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  • 1. Monday, August 31
    • Objective: Define Stress and describe the physical and emotional changes associated with stress
    • Homework Due
  • 2. Effects of Stress
  • 3. How stressed are you?
    • Take this stress assessment to find out
  • 4. Stress
  • 5. Stress
    • The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
    • Is a process of perceiving and responding
    • The response is called a stress reaction
    • TRQ: #27
  • 6. Health Psychology
    • A subfield of psychology that focuses on how stress affects our well being and health
    • TRQ: #28
  • 7. Stress: Responding to Stress
  • 8. Walter Canon’s Fight-or-Flight Response
    • Regardless of the stressor, the body reacts by increasing the amount of blood sugar and adrenaline.
    • These responses are designed to prepare a person for self-defense and are often called the fight-or-flight response.
    • However, if stress persists for a long time, the body’s resources are used up.
  • 9. Walter Canon’s Fight-or-Flight Response
  • 10. Responding to Stress
  • 11. Responding to Stress
  • 12. Responding to Stress
  • 13. Hans Selye (1907-1982)
    • Psychologist who researched recurring responses to stress the he called the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
    • Discovered various chemicals caused stress reactions in animals
  • 14. General Adaptation Syndrome
    • Sylye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages
      • Alarm
      • Resistance
      • Exhaustion
  • 15. General Adaptation Syndrome
    • Alarm Reaction – nervous system activated in response to stressor
    • Resistance – body responds with physiological reactions to cope with the stressor
    • Exhaustion – body’s resistance to stress is depleted (physical deterioration); this is when we are most likely to get sick
      • TRQ: #30, 31
  • 16. General Adaptation Syndrome
  • 17. General Adaptation Syndrome
  • 18. General Adaptation Syndrome
  • 19. Stress: Stressful Events
  • 20. Daily Stress
    • Stress can be caused by:
      • Typical demands of the day
      • Living situations
      • Economic difficulties
      • TRQ: #33
  • 21. Burnout
    • Physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion brought on by persistent job-related stress
    • Burnout can result in:
      • Depression
      • Decreased performance
      • Cynicism
      • TRQ: #32
  • 22. Significant Life Changes
    • Stress can be the result of personal life changes
      • Death of a loved one
      • Leaving home for college
    • Can result in health problems
      • TRQ: #33
  • 23. Catastrophes
    • Large scale stress events (i.e. earthquakes, floods, war, etc.)
    • Prolonged exposure can lead to physical and psychological problems.
      • TRQ: #33
  • 24. Do you think life events affect stress?
    • Take this quiz to find out
  • 25. Tuesday, September 1
    • Objective: Evaluate how outlook and feelings of control influence health; and evaluate how social support and positive emotional experiences contribute to health and well-being
  • 26. Effects of Perceived Control
  • 27. Perceived Control
    • The sense of control or influence one has over stressful events in one’s life
    • Most studies suggest the lower the perceived control the larger the potential for health-related problems
    • Lower perceived control leads to a lowered immunity to disease.
      • TRQ: #34
  • 28. Rodin’s nursing home study
    • J. Rodin’s study took place in 1976.
    • He separated nursing home patients into two groups: those that could choose how they wanted to decorate their rooms, and those that could not
    • He found that those who were given the choice on decorations were happier, lived longer, and some actually recovered from their illness
    • TRQ: #35
  • 29. Optimism
    • A generally positive outlook on the future
    • Optimists have stronger immune systems and recover faster from health problems.
    • Opposite of pessimism
      • TRQ: #36
  • 30. Stress Hormones
    • Hormones released in response to stress
    • The body must work to rid the body of the stress hormones.
    • Pessimism and perceived lack of control both produce more stress hormones.
  • 31. Stress and Disease: Cancer and Stress
  • 32. Stress-Cancer Connection
    • Evidence for a connection is not conclusive.
    • Two conclusions:
      • Stress does not create cancer cells.
      • Stress affects the body’s malignancy- fighting ability.
      • TRQ: #37
  • 33. Stress and Disease: Stress and Heart Problems
  • 34. Type A
    • Term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone.
    • More prone to heart attacks and other stress related illnesses.
      • TRQ: #38, 39
  • 35. Type B
    • Individuals who are easygoing, relaxed people
      • TRQ: #38, 39
  • 36. Which type are you?
