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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
affective...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
“Designer...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion: ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion: ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion: ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion: ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion: ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion: ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion: ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion: ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion: ...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
How about...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
Emotion
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
How to cr...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
affective...
Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction
Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
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HCI 2014 (9 of 10): Affective Factors

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Several aspects regarding affective factors, including emotions, moods, sentiments. An introduction to persuasive technologies. For other resources, visit http://profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/teach/courses/hci/hci-film.html

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Transcript of "HCI 2014 (9 of 10): Affective Factors"

  1. 1. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco affective factors Human-Computer Interaction http://lts5www.epfl.ch/
  2. 2. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco “Designers think, so people can feel.” Juan-Carlos Fernandez
  3. 3. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Affective aspects of interaction (Rogers, 2007) expressivity how the interface look & feel could affect the user?
  4. 4. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Affective aspects of interaction (Rogers, 2007) frustration how we can detect and reduce it?
  5. 5. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Affective aspects of interaction (Rogers, 2007) persuasive technologies how we can change the user attitude & behavior by using the actual technologies?
  6. 6. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Emotion is a reaction to events deemed relevant to the needs, goals, or concerns of an individual Scott Brave & Clifford Nass, 2008
  7. 7. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Emotion represents the experience in UX
  8. 8. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Emotion encompasses physiological, affective, behavioral, and cognitive components Scott Brave & Clifford Nass, 2008
  9. 9. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion in the cognitive context – Moore (2005)
  10. 10. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Emotions as discrete categories basic emotions (Paul Ekman et al., 1972): anger disgust fear happiness sadness surprise
  11. 11. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Emotions as discrete categories additional emotions (Paul Ekman, 1990): amusement contempt contentment embarrassment excitement guilt pride in achievement relief satisfaction sensory pleasure shame
  12. 12. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Emotions as multi-dimensional models circumplex model (James Russell, 1980) 2 axes: arousal (calm↔excitement) + valence (pleasantness)
  13. 13. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification
  14. 14. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Emotions as multi-dimensional models circumplex model (James Russell, 1980) used to test stimuli of emotion words, emotional facial expressions, and affective states
  15. 15. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Emotions as multi-dimensional models Plutchik’s wheel of emotions (Robert Plutchik, 1980) 8 primary bipolar emotions: joy vs. sadness; anger vs. fear; trust vs. disgust; surprise vs. anticipation + more advanced emotions
  16. 16. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification
  17. 17. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Negative & forceful Anger, Annoyance, Contempt, Disgust, Irritation Negative & not in control Anxiety, Embarrassment, Fear, Helplessness, Powerlessness, Worry Negative thoughts Doubt, Envy, Frustration, Guilt, Shame Negative & passive Boredom, Despair, Disappointment, Hurt, Sadness Agitation Shock, Stress, Tension Positive & lively Amusement, Delight, Elation, Excitement, Happiness, Joy, Pleasure Caring Affection, Empathy, Friendliness, Love Positive thoughts Courage, Hope, Pride, Satisfaction, Trust Quiet positive Calm, Content, Relaxed, Relieved, Serene Reactive Interest, Politeness, Surprise Douglas-Cowie et al. (2015)
  18. 18. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Emotions as multi-dimensional models positive activation – negative activation (PANA) Watson and Tellegan, 1985 PAD (Pleasure, Arousal & Dominance) emotional state model – Mehrabian, 1997 used to study nonverbal communication
  19. 19. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Lövheim cube of emotion (Hugo Lövheim, 2012) a theoretical model considering the relationships between monoamine neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline) and emotions
  20. 20. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Emotions as multi-dimensional models Parrotts’ classification (Gerrod Parrott, 2001) primary emotions: love, joy, surprise, anger, sadness, fear
  21. 21. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Emotions as multi-dimensional models Parrotts’ classification (Gerrod Parrott, 2001) primary emotions: love, joy, surprise, anger, sadness, fear secondary emotions – e.g., love: affection, lust, longing
  22. 22. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification Emotions as multi-dimensional models Parrotts’ classification (Gerrod Parrott, 2001) primary emotions: love, joy, surprise, anger, sadness, fear secondary emotions – e.g., love: affection, lust, longing tertiary emotions – e.g., affection: adoration, fondness, liking, attraction, caring, tenderness, compassion,…
  23. 23. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: classification discussion http://uniquelang.peiyinglin.net/visualization/Parrott_Model_b.png
