HCI 2014 (8 of 10): Data Visualization
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HCI 2014 (8 of 10): Data Visualization

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An introduction to data visualization: definitions, classification, methods, examples. See also http://profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/teach/courses/hci/hci-film.html

An introduction to data visualization: definitions, classification, methods, examples. See also http://profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/teach/courses/hci/hci-film.html

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HCI 2014 (8 of 10): Data Visualization Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco an introduction to data visualization Human-Computer Interaction
  • 2. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco “Above all else show the data.” Edward R. Tufte
  • 3. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco reality Data is no longer scarce
  • 4. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco reality Data is no longer scarce http://www.worldometers.info/
  • 5. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco reality Data is no longer scarce we need to integrate, simplify, and capitalize on existing information systems and the massive amounts of data they hold see also www.softviscollection.org/intro/a-thousand-words/
  • 6. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco reality Data is no longer scarce we need to integrate, simplify, and capitalize on existing information systems and the massive amounts of data they hold datainformationknowledgewisdom
  • 7. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco What information visualization means?
  • 8. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization A class of techniques for augmenting cognition “the use of computer-supported, interactive, visual representations of abstract data in order to amplify cognition” Card, Mackinlay & Shneiderman, 1999
  • 9. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization A process of mapping information to visuals “data visualization is expert storytelling” (Murray, 2013)
  • 10. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization A process of mapping information to visuals “data visualization is expert storytelling” (Murray, 2013) crafting rules that interpret data and express its values as visual properties
  • 11. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco informa- tion design data per- ceptuali- zation data visuali- zation scientific visuali- zation
  • 12. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Minimal criteria that any visualization has to fulfill to be considered a pragmatic visualization based on (non-visual) data produce an image the result must be readable and recognizable Robert Kosara, 2008 http://eagereyes.org/criticism/definition-of-visualization
  • 13. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Benefits – adapted from Card et al. (2009): reducing the search for information
  • 14. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Benefits – adapted from Card et al. (2009): enhancing the detection of patterns
  • 15. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Benefits – adapted from Card et al. (2009): encoding information in an interactive medium
  • 16. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Benefits – adapted from Card et al. (2009): monitoring of data/information/knowledge evolution
  • 17. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization How Music Travels – an animated visualization experiment http://www.thomson.co.uk/blog/ wp-content/uploads/infographic/interactive-music-map/
  • 18. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Benefits – adapted from Card et al. (2009): enabling inferences
  • 19. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization see Hans Rolins, “New insights on poverty”, TED 2007 www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_reveals_new_insights_on_poverty
  • 20. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Benefits – adapted from Card et al. (2009): allowing exploration of a space of parameter values and enhancing user operations
  • 21. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Origins: maps used from ancient times to convey, in an abstract way, known geographic areas + to provide orientation later on, give insights for creating strategies in case of hostilities
  • 22. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Origins: diagrams see Euclid works on geometry used in science (e.g., by Newton) to record observations, to induct relationships, to explicate methodology of experiments, to classify & conceptualize phenomena
  • 23. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Newton’s optics illustration – reported by Robin (1992)
  • 24. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Origins: abstract diagrams employs non-physical information an early example: Playfair (1786)
  • 25. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Origins: visual design + data graphics  design principles of information visualization (infovis) Edward Tufte (1983, 1990, 1997)
  • 26. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Origins: statistics  exploratory (multidimensional) data analysis Tukey (1977), Cleveland & McGill (1988)
  • 27. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Origins: scientific visualization  analytical software instruments for scientific analysis of large datasets McCormick & DeFanti (1987)
  • 28. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Origins: computer graphics + artificial intelligence  automatic design of visual presentations of data Mackinlay (1986), Roth & Mattis (1990), Casner (1991)
  • 29. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Origins: human-computer interaction  new user interfaces & interactions, including animations Robertson, Card & Mackinlay (1989), Shneiderman (1992)
  • 30. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization Visualization vs. infographics visualization is – automatically – created that can be applied to many datasets infographics are made – manually – for a particular dataset, concerning a specific purpose http://eagereyes.org/blog/2010/the-difference-between-infographics-and-visualization
  • 31. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization “The nature of the visualization depends on which relationship is dominant.” N. Iliinsky & J. Steele, Designing Data Visualizations, O’Reilly, 2011
  • 32. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco data visualization “The nature of the visualization depends on which relationship is dominant.” N. Iliinsky & J. Steele, Designing Data Visualizations, O’Reilly, 2011 infographicsdata/info viz e.g., generative art
  • 33. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco How about data visualization design?