    • Take this assessment to find out.
  • 37. Promoting Wellness
  • 38. Introduction
  • 39. Martin Seligman (1942- )
    • American psychologist
    • Proponent of positive psychology
    • Former president of the APA
  • 40. Wellness
    • The common result of a healthy lifestyle and healthy attitudes
  • 41. Healthy Lifestyles: Exercise
  • 42. Benefits of Daily Exercise
    • Effective in reducing anxiety and depression
    • Leads to greater self confidence and self discipline
  • 43. Exercise and Mental Health
  • 44. Healthy Lifestyles: Family and Friends
  • 45. Benefits of Social Support
    • Social support – makes people feel liked and wanted
    • Social support leads to:
      • Less physical problems
      • More pleasure in life
      • Longer life span
  • 46. Healthy Lifestyles: The Faith Factor
  • 47. Benefits of Religious Activity
    • Studies suggest those involved in religion tend to live longer
    • Factors of religion contributing to longer life include:
      • Religion promotes healthy lifestyles.
      • Religious involvement offers social support.
      • Many religions promote optimism.
  • 48. Benefits of Religious Activity
  • 49. The Faith Factor Explained
  • 50. The Faith Factor Explained
  • 51. The Faith Factor Explained
  • 52. The Faith Factor Explained
  • 53. The Faith Factor Explained
  • 54. Positive Experiences and Well-Being
  • 55. Positive Psychology
    • Subfield of psychology that focuses on the study of optimal human functioning and the factors that allow individuals and communities to thrive
  • 56. Well-being
    • Concept that includes life satisfaction, feelings of fulfillment, pleasant emotions, and low level of unpleasant emotions
    • Person judges life as satisfying, fulfilling, and “going well”
  • 57. Positive Experiences and Well-Being: Flow
  • 58. Flow
    • A state of optimal experience that involves
      • A challenge
      • Requires skill
      • Has clear goals and
      • Provides feedback
    • People do the activity for its own sake.
  • 59. Positive Experiences and Well-Being: Happiness
  • 60. Characteristics of Happy People
  • 61. Positive Experiences and Well-Being: Optimism
  • 62. Explanatory Style
    • Habits we have for thinking about the good or bad causes of events
    • Can be optimistic or pessimistic
  • 63. Optimism
    • The tendency to expect the best
    • Believe bad events are:
      • Temporary
      • Not their fault
      • Will not have broader effects beyond the present circumstances
  • 64. Pessimism
    • The tendency to expect the worst
    • Tend to blame themselves for bad situations
    • Tend to see the negative as permanent in nature
  • 65. Overcoming Illness-Related Behaviors: Smoking
  • 66. Dangers of Smoking
  • 67. Nicotine
    • The behavioral stimulant found in tobacco
  • 68. Withdrawal
    • The discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the use of an addictive drug such as nicotine
  • 69. 10 Guidelines to Quitting Smoking
    • 1. Set a specific date to quit.
    • 2. Inform other people of your plans.
    • 3. Get rid of all cigarettes.
    • 4. Review previous attempts to quit and anticipate challenges.
    • 5. Use a nicotine patch or gum.
  • 70. 10 Guidelines to Quitting Smoking (continued)
    • 6. Be totally abstinent.
    • 7. Avoid alcohol.
    • 8. Quit together with family or friends who also smoke (especially those at home or work).
    • 9. Avoid places where others smoke.
    • 10. Exercise regularly.
  • 71. Wednesday, September 2
    • Objective: Evaluate how social support and positive emotional experiences contribute to health and well-being
    • Assignment: Watch Stress: Portrait of a Killer and complete the video guide. This will be due at the end of class.
    • Unit One Vocab Quiz is tomorrow …bring your notes and test review with you!
  • 72. Thursday, September 3
    • Objective: Use psychology terminology correctly
    • Assignment: Unit One Vocabulary Quiz (you may use your notes and test review on this quiz)
    • Assignment: Complete Unit One test review in class (due tomorrow)
    • Unit One Test is tomorrow!
  • 73. Friday, September 7
    • Objective: Demonstrate mastery of memory and stress unit
    • Assignment: Unit One Test (you may use a notecard on this test if you completed the “About Me” collage)
    • When you finish your test, please sit quietly and do not talk until everyone is finished
  • 74. The End