  24. 24. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Modeling languages & vocabularies Emotion Annotation and Representation Language HUMAINE Project, 2006 http://emotion-research.net/projects/humaine/earl/
  25. 25. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Modeling languages & vocabularies Emotion Markup Language (EmotionML) 1.0 W3C Proposed Recommendation, 2013 http://www.w3.org/TR/emotionml/ Vocabularies for EmotionML W3C Working Group Note, 2014 http://www.w3.org/TR/emotion-voc/
  26. 26. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion neurological structure of emotion (LeDoux, 1996)
  27. 27. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion limbic system – the “seat of emotion” – evaluates the need/goal relevance of its inputs
  28. 28. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion thalamus + limbic system mainly deal with primitive (basic) emotions e.g., startle-based fear, anger, sadness, joy, disgust
  29. 29. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Emotions that require more extensive cognitive (i.e., knowledge-based) processing are called secondary
  30. 30. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Emotions that require more extensive cognitive (i.e., knowledge-based) processing are called secondary examples: frustration pride satisfaction in the cortex
  31. 31. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion An emotion can result from a combination of both thalamic-limbic and cortex-limbic mechanisms
  32. 32. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion An emotion can result from a combination of both thalamic-limbic and cortex-limbic mechanisms an event causing an initial fear reaction can be later recognized as harmless by more extensive, rational evaluation example: screensaver initialization
  33. 33. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Emotions could be learned from the social environment
  34. 34. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion versus mood emotions are intentional
  35. 35. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion versus mood emotions are intentional “they imply and involve relationships with a particular object” Frijda, 1994
  36. 36. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion versus mood moods are not directed at any object in particular and are experienced as more diffuse, global, and general
  37. 37. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion versus mood moods are not directed at any object in particular and are experienced as more diffuse, global, and general a person can be sad about something (an emotion) or generally depressed (a mood)
  38. 38. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion versus mood from a functional point of view, emotions could determine the execution of task(s)
  39. 39. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion versus mood emotions cause or contribute to moods
  40. 40. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion versus sentiment sentiments are not states of an individual, but assigned properties of an entity (person, object)
  41. 41. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion versus sentiment sentiments can persist indefinitely, by contrast with emotions (seconds) or moods (hours/days)
  42. 42. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion versus sentiment sentiments are often generalizations about a class of objects with a given recognizable property
  43. 43. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion emotion versus sentiment sentiments are often generalizations about a class of objects with a given recognizable property these generalizations must not necessarily be logical “I hate spreadsheet applications!”
  44. 44. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco How about the role of emotion in HCI?
  45. 45. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Emotion has influences on attention memory performance opinion (assessment) Scott Brave & Clifford Nass, 2008
  46. 46. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Attention an interface capable of detecting – or at least predicting – a user’s emotional or mood state could similarly assume an affect-regulation role, helping to guide attention away from negative and toward more positive stimuli
  47. 47. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Memory negative events, which tend to be highly arousing, are typically remembered better than positive events
  48. 48. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Memory negative events, which tend to be highly arousing, are typically remembered better than positive events avoid error messages
  49. 49. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Memory emotionality “improves memory for central details, while undermining memory for background details” Heuer & Reisberg, 1992; Parrott & Spackman, 2000
  50. 50. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion User performance keeping a user happy may, therefore, not only affect satisfaction, but may also lead to efficiency and creativity
  51. 51. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion the circumplex model in the context of user experience P. Desmet & P. Hekkert, “Framework of Product Experience”, International Journal of Design, Vol. 1, No. 1 (2007) http://www.ijdesign.org/ojs/index.php/IJDesign/article/view/66/15
  52. 52. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion User performance negative example: objects that appear or move unexpectedly – e.g., pop-ups, animations – and loud or sharp noises are likely to trigger startle-based fear
  53. 53. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Assessment mood influences judgment and decision making users in a good mood will likely judge both the interface and their work more positively, regardless of any direct emotional effects
  54. 54. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Causes: needs & goals Maslow’s hierarchy of basic needs (1968) physiological, safety/security, social, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization, transcendence
  55. 55. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Causes: needs & goals interfaces can also directly address a user’s basic needs
  56. 56. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Causes: needs & goals interfaces can also directly address a user’s basic needs example (Fogg, 1998): establishing a trusting and safe relationship with users