  • 34. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visualization the mapping of data to visual form that supports human interaction in a workplace for visual sense making
  • 35. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Stuart Card, “Information Visualization”, Human-Computer Interaction Handbook (2nd Edition), Taylor & Francis, 2008
  • 36. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Raw Data – data(sets) to be visualized, available in different – binary/textual – formats
  • 37. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Transformations – provides document vectors (normalized vectors in a N-dimensional space); could imply different filtering operations
  • 38. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables – suitable data structures: relations (depending on considered variables) + meta-data
  • 39. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables tables of objects + their attributes
  • 40. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables example for movie visualizations: basic objects = instances of the film concept attributes (properties) for each object: title, year of release, genre type, actors,…
  • 41. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling could be considered as metadata
  • 42. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables functional (abstract) representation: f (input variables) = output variables
  • 43. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables functional (abstract) representation: f (input variables) = output variables Year (FilmID = 540) = 1926
  • 44. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables variables implies a scale of measurement
  • 45. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables variables implies a scale of measurement a nominal variable N is an unordered set e.g., film titles { Star Wars, Brazil, The Wall,…} (in)equality operators could be used
  • 46. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables variables implies a scale of measurement an ordinal variable O is a tuple (ordered set) e.g., film ratings < G, PG, PG-13, R > relational operators (like “<”) could be applied
  • 47. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables variables implies a scale of measurement a quantitative variable Q is a numeric range example: film length [0, 400] arithmetic operators could be performed on them
  • 48. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables subtypes regarding the nature of visualization quantitative spatial – for intrinsically spatial variables common in scientific visualization quantitative geographical – spatial variables that are specifically geophysical coordinates
  • 49. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables variable subtype concerning similarity quantitative similarity
  • 50. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables temporal variables quantitative time ordinal time
  • 51. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables variables implies a scale of measurement unstructured scale whose only value is present or absent (e.g., an error flag)
  • 52. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling data classes
  • 53. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Data Tables scale types can be altered by transformations
  • 54. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Quantitative variables can be mapped by data transformations into ordinal variables film length [0, 400] min. → <SHORT, MEDIUM, LONG> classes of values
  • 55. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Nominal variables can be transformed to ordinal values film titles { Star Wars, Brazil, The Wall } → < The Wall, Star Wars, Brazil > sorting
  • 56. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling
  • 57. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Mappings – creating analytic abstractions to be visualized; from spatial coordinates to surfaces on an information 2D/3D landscape
  • 58. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Structures use a vocabulary of visual elements: spatial substrates + marks + graphical properties
  • 59. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Structures goal: the systematic mapping of data relations onto visual form visual encodings
  • 60. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Structures spatial substrate marks connection enclosure retinal properties temporal encoding
  • 61. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Structures spatial substrate empty space, as a container, can be treated as if it had metric structure scale type ↔ axis of space
  • 62. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Most important spatial axes: unstructured no axis nominal grid a region divided into sub-regions ordinal grid ordering of sub-regions is significant quantitative grid a region has a metric
  • 63. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling
  • 64. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Axes can be linear or radial can involve any of the various coordinate systems for describing space
  • 65. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Axes can be linear or radial can involve any of the various coordinate systems for describing space example: using 2 orthogonal quantitative axes to visualize movie popularity over the time Year → QX Popularity → QY
  • 66. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Structures marks visible “things” that occur in space: points, lines, areas, volumes
  • 67. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling types of marks (in this case, point & line marks take up space and may have properties such as shape)
  • 68. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling
  • 69. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Structures connection & enclosure points and lines can be used to signify different topological structures like graphs and trees, showing relations among objects
  • 70. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Structures connection & enclosure enclosure can be used for trees, contour maps, and Venn Diagrams
  • 71. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Structures retinal properties position, size, orientation, color, texture, shape crispness, resolution, transparency, arrangement
  • 72. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Structures retinal properties example: using color as visual code denoting a film genre FilmID (Genre) → P(Color)
  • 73. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Visual Structures temporal encoding temporal data to be visualized versus animation – mapping a variable into time
  • 74. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling View Transformations – offers various views (graphical representations) according to the user goals
  • 75. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Views – perceived by end-users; adjusted by graphical parameters (position, scaling, clipping,…)
  • 76. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling View—value distinction regards how operations (transformations) are performed at different places in the model
  • 77. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling View—value distinction regards how operations (transformations) are performed at different places in the model example: when a point is deleted from the visualization, has the point been deleted from the dataset?
