8. 8. Prefaţă Iată-ne la a cincea ediţie a conferinţei anuale a grupului RoCHI – grupul local al ACM SIGCHI din România. Obiectivul acestui grup este de a constitui un forum interdisciplinar pentru schimbul de idei şi experienţă în domeniul interacţiunii om-calculator (HCI – Human-Computer Interaction). Precedentele ediţii ale conferinţei RoCHI au fost: • RoCHI 2007 – A patra Conferinţă Naţională de Interacţiune Om-Calculator, Universitatea Ovidius din Constanţa, 20-21 Septembrie 2007. • RoCHI 2006 – A treia Conferinţă Naţională de Interacţiune Om-Calculator, Academia de Ştiinţe Economice, Bucureşti, 21-22 Septembrie 2006. • RoCHI 2005 – A doua Conferinţă Naţională de Interacţiune Om-Calculator, Universitatea „Babeş-Bolyai” din Cluj-Napoca, 15-16 Septembrie 2005. • RoCHI 2004 – Prima Conferinţă Naţională de Interacţiune Om-Calculator, Universitatea Politehnica din Bucureşti, 23-24 Septembrie 2004. Volumul de lucrări pe care îl prefaţăm cuprinde lucrările selectate pentru a fi prezentate şi discutate în zilele de joi şi vineri, 18 şi 19 septembrie 2008, în cadrul Facultăţii de Informatică a Universităţii „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” din Iaşi, locul unde s-a desfăşurat RoCHI 2008. În cele ce urmează introducem pe scurt aceste lucrări, descrise conform secţiunilor conferinţei. Prima lucrare este semnată de invitatul special al grupului RoCHI, renumitul profesor Jean Vanderdonckt de la Universitatea Catolică din Louvain (Belgia) şi este intitulată „Model-Driven Engineering of User Interfaces: Promises, Successes, Failures, and Challenges”. Autorul prezintă o metodologie specifică de proiectare şi de realizare a interfeţelor-utilizator, apoi discută succesele, eseurile şi provocările asociate cu implementarea acestei metodologii. Secţiunea Accesibilitatea sistemelor interactive conţine trei lucrări. Lucrarea „Egalitate de şanse prin promovarea accesibilităţii in dezvoltarea sistemelor interactive” semnată de Constantin- Gelu Apostol realizează o trecere în revistă a iniţiativelor europene pentru promovarea accesibilităţii. Lucrarea „Evaluarea accesibilităţii unei aplicaţii web pentru persoane cu deficienţe de vedere” având- o ca autoare pe Cristina Simona Alecu prezintă un caz practic de evaluare a unei aplicaţii web cu ajutorul unui instrument descris detaliat în cadrul lucrării. Lucrarea cu caracter informativ „DAISY – cărţi digitale accesibile pentru persoanele cu deficienţe vizuale şi dificultăţi de citire” realizată de Marian Pădure prezintă principii şi instrumente de creare şi utilizare a cărţilor digitale destinate persoanelor cu deficienţe de vedere. v
  9. 9. Secţiunea Utilizabilitatea sistemelor interactive cuprinde trei lucrări. „Evaluarea utilizabilităţii şi eficacităţii pedagogice a unui scenariu de învăţare bazat pe realitate îmbogăţită” este semnată de Costin Pribeanu, Dragoş Daniel Iordache, Vincentas Lamanauskas si Rytis Vilkonis şi descrie un cadru metodologic de evaluare a utilizabilităţii sistemelor de realitate îmbogăţită, ilustrând această metodologie cu un caz concret de evaluare a unui sistem de e-learning. Lucrarea „MovieRatings: Utilizabilitate web 2.0” realizată de Adrian Buzgar şi Simona Lazarovici discută aspecte de utilizabilitate legate de implementarea unor aplicaţii complexe aliniate curentului web 2.0 şi exemplifică aceste aspecte printr-un studiu de caz al unei astfel de aplicaţii. Lucrarea „Noi abordări în evaluarea automată a utilizabilităţii” avându-i drept autori pe Adriana-Mihaela Guran, Daniela-Maria Onacă si Horia D. Pitariu propune utilizarea a două tehnici moderne de programare – programarea orientată pe aspecte şi, respectiv, agenţi – în evaluarea automată a utilizabilităţii. Secţiunea Sisteme colaborative cuprinde trei lucrări. Lucrarea „Aplicaţii colaborative bazate pe ontologii” semnată de Vlad Posea şi Ovidiu Mara propune utilizarea unor tehnici de prelucrare a limbajului natural şi web semantic (e.g., adnotare automată, căutare bazată pe concepte) în dezvoltarea unor aplicaţii de tip forum cu scopul de a îmbunătăţirii funcţionalitatea şi utilizabilitatea acestor aplicaţii. Lucrarea „Managementul hărţilor temporale într-un mediu colaborativ” realizată de Cosmin Vârlan propune o îmbunătăţire a sistemelor de navigare pentru autovehicule prin cointeresarea utilizatorilor în construirea hărţilor necesare navigării. Următoarea lucrare are titlul „O îmbunătăţire a performanţelor algoritmului KNN în sistemele de recomandare pe Web”, fiind semnată de Costin- Gabriel Chiru, Ştefan Trăuşan-Matu şi Traian Rebedea şi propunând o îmbunătăţire a unui algoritm de filtrare colaborativă care poate fi utilizat in construirea de sisteme interactive personalizate. Superioritatea tehnică şi valoarea practică a soluţiei propuse sunt demonstrate empiric. Secţiunea Sisteme de realitate îmbogăţită include trei contribuţii. Lucrarea „Evaluare comparativă a două scenarii de învăţare bazate pe realitate îmbogăţită” este semnată de Alexandru Balog, Dragoş Daniel Iordache şi Costin Pribeanu, demonstrând valoarea unei evaluări comprehensive (calitativă, cantitativă şi comparativă) a impactului introducerii unui nou instrument didactic bazat pe realitate îmbogăţită. Lucrarea „Borna interactivă informativă bazată pe realităţi augmentate” semnată de Mihai Polceanu şi Dorin-Mircea Popovici propune o soluţie tehnică de realizare a unui dispozitiv de informare publică accesibil şi utilizabil. Soluţia ilustrată este analizată prin comparaţie cu soluţii alternative şi este implementată într-o aplicaţie reală. Lucrarea semnată de Dragoş Daniel Iordache şi Ioan Neacşu are titlul „Realitatea îmbogăţită că mediu de învăţare” şi evidenţiază aspectele metodologice şi practice legate de aplicarea unor tehnici de realitate îmbogăţită în predarea cunoştinţelor de biologie şi chimie în învăţământul general. Secţiunea Aspecte utilizator în HCI cuprinde trei lucrări. Lucrarea „Ignorarea informaţiei irelevante de pe ecran” scrisă de Ion Juvină are un caracter teoretic, încercând să explice modul în care utilizatorii selectează informaţiile relevante şi ignoră informaţiile irelevante prezentate pe ecrane. „Comunicare vizuală prin intermediul infograficelor” semnată de Ecaterina Valică trece în revistă multitudinea de utilizări a infograficelor în comunicarea vizuală şi argumentează în favoarea utilizării infograficelor în prezentarea informaţiilor complexe la nivelul interfeţelor-utilizator. Contribuţia „O abordare centrată pe utilizator în dezvoltarea unui asistent în alegerea carierei (profesiei)” semnată de Daniela-Măria Onaca şi Adriana-Mihaela Guran prezintă un demers de analiză şi modelare de sarcină în vederea proiectării unui sistem inteligent de suport al deciziei. Secţiunea Interacţiune Web inteligentă pune la dispoziţie următoarele lucrări. „Portal web de ştiri autonom bazat pe prelucrarea limbajului natural” este semnată de Traian Rebedea, Costin- Gabriel Chiru şi Ştefan Trăuşan-Matu, propunând un algoritm de clasificare automată bazat pe tehnici vi