  57. 57. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Causes: needs & goals interfaces can also directly address a user’s basic needs example (Brave & Nass, 2006): educational software should address users’ emotional needs, not only teaching the relevant content, but also ensuring users believe that they are learning
  58. 58. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion
  59. 59. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Causes: obstacles & control Ellsworth (1994) if user has the control over the software, the negative affective consequences are least important
  60. 60. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Causes: social context – “agency” (Ellsworth, 1994) & (Friedman & Kahn, 1997) “This system failed to understand your command.” – blaming itself “The command was not understood.” – blaming no one “You did not speak clearly enough for your command to be understood.” – blaming the user
  61. 61. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion blaming itself
  62. 62. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Causes: previous emotional state repeated pleasurable affective states, therefore, become expected and thus gradually lose intensity
  63. 63. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion How emotion could be detected? neurological response – via electroencephalogram (EEG) or magneto-resonance imaging (MRI)
  64. 64. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion How emotion could be detected? autonomous activity of the human organism breath facial expression voice
  65. 65. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion categorization of facial responses to determine which emotions they express Facial Action Coding System – FACS (Paul Ekman et al., 1978, 2002)
  66. 66. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion interpreting micro-expressions (e.g., pushed up cheeks, dropping upper eyelids, eyebrows raised, nose wrinkling,…) – via FACS – and body language to detect emotions see also http://tinyurl.com/k47dhen http://temasys.com.sg/vidyoedm22102013/
  67. 67. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion How emotion could be detected? behavioral changes
  68. 68. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco 6 + 1 emotions with universal facial gestures (N. Lazzaro, Why We Play: Affect and the Fun of Games, 2008) Emotion Example Frustration Figuring out how to get character off a roof in Tom Clancy’s Splinter Cell (usability issues that detract from the player experience) Fear Falling into boiling lava, fast-moving projectiles aimed at the player in Doom Surprise Using Myst’s linking books for the first time to transport to a new world Sadness When the young magician Aerith, in Final Fantasy VII is murdered Amusement When two Sims get married in The Sims, or rolling over and picking up sumo wrestlers in Katamari Damacy Disgust Becoming a social outcast (social disgust) after losing the dancing challenge in Sid Meier’s Pirates Curiosity Wanting to know what happens by driving the race track the wrong way in Project Gotham Racing 3
  69. 69. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Expressivity induces an emotional state via UI elements: color, icons, sound, graphics,…
  70. 70. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Expressivity lack of expressivity in communication at a textual level emoticons :) :| >:-(
  71. 71. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Expressivity abbreviations could have emotional connotations see leet speak I 12 CU 2NITE
  72. 72. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion To stimulate emotions, products must have attributed a personality based on appearance and interaction means Reeves & Nass, 1989
  73. 73. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco How to create emotions in a person?
  74. 74. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion 1. Auto appraisal 2. Reflective appraisal 3. Memory of an emotion 4. Imagination 5. Talking about 6. Empathy or witnessing another’s emotion 7. Instruction by others on how to feel 8. Violation of social norm 9. Making facial expression of an emotion Ekman, 2004
  75. 75. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion 1. Auto appraisal 2. Reflective appraisal 3. Memory of an emotion 4. Imagination 5. Talking about 6. Empathy or witnessing another’s emotion 7. Instruction by others on how to feel 8. Violation of social norm 9. Making facial expression of an emotion a dialog window appears
  76. 76. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion 1. Auto appraisal 2. Reflective appraisal 3. Memory of an emotion 4. Imagination 5. Talking about 6. Empathy or witnessing another’s emotion 7. Instruction by others on how to feel 8. Violation of social norm 9. Making facial expression of an emotion thinking about previous message
  77. 77. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion 1. Auto appraisal 2. Reflective appraisal 3. Memory of an emotion 4. Imagination 5. Talking about 6. Empathy or witnessing another’s emotion 7. Instruction by others on how to feel 8. Violation of social norm 9. Making facial expression of an emotion remembering last game
  78. 78. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion 1. Auto appraisal 2. Reflective appraisal 3. Memory of an emotion 4. Imagination 5. Talking about 6. Empathy or witnessing another’s emotion 7. Instruction by others on how to feel 8. Violation of social norm 9. Making facial expression of an emotion thinking about what happens now on Web
  79. 79. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion 1. Auto appraisal 2. Reflective appraisal 3. Memory of an emotion 4. Imagination 5. Talking about 6. Empathy or witnessing another’s emotion 7. Instruction by others on how to feel 8. Violation of social norm 9. Making facial expression of an emotion discussing UI features with others
  80. 80. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion 1. Auto appraisal 2. Reflective appraisal 3. Memory of an emotion 4. Imagination 5. Talking about 6. Empathy or witnessing another’s emotion 7. Instruction by others on how to feel 8. Violation of social norm 9. Making facial expression of an emotion another person’s facial expression (video-chat)