  • 78. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling “Information visualization is about the not just creation of visual images, but also the interaction with those images in the service of some problem.” Stuart Card, 2008
  • 79. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling Expressiveness & effectiveness a visualization is expressive if and only if it encodes all the data relations intended and no other data relations
  • 80. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization modeling FilmType(N) → Position(Q) mapping from data to visual form that violates expressiveness criterion
  • 81. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization processes Acquire Parse Filter Mine Represent Refine Interact according to Ben Fry, 2008
  • 82. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization processes Acquire obtain the data to be analyzed and visualized open data sources: http://ideasource.blankdots.com/2012/08/open-data-sources/
  • 83. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization processes Parse deliver a certain structure for the data’s meaning, and order it into categories
  • 84. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization processes Filter keep only the data of interest
  • 85. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization processes Mine apply methods from statistics or data mining to discern patterns or place the data in mathematical context pragmatic approaches: G. Myatt, W. Johnson, Making Sense of Data I, II, and III, Wiley, 2007, 2009, 2011
  • 86. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization processes Represent choose a (set of) visual model(s) typical examples: bar graph, list, tree
  • 87. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization processes Refine improve the basic visual representation to make it clearer and more visually engaging
  • 88. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization processes Interact add methods for manipulating the data or controlling what features are visible
  • 89. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization processes adopting an iterative approach (Fry, 2008)
  • 90. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco How about a taxonomy of information visualization?
  • 91. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Simple visual structures direct reading 1-variable [X]: lists, 1D scatterplots, pie charts, distributions, box plots,…
  • 92. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy see also http://eagereyes.org/techniques/pie-charts
  • 93. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Simple visual structures direct reading 2-variable [XY]: 2D object charts (histograms), 2D scatterplots
  • 94. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Simple visual structures direct reading 3-variable [XYR]: retinal scatterplots, Kohonen diagrams [(XY)Z]: information landscapes, information surfaces [XYZ]: 3D scatterplots
  • 95. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy retinal scatterplot – here, a heat map http://secviz.org/content/user-behavior-a-heatmap visualizing user-behavior (Y) over time (X); color (retinal variable R) is used to indicate the intensity of the activity
  • 96. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Simple visual structures direct reading 4-variable [XYZR]: 3D retinal scatterplots, 3D topographies
  • 97. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy a complex visualization of localized partisanship Andrew Gelman, Jonathan P. Kastellec & Yair Ghitza, 2009
  • 98. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Simple visual structures articulated reading n-variable [XYRn-2]: 2D retinal scatterplots [XYZRn-1]: 3D retinal scatterplots may present a barrier of perception
  • 99. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy scatterplot of attractiveness versus age, colored by gender O’Connor & Biewald, 2009
  • 100. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Simple visual structures articulated reading trees (used for hierarchical data): node and link trees, enclosure trees, hyperbolic trees, TreeMaps, cone trees
  • 101. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy treemap of terms occurring in geograph titles and comments for 6 selected scene types T. Segaran & J. Hammerbacher (Eds.), Beautiful Data, O’Reilly, 2009
  • 102. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Simple visual structures articulated reading networks
  • 103. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Flight Patterns – using air traffic GPS data to visualize commercial flight patterns and density (Koblin, 2005) www.aaronkoblin.com/work/flightpatterns/
  • 104. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Simple visual structures articulated reading time
  • 105. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Definitive Daft Punk http://themaninblue.com/writing/perspective/2011/05/12/
  • 106. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Composed visual structures single-axis composition [XYn]: permutation matrices, parallel coordinates