  10. 10. de prelucrare a limbajului natural cu scopul de a facilita regăsirea informaţiilor de către utilizatori. Lucrarea „Gestiunea datelor personale bazată pe microformate” semnată de Marius-Gabriel Butuc şi Sabin-Corneliu Buraga descrie un motor de căutare inteligent specializat pe informaţii de contact. Instrumentul prezentat facilitează dezvoltarea de reţele sociale pe web. Lucrarea „Analiza imaginarului din text” semnată de Lidia Trăuşan-Matu, Valentin-Andrei Canciu şi Ştefan Trăuşan- Matu propune o modalitate originală de automatizare a analizei de conţinut bazată pe utilizarea tehnicilor de prelucrare a limbajului natural care ar putea fi folosită în personalizarea dialogului om- maşină sau în asistarea tehnologică a comunicării interumane. Secţiunea Aspecte sociale în HCI cuprinde trei lucrări. Lucrarea „ASAP – Sistem avansat de evaluare a participanţilor la un chat” îi are drept autori pe Mihai Dascălu, Erol-Valeriu Chioaşcă şi Ştefan Trăuşan-Matu descriind o metodă de profilare automată a participanţilor la discuţii online care combină tehnici de prelucrare a limbajului natural cu noţiuni de reţele sociale. Lucrarea „Prezenţa socială şi afectivă în comunicarea bazată pe noile tehnologii” semnată de Ana-Maria Marhan trece în revistă rezultatele unor studii asupra modalităţilor de sprijinire tehnologică a comunicării emoţiilor în mediile de comunicare bazate pe text. Lucrarea „Comunităţile online: abordări, principii, dileme” este redactată de Irina Cristescu, încercând o fundamentare sociologică şi informatică a proiectării comunităţilor online. Secţiunea Servicii web şi aplicaţii mobile include lucrările următoare. „Folosirea serviciilor web de pe dispozitive mobile. Aplicaţie pentru mediul universitar” e semnată de Emil Stănescu, Ileana Stănescu, Răzvan Zota şi Laura Stănescu si prezintă arhitectura şi detaliile tehnice ale unui sistem de informare bazat pe tehnologia serviciilor web, accesibil de pe dispozitive mobile. Lucrarea „Abordări privind evaluarea calităţii serviciilor publice online (E-ServEval)” îl are ca autor pe Alexandru Balog şi trece în revistă modalităţile existenţe de evaluare a calităţii serviciilor publice online, propunând un sistem original multifactorial de evaluare calitativă a serviciilor publice din România. Contribuţia „Atribute hedonice şi pragmatice în determinarea experienţei utilizatorului de telefonie mobila” este semnată de Daniela-Maria Onacă, Andreia Daniela Mureşan şi Horia D. Pitariu, referindu-se la o cercetare pe bază de chestionar a satisfacţiei utilizatorului de telefonie mobilă. Rezultatele evidenţiază importantă considerării atributelor hedonice (e.g., plăcerea utilizării) în proiectarea interfeţelor- utilizator. O altă secţiune este HCI în sisteme de e-learning care cuprinde lucrările descrise în continuare. „Colaborarea în mediile de e-learning – aspecte psihologice şi tehnologii actuale” este scrisă de Alexandru D. Iordan şi prezintă o trecere în revistă a aspectelor psihologice care trebuie luate în considerare în proiectarea sistemelor de facilitare a învăţării colaborative. Lucrarea „Tehnici de adnotare grafică în e-learning” semnată de Teodor Stefănuţ şi Dorian Gorgan prezintă o aplicaţie de adnotare a imaginilor bi- şi tri-dimensionale şi rezultatele implementării acestei aplicaţii într-un mediu e-learning. Lucrarea „Creşterea eficienţei didactice a jocului pe calculator prin procesarea informaţiei la nivel acţional, iconic şi verbal” o are drept autoare pe Verginia Creţu, evidenţiind valoarea didactică a jocurilor computerizate proiectate pe principii psihologice pentru elevii cu deficienţe mintale. Secţiunea Interfeţe multimodale cuprinde două lucrări cu caracter informativ. Lucrarea „Soluţii Java pentru transmisie vocală în timp real utilizând protocolul UDP” este semnată de Felix Titus Furtună şi Marian Dârdală, încercând să atragă atenţia comunităţii RoCHI asupra existenţei de soluţii optime şi ieftine de captare, transport şi redare a datelor audio în diferite tipuri de reţele de utilizatori. Lucrarea „Sistem multimedia distribuit pentru interacţiunea om-calculator” o are ca autoare pe Adriana Reveiu şi prezintă unui sistem distribuit pentru achiziţia, controlul şi gestiunea fluxurilor multimedia cu posibile aplicaţii în interacţiunea om-calculator. vii
  11. 11. Volumul de faţă mai conţine rezumatele în engleză ale lucrărilor prezentate mai sus, precum şi rezumatele extinse ale prezentărilor din cadrul celor două ateliere de lucru – Tehnologiile informaţiei şi comunicaţiilor în sprijinul persoanelor cu nevoi speciale si Şabloane de interacţiune – din prima zi a conferinţei. Încheiem această prefaţă mulţumind evaluatorilor voluntari din grupul RoCHI şi tuturor persoanelor implicate în organizare. Nu în ultimul rând, exprimăm gratitudinea noastră sponsorilor şi susţinătorilor conferinţei RoCHI 2008. Ion Juvină Sabin-Corneliu Buraga Preşedintele Comitetului de Program Preşedintele Conferinţei viii
  12. 12. S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008 Model-Driven Engineering of User Interfaces: Promises, Successes, Failures, and Challenges Jean Vanderdonckt Belgian Laboratory of Computer-Human Interaction (BCHI), Louvain School of Management (IAG), Université catholique de Louvain, Place des Doyens, 1 – B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) Phone: +32 10/478525 – Fax: +32 10/478324 – Skype: jeanvdd1712 jean.vanderdonckt@uclouvain.be, http://www.isys.ucl.ac.be/bchi/members/jva http://www.usixml.org, http://www.similar.cc, http://www.openinterface.org ABSTRACT such a methodology (i.e., the models, the method, and the tools) Model-driven engineering (MDE) of user interfaces consists in in order to discuss some successes and failures of this kind of describing a user interface and aspects involved in it (e.g., task, methodology. Finally, we would like to conclude by identifying domain, context of use) in models from which a final interface a series of challenges that should be solved for the future for is produced. With one big win in mind: when the user’s re- unlocking the breaks that remain unsolved. Since 1997, the Ob- quirements or the context of use change, the models change ac- ject Management Group (OMG – www.omg.org) [28] has cordingly and so does the supporting user interface. Models and launched an initiative called Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) a method for developing user interfaces based on MDE are pre- to support the development of complex, large, interactive soft- sented in this tutorial supporting forward engineering (a new in- ware systems providing a standardized architecture with which: terface is produced), reverse engineering (an existing interface – Systems can easily evolve to address constantly evolving is improved), and lateral engineering (an existing interface is user requirements. adapted to a new context of use). Software supporting this – Old, current and new technologies can be harmonized. method will be used based on UsiXML (User Interface eXten- – Business logic can be maintained constant or evolving in- sible Markup Language), a XML-compliant user interface de- dependently of the technological