  81. 81. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion 1. Auto appraisal 2. Reflective appraisal 3. Memory of an emotion 4. Imagination 5. Talking about 6. Empathy or witnessing another’s emotion 7. Instruction by others on how to feel 8. Violation of social norm 9. Making facial expression of an emotion another person’s review of a task
  82. 82. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion 1. Auto appraisal 2. Reflective appraisal 3. Memory of an emotion 4. Imagination 5. Talking about 6. Empathy or witnessing another’s emotion 7. Instruction by others on how to feel 8. Violation of social norm 9. Making facial expression of an emotion deleting others’ files
  83. 83. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion 1. Auto appraisal 2. Reflective appraisal 3. Memory of an emotion 4. Imagination 5. Talking about 6. Empathy or witnessing another’s emotion 7. Instruction by others on how to feel 8. Violation of social norm 9. Making facial expression of an emotion laughing after defeat in front of friends makes it feel more positive
  84. 84. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions metaphors + idioms
  85. 85. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions metaphors + idioms “Metaphors create insight. But they also distort. They have strengths. But they also have limitations.” Gareth Morgan
  86. 86. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions metaphors + idioms use metaphors to convey and/or create mental associations Dan Saffer, 2005
  87. 87. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions metaphors + idioms proper metaphors used to denote UI objects/devices contribute to the personification of the software, increasing the usability
  88. 88. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions icons denote a relation between a visual representation and a certain concept
  89. 89. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions icons denote a relation between a visual representation and a certain concept based on similarity – e.g., an empty page = new file analogue – example: scissors = cut operation arbitrary (based on an idiom) – e.g., X = close window
  90. 90. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions icons most effective are the icons designed with respect to similarity between visual representation and the concept Rogers, 2007
  91. 91. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions arbitrary applications system programs remark: the orientation is different see also GNOME Human Interface Guidelines
  92. 92. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions icons beware of the cultural context
  93. 93. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions earcons earcon = the aural equivalent of an icon
  94. 94. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions earcons earcon = the aural equivalent of an icon using sounds to denote a specific concept, event, or object M. Blattner et al, “Earcons and Icons”, Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 4 (1989) http://www.daimi.au.dk/~dsound/DigitalAudio.dir/Papers/Earcons_and_Icons.pdf
  95. 95. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions earcons design guidelines (Karen Kaushansky, 2012): choose the right type of audio embed meaning in audio earcons design in context consider the “non-use cases” decide between recorded prompts and text-to-speech www.smashingmagazine.com/2012/09/14/guidelines-for-designing-with-audio/
  96. 96. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions earcons examples: mobile phones, operating system sound schemes, instant messaging, electronic games, 3D environments,… commonly, not used in the Web context
  97. 97. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions tactons communicate non-visual information by using the tactile sense “structured tactile messages” (Brewster & Brown, 2004) http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/3443/1/tactons_aussi.pdf
  98. 98. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions tactons communicate non-visual information by using the tactile sense a common example: coded tactile representations (Braille code) text informationnon-visual form
  99. 99. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions tactons context: wearable computing
  100. 100. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions tactons examples: haptic I/O devices – e.g., sensors case study: L. Brown, Tactons: Structured Vibrotactile Messages for Non-Visual Information Display, Microsoft Research (2006) http://research.microsoft.com/apps/video/default.aspx?id=135935
  101. 101. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions abstract representation cognitive dimension usage icon visual conveying information earcon audio attention tacton haptic appeal to a known touch emoticon emotion conveying an emotional state gesticon dynamic indicating a state change kineticon dynamic state change, progress some are more suitable to (visually) impaired users
  102. 102. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco persuasive computing
  103. 103. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Positive psychology  hedonomics focusing on the pleasant or enjoyable aspects of HCI Hancock, Pepe & Murphy, 2005
  104. 104. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Persuasive (seductive) technologies interactive computational systems deliberately designed to change human attitudes and behaviors B. J. Fogg (2003)
  105. 105. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Persuasive (seductive) technologies interactive computational systems deliberately designed to change human attitudes and behaviors captology (computers as persuasive technologies)
  106. 106. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Persuasive (seductive) technologies persuasion in the context (Maria Miceli et al., 2011): accidental vs. intentional communicative vs. non-communicative coercive vs. non-coercive
  107. 107. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Persuasive (seductive) technologies typical examples: advertisement techniques, warning boxes, reminders, prompts, personalized messages, recommendations,…
  108. 108. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Persuasive (seductive) technologies case studies: games with social impact – for people with special needs applications helping the cure of certain phobias infant simulators virtual pets – to diminish “bad habits” of children …
  109. 109. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion Herman the bug (Lester et al., 1997)