  • 107. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy a parallel coordinate view of a firewall log file context: security visualization – http://secviz.org/
  • 108. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Composed visual structures double-axis composition [XY]: graphs
  • 109. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Composed visual structures recursive composition 2D in 2D [(XY)XY]: scatterplot matrices, hierarchical axes,…
  • 110. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy organizing all of pairwise correlation information
  • 111. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Composed visual structures recursive composition marks in 2D [(XY)R]: stick figures, color icons, shape coding, Keim spirals,…
  • 112. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy 100 Years with the San Francisco Symphony by Adobe http://thewhyaxis.info/music/
  • 113. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Composed visual structures recursive composition 3D in 3D [(XYZ)XYZ]: worlds within worlds
  • 114. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Interactive visual structures dynamic queries imagery (“magic”) lens overview + detail brushing and linking extraction & comparation attribute explorer (multi-faceted)
  • 115. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Poem Viewer – imagery lens for visualizing corpora http://ovii.oerc.ox.ac.uk/PoemVis/
  • 116. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy brushing performing a data selection task (e.g., click and drag) linking highlighting the matching data samples in the other views for a demo, visit http://mbostock.github.io/protovis/ex/brush.html
  • 117. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Focus + context attention-reactive visual abstraction data-driven methods: filtering, selective aggregation
  • 118. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Gapminder World – http://www.gapminder.org/world/
  • 119. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy Focus + context attention-reactive visual abstraction view-based methods: micro-macro readings, highlighting, visual transfer functions, perspective distortion, alternate geometries
  • 120. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco visualization taxonomy micro-macro readings presenting large quantities of data at high densities goal: to see the bigger picture http://larp601.wordpress.com/
  • 121. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco conclusions Main purposes of information visualization: exploratory visualization discover patterns, trends, or sub-problems in a data set explanatory visualization transmitting information or a point of view to the user
  • 122. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco conclusions case study: VOWL (Visual Notation for OWL Ontologies) + interactive visualization tools for desktop and Web http://vowl.visualdataweb.org/
  • 123. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco conclusions Each visualization project (solution) has unique requirements “If each data set is different, the point of visualization is to expose that fascinating aspect of the data and make it self-evident.” – Stephen Fry
  • 124. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco conclusions Apply KISS principle less detail can actually convey more information beware of chartjunk Tufte (1983)
  • 125. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco conclusions chartjunk using a large area and a lot of “ink” (many symbols and lines) to show only 5 hard-to-read numbers real-life examples: http://junkcharts.typepad.com/
  • 126. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco conclusions Know your audience different types of visualizations for different (types of) users
  • 127. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco resources Edward R. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (2nd Edition), Graphics Press, 2001 Edward R. Tufte, Envisioning Information, Graphics Press, 1990 Nathan Yau, Visualize This, Wiley, 2011 for examples & tutorials, consult http://flowingdata.com/ Ben Fry, Visualizing Data, O’Reilly, 2008 Scott Murray, Interactive Data Visualization for the Web, O’Reilly, 2013 – http://chimera.labs.oreilly.com/books/1230000000345
  • 128. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco online resources WikiViz – techniques, tools, examples: www.wikiviz.org Resources for data visualization and interactive exploration (curated by S. Negru): http://tinyurl.com/kr8oxg5 Data Visualization – http://datavisualization.ch/ Visualization & Visual Communication: http://eagereyes.org Information is Beautiful – www.informationisbeautiful.net
  • 129. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco “Conclusion” data visualization definitions, classification, methods, examples
  • 130. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco next lecture: affective factors & persuasive technologies