changes. scription language. – Legacy systems can be unified with new systems. Categories and Subject Descriptors In MDA, a systematic method is recommended to drive the de- D.2.2 [Software Engineering]: Design Tools and Techniques – velopment life cycle to guarantee some form of quality of the Computer-aided software engineering (CASE), Evolutionary resulting software system. Four principles underlie the OMG’s prototyping, Structured Programming, User Interfaces. H.5.2 [28] view of MDA [3,17,20,25]: [Information Interfaces and Presentation (e.g., HCI)]: User 1. Models are expressed in a well-formed unified notation and interfaces – Graphical user interfaces, Interaction styles, Input form the cornerstone to understanding software systems for devices and strategies, Prototyping, Voice I/O. enterprise scale information systems. The semantics of the models are based on meta-models. General Terms 2. The building of software systems can be organized around a Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Standardization, set of models by applying a series of transformations be- Languages. tween models, organized into an architectural framework of layers and transformations: model-to-model transforma- Keywords tions support any change between models while model-to- Domain model, model-driven architecture, model-driven engi- code transformation are typically associated with code pro- neering, model-to-model transformation, model-to-code trans- duction, automated or not. formation, software quality, task model, user interface descrip- 3. A formal underpinning for describing models in a set of tion language, user interface model. meta-models facilitates meaningful integration and trans- formation among models, and is the basis for automation 1. INTRODUCTION through software. In the past, many attempts to establish a comprehensive model- 4. Acceptance and adoption of this model-driven approach re- driven approach for developing the User Interface (UI) of an in- quires industry standards to provide openness to consumers, teractive application have been launched: from information re- and foster competition among vendors lated task (what are the actions carried out by the user), domain In this approach, models are applied in all steps of development (what are the objects manipulated in this task), user (who is the up to a target platform, providing source code, deployment and user), platform (what is the computing platform), environment configuration files,… MDE has been applied to many kinds of (in which environment is the user working), the presentation, business problems and integrated with a wide array of other the dialog, the help, the tutorial of one or many UIs should be common computing technologies, including the UI area. derived. Today, no consensus has been reached and no method has really emerged from these initiatives, namely by lack of Not all model-driven UI development environments or devel- standardization, but also because the aims and goals may opment methods can pretend to be compliant with these princi- largely vary from one interactive application to another. In this ples. If we apply OMG’s principles to the UI development life paper, we would like to review the main principles that under- cycle, it means that models should be obtained during steps of pin model-driven engineering of user interfaces in order to development until providing source code, deployment and con- make the promises of this methodology more explicit. Then, we figuration files. MDA has been applied to many kinds of busi- would like to examine more closely the three dimensions of ness problems and integrated with a wide array of other com- 1
  13. 13. S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008 mon computing technologies. The following definition was ap- odological guidance and support to designers and to all proved unanimously by 17 participants of the ORMSC plenary people who are involved in the Software Development Life session meeting in Montreal on 23-26 August 2004. The stated Cycle (SDLC). purpose of these two paragraphs was to provide principles to be 3. A tool (or a suite of software tools) that support the enact- followed in the revision of the MDA guide. ment of the development method. It is not because a tool is MDA is an OMG initiative that proposes to define a set of available that a development method has been rigorously non-proprietary standards that will specify interoperable defined. Of course, a tool may induce some method, but this technologies with which to realize model-driven develop- process remains poorly defined in a way that is implicit to ment with automated transformations. Not all of these tech- the tool. A tool should be explicitly developed in order to nologies will directly concern the transformation involved in support a development method, and not just what we have MDA. MDA does not necessarily rely on the UML, but, as a in mind. specialized kind of MDD (Model Driven Development), These three dimensions of a genuine development methodology MDA necessarily involves the use of model(s) in develop- (or approach) will be addressed in the next sections. First, a ment, which entails that at least one modeling language general outline and framework will be given, then a particular must be used. Any modeling language used in MDA must be section will be devoted to each dimension: models, method, and described in terms of the MOF language to enable the meta- supporting tool. data to be understood in a standard manner, which is a pre- condition for any activity to perform automated transforma- 2. TOWARDS A MDE-COMPLIANT tion. APPROACH FOR USER INTERFACE This definition emphasizes that models are not enough in order DEVELOPMENT to have a fully-MDA compliant UI development environment. Some environments may includes models, but do not rely on a Our main goal is to examine the experience gained by existing transformational approach as there in no transformation engine model-driven approaches for developing UIs and to introduce based on explicit transformations rules that can be edited by the the audience to the development of UIs based on MDE based designer. Or because there is no genuine modelling language on this experience. The particular objective is to teach how to behind. It is not just because there is a XML language that a practically setup, deploy, and apply a MDE-compliant ap- genuine modelling language may exist. This demonstrates that proach. The one that is outlined here is based on UsiXML (User in order to have a full MDA development methodology (and Interface eXtensible Markup Language – http://www.usixml. not just a tool), three dimensions should be covered [2]: org) as a UIDL, but the observations are independent of this language and could be equally applied to other UIDLs such as 1. A genuine UI model or set of related models that are UIML [15], XIML (www.ximl.org). In [35], we explain that strongly defined based on a trilogy (semantics, syntax, sty- one single UIDL does not fit all and that it is impossible to find listics) as any language should be defined [35]. Offering a out in one UIDL all the qualities required to successfully run a XML language does not necessarily include this trilogy. MDE-compliant approach. This UI description language is uni- Therefore, a UI model should be supported by a User Inter- formly used throughout the different steps of a MDE-compliant face Description Language (UIDL) or modelling language development life cycle to store the models involved in the vari- that cover this trilogy. ous processes. 