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Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
Amali darah
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Amali darah
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Amali darah

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  1. Lab Activity 22 Blood Institut Pendidikan Guru Malaysia PJM3106
  2. Erythrocyte
  3. Erythrocyte (RBC) <ul><li>Count: 4-6 million per mm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Transport of O 2 and CO 2 </li></ul>
  4. Iron Deficient RBC <ul><li>More pale and smaller </li></ul>
  5. Sickle Cell
  6. Reticulocyte <ul><li>Count: 1-2% of RBC </li></ul><ul><li>RBC precursor </li></ul><ul><li>Increased when RBC turnover is high </li></ul><ul><li>Still contains nuclear fragments </li></ul>
  7. Neutrophil (Granulocyte) <ul><li>Nuclei: 2 to 5 lobes connected by thin strands (polymorphonuclear) </li></ul><ul><li>Fine, pale lilac practically invisible granules </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan of about 10 hrs </li></ul>
  8. Neutrophil <ul><li>Count: 50-70% </li></ul><ul><li>3,000-7,000 per mm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Fastest response of all WBC to bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytic: engulf pathogens or debris in tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release cytotoxic enzymes and chemicals </li></ul></ul>
  9. Neutrophilic Band Cell <ul><ul><li>Young neutrophils are called band cells because of horseshoe shaped nucleus (band) </li></ul></ul>
  10. Eosinophil (Granulocyte) <ul><li>Nucleus with 2 or 3 lobes connected by a thin strand </li></ul><ul><li>Large, uniform-sized orange-red granules </li></ul>
  11. Eosinophil <ul><li>Count: 2-4% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100-400 per mm 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytic: engulf antibody-labeled materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release cytotoxic enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce inflammation </li></ul></ul>
  12. Basophil (Granulocyte) <ul><li>Large, dark purple, variable-sized granules </li></ul><ul><li>Obscure the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular, s-shaped, bi-lobed nuclei </li></ul>
  13. Basophil <ul><li>Count: <1% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20-50 per mm 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter damaged tissues and release histamine and other chemicals that promote inflammation </li></ul></ul>
  14. Monocyte (Agranulocyte) <ul><li>Nucleus is kidney or horse-shoe shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Pale cytoplasm </li></ul>
  15. Monocyte <ul><li>Count: 2-8% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100-700 per mm 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter tissues to become macrophages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engulf pathogens or debris </li></ul></ul>
  16. Lymphocyte (Agranulocyte) <ul><li>Dark, oval to round nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm sky blue in color </li></ul>
  17. Lymphocyte <ul><li>Count: 20-30% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,500-3,000 per mm 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount immune response by direct attack or via antibodies, mediates other cellular immune response, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes B and T cells </li></ul></ul>
  18. Platelets <ul><li>Fragments of a bone marrow cell called a megakaryocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Count: 150-500,000 per mm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Function: mediates blood clotting chemically and mechanically </li></ul>
  19. Platelets Megakaryocytes Platelet
  20. Hemoglobin Concentrations <ul><li>Normal hemoglobin concentration in females is 12-16 g/deciliter. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal hemoglobin concentration in males is 13-18 g/deciliter. </li></ul><ul><li>Hematocrit can be estimated from the hemoglobin concentration: </li></ul><ul><li>3x hemoglobin=hematocrit. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal hematocrit in females is 37-48%. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal hematocrit in men is 42-52%. </li></ul>
  21. Gender Differences in Hb <ul><li>Testosterone stimulates synthesis of erythropoietin which in turn stimulates erythropoiesis (red cell formation) in the red marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower values in women of reproductive age may also reflect their red cell losses due to menstruation. </li></ul>
  22. ABO Blood Types <ul><li>RBC surfaces are marked by genetically determined glycoproteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The glycoprotein determines the blood type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plasma contains isoantibodies or agglutinins to the A or B antigens not found on your blood cells </li></ul>
  23. Type A <ul><li>Type A: Display only antigen A </li></ul><ul><li>The plasma contains antibodies against Type B </li></ul>
  24. Type B <ul><li>Type B: Display only antigen B </li></ul><ul><li>The plasma contains antibodies against Type A </li></ul>
  25. Type AB <ul><li>Type AB: Display both antigens A & B </li></ul><ul><li>The plasma contains no antibodies </li></ul>
  26. Type O <ul><li>Type O: Display neither antigen </li></ul><ul><li>The plasma contains antibodies against A and B </li></ul>
  27. Blood Transfusions <ul><li>Only RBC are donated. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfusion Reactions: The recipients plasma interacts with the donors RBC </li></ul><ul><li>Causes clumping then hemolysis </li></ul>
  28. RH blood groups <ul><li>People with Rh agglutinogens on RBC surface are Rh + . Normal plasma contains no anti-Rh antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies develop only in Rh - blood type & only with exposure to the antigen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfusion of positive blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During a pregnancy with a positive blood type fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transfusion reaction upon 2nd exposure to the antigen results in hemolysis of the RBCs in the donated blood </li></ul>
  29. Not Possible Not Possible Possible Possible
  30. Coagulation Time <ul><li>Blood Clotting (coagulation) is a protective mechanism that minimizes blood loss when blood vessels are ruptured </li></ul><ul><li>Through a series of reactions, fibrin will form a meshwork to trap the RBC, forming a clot. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally blood clots within 2-6 minutes </li></ul>
  31. The End The End

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