  110. 110. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Persuasive (seductive) technologies interesting uses in the HCI context: get understanding of user behaviour get understanding of cognitive factors
  111. 111. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Persuasive (seductive) technologies multimodal factors (Guerini, 2011): embodied conversational agents – ECAs kinetic typography music use of images
  112. 112. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Persuasive (seductive) technologies multimodal factors (Guerini, 2011): embodied conversational agents – ECAs kinetic typography music use of images virtual characters
  113. 113. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Virtual characters avatars – artificial (visual) representations of people
  114. 114. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Virtual characters user-facing agents showing simulated human behavior (knowledge, inferring, choices,…artificial intelligence)
  115. 115. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Virtual characters autonomy no human intervention reactivity takes stimuli from environment proactivity takes initiative to act collaboration able to collaborate with other agents
  116. 116. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Virtual characters autonomy no human intervention reactivity takes stimuli from environment proactivity takes initiative to act collaboration able to collaborate with other agents  multi-agent systems
  117. 117. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions intelligent virtual agents having human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary M. Macedonia et al., “Intelligent virtual agents as language trainers facilitate multilingualism”, Frontiers in Psychology (2014) http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00295/full case study
  118. 118. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions The use of anthropomorphism adding human qualities to virtual things reducing the user’s anxiety regarding computers (computer and/or Internet phobia)
  119. 119. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions The use of anthropomorphism example: “Hi, Daniel, welcome back! What we learnt last time? Oh, yes, that experiment on Web navigation… Let’s repeat it!” versus “User 33, start the experiment 7!”
  120. 120. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions The use of anthropomorphism warnings: user might feel inferior, anxious, or stupid
  121. 121. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Affective interaction goal: a program/device able to register emotions and other stimuli and to generate a correct response to these stimuli
  122. 122. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Affective interaction input: sensors measuring (or learning) the user affective state facial expression, gestures, heartbeat rate, blood pressure, transpiration, speech
  123. 123. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Affective interaction output: expressing empathy using computational approaches “intelligently” / “emotionally” reacting on a situation
  124. 124. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco iCAT – a robot hardware platform using a set of logical rules to convey emotional states (Philips, 2005) context: human-robot interaction (HRI) www.research.philips.com/technologies/projects/robotics/ case study
  125. 125. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Aspect of interest: computational humour humour is a powerful generator of emotions  theories of humour applied in computer science details in P. Petta et al. (Eds.), Emotion-Oriented Systems, Springer, 2011
  126. 126. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Aspect of interest: computational humour humour generation building computational models to generate humourous content (text)
  127. 127. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: design solutions Aspect of interest: computational humour humour recognition identifying humour in natural language and/or human behaviour
  128. 128. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: abuse on software Humans could have an offensive behavior regarding the digital entities www.agentabuse.org
  129. 129. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: abuse on software Humans could have an offensive behavior regarding the digital entities example (Tatsuya Nomura, 2005): impolite behavior of the patients, when they discovered that the therapist is a virtual agent
  130. 130. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: abuse on software Humans could have an offensive behavior regarding the digital entities example (Antonella De Angeli & Rollo Carpenter, 2005): “injuries” on conversational – e.g., IRC – robots: “liar”, “stupid”, “dumb” software
  131. 131. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: abuse on software Humans could have an offensive behavior regarding the digital entities experiment (Christoph Bartneck et al., 2005): humans tend to hurt more easily robots/devices than people
  132. 132. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: abuse on software User: What is your address? Jabberwacky: I don't think I'll tell you. You'd kill me if I told you. Wouldn't you! User: Yes I would. Jabberwacky: What is your favourite food? User: I WILL KILL YOU! I WILL HUNT YOU DOWN!!! Jabberwacky: Please don't... I really have to leave. User: I WILL KILL YOU! Jabberwacky: Good.
  133. 133. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: open question With which emotion should HCI designers be most concerned?
  134. 134. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: open question When and how should interfaces attempt to directly address users’ emotions and basic needs (versus application-specific goals)?
  135. 135. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: open question When and how should users be informed that their affective states are being monitored and adapted to?
  136. 136. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Emotion: open question How does emotion play out in computer-mediated communication?
  137. 137. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco affective factors emotions, moods, sentiments persuasive technologies “Conclusion”
  138. 138. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco next lecture: ubiquitous computing
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