2. A development method that is explicitly based on the previ- ously introduced models and that provides explicit meth- UsiXML Method engineering TransformiXML FlashiXML, QtkXML GrafiXML, InterpiXML IdealXML Rendering UsiXML UsiXML model: UsiXML model: models: task, Graph Abstract user Graph Concrete user Generative Final user domain transformations interface transformations interface programming interface VisualiXML Derivation rules KnowiXML GrafiXML, VisiXML SketchiXML, FormiXML ReversiXML PlastiXML, ComposiXML Computing-Independent Platform-Independent Platform-Specific Code Model (CIM) Model (PIM) Model (PSM) Figure 1. The MDE-compliant approach for UI development based on UsiXML. Figure 1 outlines the MDE-compliant approach for developing UIs decomposed into four major steps that result from the 1. Task and domain modelling (corresponding to the Com- Cameleon Reference Framework [4,40]: putting-Independent Model –CIM– in MDE): where a model is provided for the end user’s task, the domain of ac- 2
  14. 14. S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008 tivity and, if needed, the context of use (user, platform, and Task & domain environment). This step is supported by IdealXML [34]. Fig. 2a graphically depicts a task model expressed accord- ing to CTT notation [31]. This task model has been ex- tended with new task types, attributes, and relationships. 2. Abstract User Interface (corresponding to the Platform- Independent Model –PIM– in MDE): this level describes potential user interfaces independently of any interaction modality and any implementation technology. It defines ab- AUI level stract containers and individual components, two forms of Abstract Interaction Objects by grouping subtasks accord- ing to various criteria, a navigation scheme between the container and selects abstract individual component for each concept so that they are independent of any modality. An AUI abstracts a CUI into a UI definition that is inde- pendent of any modality of interaction (e.g., graphical in- teraction, vocal interaction, speech synthesis and recogni- tion, video-based interaction, virtual, augmented or mixed CUI level reality). An AUI can also be considered as a canonical ex- pression of the rendering of the domain concepts and tasks in a way that is independent from any modality of interac- tion. An AUI is considered as an abstraction of a CUI with respect to interaction modality. At this level, the UI mainly consists of input/output definitions, along with actions that need to be performed on this information. This step is also supported by IdealXML [34]. Fig. 2b graphically repro- duces a AUI. 3. Concrete User Interface (corresponding to the Platform- FUI level Specific Model –PSM– in MDE): this level describes a po- tential user interface after a particular interaction modality has been selected (e.g., graphical, vocal, multimodal). This step is supported by several tools helping designers and de- velopers to edit, build, or sketch a user interface. For in- stance, SketchiXML [6,7] (figure 3), GrafiXML [24], For- miXML, ComposiXML [18], PlastiXML [5] and VisiXML for graphical user interfaces. It concretizes an abstract UI for a given context of use into Concrete Interaction Objects (CIOs) so as to define widgets layout and interface naviga- Figure 2. The four levels: (a) task and domain, (b) abstract tion. It abstracts a final UI into a UI definition that is inde- UI, (c) concrete UI, and (d) final UI. pendent of any computing platform. Although a CUI makes explicit the final Look & Feel of a final UI, it is still a mock-up that runs only within a particular environment. A CUI can also be considered as a reification of an AUI at the upper level and an abstraction of the final UI with respect to the platform. Fig. 2c reproduces a CUI for a graphical target environment. Each tool pursues a particular goal. Some of them will be exemplified into more details later on in this paper. 4. Final User Interface (corresponding to the code level in MDE): this level is reached when the code of a user inter- face is produced from the previous levels. This code could be either interpreted or compiled. We hereby define a ren- dering engine as a software component (or set of compo- nents) that are able to interpret a UsiXML file expressed at the CUI level and to run it or a code compiler that (semi- automatically generate code from a UsiXML file expressed at the CUI level. Another level could be imagined as well, Figure 3. SketchiXML, a tool for sketching a user interface. but does not present any particular interest. Fig. 2d deter- mines a final UI corresponding to the CUI given in Fig. 2c. 3. MODELS Before examining closely what are the challenges regarding the ‘models’ dimension, let us detail more the models of concern in UsiXML. UsiXML is a collection of models for specifying a UI, some of them being used to support a particular level, some other being used to support a transition from one level to an- other: 3
  15. 15. S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008 • Task model: is a model describing the interactive task as C1. Need to ensure quality properties of a model viewed by the end user interacting with the system. Each used model should in principle benefit from a certain • Domain model: is a description of the classes of objects amount of quality properties. Table 1 summarizes some of these manipulated by a user while interacting with a system. properties and Meyer’s seven sins of specification reformulated • Mapping model: is a model containing a series of related in order to address modeling quality. For instance, a model mappings between models or elements of models. should be at least complete, consistent, and correct. This is a • Transformation model: Graph Transformation (GT) tech- heavy assumption that is rarely met. A model is rarely complete niques based on AGG [9] were chosen to formalize explicit because it suffers from an intrinsic incompleteness. But once it transformations between any pair of models, except from is written, it could be consistent and correct. Model checking the FUI level. techniques can automate this process. • Context model: is a model describing the three aspects of a C2. Need to cover semantics, syntax, and stylistics context of use in which a end user is carrying out an inter- Continuing with the language definition one can say that syntax active task with a specific computing platform in a given deals solely with the form and structure of symbols in a lan- surrounding environment. Consequently, a context model guage without any consideration given to their meaning. The consists of a user model, a platform model, and an environ- abstract syntax is defined as the hidden structure of a language, ment model. Each of these three facets is itself a model. its mathematical background. FlowiXML [14] uses directed • auiModel: is the model describing the UI at the abstract graph as abstract syntax. A concrete syntax is an external ap- level as previously defined. pearance; the visual syntax consists of boxes and arrows, a • cuiModel: is the model describing the UI at the concrete somewhat classic representation for a graphical structure. This level as previously defined. visual syntax will be mainly used to in this work as an expres- • Process model: is a model organizing tasks in time and sion means for the transformation rules that are going to be de- space in order to form high-level business processes. veloped in a future. The textual syntax is described using an • Workflow model: is a model structuring business processes XML-based language. The objective of stylistics is to provide a into a workflow information system. representation of a set of defined objects in order to facilitate • Resource model: is a model specifying resources that can their understanding and manipulation in tools. The representa- be consumed by tasks specified in task models. tion can be of different types (e.g., graphical, textual). If one of the three aspects of the trilogy (semantics, syntax, stylistics) is In UsiXML, the uiModel is the topmost super class containing not rigorously defined, one may fail to ensure the quality prop- common features shared by all component models of a UI that erties defined in Table 1. For instance, a UIDL suffering from may contain any combination of the aforementioned models. no semantics may suffer from incorrection, lack of expressive- This raises the following intertwined challenges that are related ness, and lack of separability. A UIDL suffering from no stylis- to models only. It does not depend from any method relying on tics may suffer from stylistic incompleteness and, therefore, these models. But a difficulty already raised at this level may from lack of expressiveness. be exacerbated at the next level. Property Definition Completeness Ability of a model to abstract all real world aspects of interest via appropriate concepts and relations Stylistic com- Ability of a model to represent all real world aspects of interest via appropriate stylistics of the concepts and pleteness relations Consistency Ability of a model to produce an abstraction in a way that reproduces the behaviour of the real world aspect of interest in the same way throughout the model and that preserves this behaviour throughout any manipulation of the model. Correction Ability of a model to produce an abstraction in a way that correctly reproduces the behaviour of the real world aspect of interest Expressiveness Ability of a model to express via an abstraction any real world aspect of interest Concision Ability of a model to produce concise, compact abstractions to abstract real world aspects of interest Separability Ability of models to univocally classify any abstraction of a real world aspect of interest into one single model (based on the principle of Separation of Concerns from Dijkstra [8]) Correlability Ability of models to univocally and unambiguously establish relationships between models to represent a real world aspect of interest Integrability Ability of models to concentrate and integrate abstractions of real world aspects of interest into a single model or a small list of them. Meyer’s speci- Definition fication sin [23] Noise Characteristic of a model that abstract aspects that do not correspond to anything in the real world aspects Silence Characteristic of a model that does not abstract a real world aspect Contradiction Characteristic of a model that provides two or more different abstractions of the same real world aspect, but in different ways that raise a contradiction between them Surspecification Characteristic of a model that overly abstracts a real world aspect into unneeded abstractions Ambiguity Characteristic of a model that provides two or more abstractions of the same real world aspect without know- ing which one corresponds truly to the real world aspect Redundancy Characteristic of a model that provides two times the same abstraction (or more) of the same real world aspect Incoherence Characteristic of a model that provides an abstraction that does not reflect the true behaviour of a real world aspect Table 1. Quality properties of a model and the Meyer’s seven specification sins. 4
  16. 16. S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008 C3. Difficulty of identifying the minimal amount of models model-to-model transformation engine, or simply for human In order to ensure a particular development path, it is not com- purposes. Several types of annotations are defined: Presenta- pulsory to define all models for a particular interactive system. tion (any guideline related to presenting information such as a Rather, there is a strong need to identify first which models are metric, a convention), Specification (any guideline related to needed, and to which level of modeling, and then to proceeding the connection with the data base, such as the data type), Veri- with them until the final UI. Depending on the project type and fication (any syntactical or semantic constraint to be verified, resources, fewer or more models could be used. On the one such as a mask, a profile, or a regular Perl expression), Discus- hand, only a CUI is required to get a final UI, whether it is in- sion (any design consideration that requires further attention terpreted or compiled. This is for a minimum budget. On the and refinement) and Tools (any guideline that will be exploited other hand, one may really go through all the four levels as out- later on by other software for automatic processing). All these lined in Fig. 1 whether budgets permits. In this case, it is ex- annotation types have options such as task, domain for Specifi- pected that the resulting quality will be better and that the cation, description for Presentation, etc. For instance, specifications resulting from this process will generate wins. SketchiXML is a multi-fidelity [7] software for sketching a UI Between these two extremes positions, it is always difficult to which can export a UI into a UsiXML file. This file can then be identify which models are needed, which models to start from, in turn imported in GrafiXML [24] and refined. Or in the other which models to obtain progressively. Method engineering [37] way around. When multiple designers collaborate in the design is trying to address this challenge particularly. case, an annotation can be refined with a sub-type such as “de- cision”, “proposition” or “argumentation” to capture at design- C4. Risk of Model Proliferation time multiple or alternative UI design considerations and facili- The more complicated the final UI is, the more models are tate the decision. An annotation can be augmented by text, im- needed and the more relationships between these models should age (e.g. a drawing), sound or voice (e.g., a vocal comment). be established to ensure correlability, while maintaining sepa- Annotations are saved in the UsiXML description. rability. This may result into a model proliferation that may re- duce the attractivity and the feasibility of the complete method- C6. Support (de)composition ology. For instance, a task model may be needed in some cir- Composition or decomposition of the UI elements may occur in cumstances. But even when it is needed, it is perhaps not any situation when previously defined or existing elements enough [29]. should be reused for another project or interactive system. In particular, the problem of multi-device UIs [26] has received a 4. METHOD lot of attention that concluded on a plethora of approaches and MDE-compliant development of UI have also recognized algorithms [10]. For instance, a GrafiXML plug-in, called methodological advantages: ComposiXML [18], has been developed in order to compose 1. Advantages in terms of methodology: It is a widely and decompose existing GUIs. In UI builders, UI recomposition accepted software engineering principle to start a software is traditionally performed by copying and pasting UI controls development cycle with a specification stage. The MDE of interest from one UI to another one, thus requiring many supports a user-centred and UI-centred development life manual adjustments such as alignment, resizing, reshuffling. cycle: it lets designers work with tasks, users and domain These operations, although simple, are often perceived as tedi- concepts instead of thinking in engineering terms. ous [27]. To overcome these shortcomings, the Operator allows 2. Advantages in terms of reusability: In a multi-target the designer to select one or two GrafiXML projects, that is one context [4], MDE tools can provide automatic portability or two UsiXML files, and make some composition or decom- across the different targets [26]. The availability of a position operations on these UI, which are as follows (Fig. 4): complete description of the interface in a declarative form allows the reuse of some interface components [26]. Unary Operators: these operators are used to operate on a 3. Advantages in terms of consistency: This approach ensures single UI at a time. They are used to filter, remove widgets some form of consistency between the early phases of the or change a kind of widget by another. development cycle (i.e., requirements analysis, Binary Operators: these operators are used to compose a specification) and the final product [25]. In a multi-target single UI from different UIs. You can choose to remove context [4], it also guarantees a minimal consistency duplicated items or select only those items. For instance, we between the UI generated for different targets. This is not can merge three windows into a single one in a single logi- always possible when using traditional techniques where cal operation. the development of each version of the UI is likely to be performed separately. Therefore, we are facing some more challenges that are pertaining to the method dimension. C5. Support annotation-based UI design Not all information related to the UI objects can be captured in any existing UI builder that fits all the purposes. This is also applicable to UsiXML: although a conceptual representation is Figure 4. Unary and binary operators offered by maintained, e.g. for both a CUI and a AUI, possibly along with ComposiXML. a context model, it cannot capture all design aspects through the C7. Support multi-path development of UIs underlying model. Therefore, there is a need to provide some Even if a method is properly structured according to the well- support for annotation-based design. An annotation is defined identified MDE levels, it does not mean that it will fit the de- as any information captured at UI design-time that needs to be velopment procedures established since a long time in a par- further exploited in the remainder of the UI development life ticular organization. These procedures are hard to change not cycle. It could be a guideline for a model-to-code generator, a only because of the habitudes but also because of the cost in- 5
  17. 17. S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008 duced by this change. For instance, a particular organization specific kind of model-based generation tool, which may prefer to have a top-down forward engineering approach, generates the UI starting from very high level models (Task while another may prefer a bottom-up reverse engineering ap- Model and/or Domain Model). proach. When several different UIs should be produced for 3. Wide walls: our approach considers a design space that multiple targets, diagonal engineering [40] may be also pur- benefits from a generative intrinsic quality. This enables sued. This all stems for a framework that supports multiple de- designers to add design options or new values for the velopment paths possible with the same models and language. existing ones thus offering the possibility to extend the range of exploration. C8. Support multi-fidelity 4. Unpredictability: our approach relies on an explicit set of Because building a model is a complex and long process that rules, fully documented and accessible. It offers the does not come up with a complete, rigorously defined, model designer full control on the selection of those rules. The after the first step, it is perhaps desirable to allow designers to results of the application of a rule may be previewed. build models progressively, with varying levels of details. 5. Lack of propagation of modifications: although the problem When such a model should be validated with the corresponding of the impact of a modification made on a given model over stakeholders, there is also a need to present a model in a way the other models remains a tricky one, we will attempt to that is understandable to these stakeholders, and not in a way determine the side effects on the other models entailed by that prevent them to make any valuable comment on the model. the application of a given rule. For all these reasons, a same model could be approached with 6. System dependent and private models: we will make use of multiple levels of fidelity, ranging from none to low-fidelity to a UI description language publicly and freely available. high-fidelity, with the capacity to smoothly move from one It is expected that the capabilities and the quality of level of fidelity to another. This notion has been successfully automatically generated UIs and interactive applications will be applied to UI sketching [7 and to interface specifications [22]. expanding step by step and that in the future, perhaps a point This notion could be generalized to any kind of model. will be reached where the capabilities of an interface builder as C9. Support method engineering included in an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and As a corollary of the multi-path development challenge appears a MDE-compliant environment will become comparable. Many also a need to help method engineers to develop themselves the tools turn out to be more focused on requirements management method they want, with the tools they want operating on the than on providing support in extracting requirements from user model they want. Therefore, these preferences could be cap- needs and translating them into good UI design. After all, de- tured a tool that fosters method engineering, instead of merely spite - or perhaps precisely because of - the vast functionality model engineering. Once a method has been properly defined, of many tools, the outcome often is unsatisfactory in terms of it can be applied in a straightforward way by the members of a UI design, usability and aesthetics. This is described as the high development team. This method can also be refined, extended, threshold - low ceiling phenomenon of UI tools [27]. In order to modified to give another method definition. Each method defi- easily produce some results with reasonable efforts, an IDE nition gives raise to method enactment [36,37]. should have a low threshold: the threshold with which one can obtain a reasonably good UI should be as low as possible [21]. 5. SUPPORTING TOOLS On the other hand, an IDE should have a high ceiling: the maxi- MDE has been the target of some major criticisms regarding mum overall performance of the IDE should be as high as pos- their supporting tools [27,38]. The main shortcomings sible. To these two dimensions, one usually adds a third one: commonly cited are: wide walls (Fig. 5). An IDE should have walls that are as wide 1. High threshold (C10): the designers need to learn a new as possible, thus meaning that the range of possible UIs that can language in order to express the UI specifications. be obtained via the IDE should cover as much different UIs as 2. Low ceiling (C11): each model-based systems has strict possible. limitations on the kind of UIs they can produce and the Capabilities generated UIs are generally not as good as those that could 100% Ceiling Third generation be created with conventional techniques. 3. Wide walls (C12): model-driven systems do not support a Integrated Development Environments wide range of possible explorations. Second generation 4. Unpredictability (C13): it is difficult to understand and control how the specifications are connected with the final First generation UI. Therefore, the results may be unpredictable. 50% 5. Lack of propagation of modifications (C14): changes made to one model or to the final UI are generally not propagated to the other levels of specification. 6. System dependent and private models (C15): a lot of models are strongly tied to their associated model-based system and can not be exported. Furthermore, some model specifica- Threshold tions are neither publicly available, nor obtainable via a typ es license UI Resources (time, experience,…) Most of these problems could be addressed, at least partially: 1. High threshold: most models can be built graphically in a Walls design environment, which prevents users from learning the specification language. Even if the designers have to learn Figure 5. Threshold vs ceiling vs walls for expressing the capa- the specification language, the automation of a portion of bilities of IDEs the development should reduce the development effort. 2. Low ceiling: we believe that this criticism holds only for a 6
  18. 18. S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008 6. GLOBAL CHALLENGES C19. Need for powerful transformation and rendering en- In order to see MDE becoming more successful in the near fu- gines ture, we believe that the following global challenges need to be The attractivity of a MDE is directly proportional to the power addressed explicitly and carefully, in addition to those cited. of its rendering engines: the more abstractions a rendering en- gine can produce, the more attractive it is. This is again ex- C16. Need for a common User Interface Description Lan- plained by the low-threshold – high ceiling principle. Some guage (UIDL): in order to share files between tools and make commercially available tools, such as Oliva Nova® [25] exhibit them interoperable. But also in order to foster incrementality of enough rendering capabilities to become credible, but this is efforts. Over years, we have seen too many efforts separated, rarely the case of rendering engines produced by the research thus replicating some efforts that have been previously community. Saying that the tool T automatically generates code achieved, before adding a new value. We have seen this situa- C from a model does not necessarily imply that the full power tion too many times in order not to recommend that we all use of the resulting C language is used. Too often, only a minimal at least a same base of a UIDL. This does not mean again that a subset is used that diminishes this attractivity. Moreover, hav- single UIDL will fit all, as proved in [35]. But at least there will ing powerful rendering engines is not enough. One may become be some incremental efforts based on a shared definition of a happy with the results generated by such a rendering engine, UIDL. For this purpose, the UIML (User Interface Markup but there will be always another person willing to change these Language – www.uiml.org) [15] is adopting an approach where results. Several reasons explain this need: the desire to keep only the minimal amount of abstractions are defined and ma- control over an application, the need to be compliant with a nipulated. This solution has the advantage of being lightweight particular style guide, the need to cope with user preferences all the time, but has the disadvantage that its expressivity is re- that were not considered in the MDE approach. Therefore, there duced. will be always a need to tweak the results of a MDE here and there, particularly at the very end. This process is often referred C17. Need for improved effort incrementality to as the beautification [32]. Various solutions exist to address Having a common UIDL is already one fundamental step to- the tweaking problem and its beautification, such as manual wards improving incremental research/development efforts. But tweaking, template-based modifications [25], and transforma- it is a necessary, but insufficient, condition. Supporting tools tion profiles [1]. The survey of transformation engines deliv- should be developed in such a way that the basic model opera- ered in [33] clearly shows that most of these transformation en- tions and algorithms should be made easily accessible and reus- gines support little or no beautification. able. This is rarely the case, even with modern software like Teallach [13], Teresa [26], MultimodaliXML [34], and Win- dows transitions [39]. Figure 6. A “Minority report”-like interface based on glove. C18. Need for advanced modeling for dynamic aspects. Among all models, the dialog model is probably the one that received the least attention over the past two decades [19]. Therefore, there is an important effort to consent in order to come up with abstractions of behavioural aspects that may span over the four levels of abstraction [41]. This need is even more important as more dynamic aspects occur in recent applications (e.g., Rich Internet Applications, Web 2.0) that are not yet cov- ered by an appropriate model. They are therefore left out. Simi- larly, behavioural aspects are little or no subject to modeling in very complex applications, such as in virtual or augmented re- ality, apart perhaps the presentation aspects. Only recently, some of these advanced systems have been subject to a MDE approach because of their complexity. This may include, but not limited to: glove-based UIs [11] (fig. 6), 3D UIs [12] (Fig. 7), UI of workflow information systems [14] (fig. 8), haptic UI [16], UI specifications [21], multimodal UIs [30,34]. Figure 7. (a) a Final UI produced in VRML; (b) manual ed- iting of this final UI in a 3D editor (Alice). 7
  19. 19. S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008 7. CONCLUSION In this paper, we identified and discussed twenty challenges that we sincerely believe fundamental for MDE of UIs to be- come successful. Some of them are really at hand while some other may require considerable efforts. In order to become really efficient and effective, Model-Driven Engineering of User Interfaces has to face several challenges. Some of them have been identified and discussed in this paper. But probably the most difficult one is that the need for raising the level of abstraction will face more and more complicated aspects to abstract. The abstractions of the future will take time to be discovered, will be more complex to describe, and even more complex to generate. The more advanced the UI will be, Figure 8. FlowiXML, a graphical editor for workflow UIs. the more complicated the abstractions will become and the more powerful the rendering engines should become. This is why MDE of UIs is more efficient in specific domains where abstractions are mastered and where repetitive systems should be produced. MDE of UIs could be sometimes compared with respect to tra- ditional Software Development Life Cycles in the same way homeopathy is compared with respect to general medicine. So far, there has been little or no proof that homeopathy really cure a disease, but it has been successfully used for very determined symptoms that sometime general medicine experience some Figure 9. Utilizing INSPECTOR for collaborative meetings trouble to cure with. MDE of UIs is like that. at a megapixel powerwall. © Univ. of Konstanz [21,22] In the near future, we will be trying to articulate research/- C20. Need to ensure model traceability development efforts around the software architecture that is de- Each time a MDE approach is enacted, there will be a need to picted in fig. 10. In this figure, we are relying on principles of ensure the traceability between the models used in this ap- modelware, where a model repository remains at the core of the proach. This is partially explained by the C14 challenge (need entire software architecture. At the periphery gravitates a series for propagation), but this is also highly desired in order to keep of tools supporting the various steps of a method defined in a an accurate history of the SDLC that has been applied for a par- method engineering. In this area, it is expected that a method ticular case. At any time questions like the following may be engineer will be able to properly define a MDE-compliant raised: to what part of the task model does this UI fragment cor- methodology based on the project constraints and context. Once respond to? If I change this UI fragment, what should I change defined, the method can be enacted though method engineering in the models that I have written in order to obtain this UI tools that distribute the steps over time and space. In this way, fragment? What is the cost of this modification propagation? it is expected that the various members of the development How can I reuse UI fragments that have been derived from a team will be able to clearly see where the project status is, what task and a domain model, but in another project? Whatever the is the current progress, and what are their next task in the inputs of a MDE will be, this need will stay forever. For in- method that has been previously defined. This method engi- stance, if I start my MDE with a task and domain models, I will neering process largely reinforces the cohesion between the always have the problem of maintaining the correlability be- members, even if they are working remotely (as in outsourc- tween the models and the ones resulting from them until the fi- ing). Each step can be therefore achieved in a manual way, in nal UI. If I am using other models, like business processes (Fig. an automated way, with mixed-initiative or by a borker that 9), the need will be exactly the same: a need for alignment be- manages the constraints between the designer, the system, and tween UI model and business processes [36]. Forever, there their interaction. will be a better connection between models wished: so that UIs Meta-model Meta- Schematizer UIDL XML Schema Syntax can be recuperated and transferred easily. editor models Definition errors Task Model User Interface Multi-view Repair Browser Validator Model properties Model editor tool Model checker Model initiator Guideline evaluator Design, evaluation Model manager Guidelines bases Model transformation engine Model repository of UIDLmodels Model binder Knowledge Design assistance tools bases Localizer/globalizer UIDL to - - - WAP definition rendering engines Case-Based Reasoning engine HTML definition Data base Intelligent generator agents VoiceXML definition UIDL cases repository SHTML definition UIDL model patterns Data bases ... C++, Java code Figure 9. Example of a traceability established between a Figure 10. An overview of the UsiXML future software ar- task model resulting from business processes and UI. chitecture for model and method engineering. 8
  20. 20. S. Buraga, I. Juvină (eds.), Interacţiune Om-Calculator 2008 8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS [13] Griffiths T., Barclay, P.J., Paton, N.W., McKirdy, J., Ken- nedy, J.B., Gray, P.D., Cooper, R., Goble, C.A., da Silva, Most of the research and the development of UsiXML and the P.P. Teallach: A Model-based user interface development contents of this paper has been initiated by the European pro- environment for object databases. Interacting with Com- ject CAMELEON (Context Aware Modelling for Enabling and puters 14, 1 (2001) 31–68. Leveraging Effective interactiON, FP5-IST4-2000-30104) and [14] Guerrero García, J., Lemaigre, Ch., Vanderdonckt, J., continued under the auspices of SIMILAR (FP6-IST1-2003- González Calleros, J.M. Model-Driven Engineering of 507609, http://www.similar.cc), the OpenInterface Foundation Workflow User Interfaces. In Proc. of 7th Int. 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