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Memory trq

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  • 1. Welcome to Psychology!
    • Mrs. Parsons
    • Room ?
  • 2. What is “Psychology”?
    • Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes of animals and humans.
    • The goals of psychology are:
      • Description
      • Explanation
      • Prediction
      • Influence
  • 3. Topics to be Discussed
    • Memory and Stress
    • History and Research
    • Brain, Body, and Behavior
    • Sensation and Perception
    • Learning and Thinking
    • Social Psychology
    • Motivation and Emotion
    • Personality
    • Disorders and Therapy
    • Testing and Consciousness
  • 4. Grading
    • 60% = MAJOR GRADES (tests and projects)
    • 40% = DAILY GRADES (class assignments, quizzes, homework, participation, etc.)
      • There are typically 10-12 daily grades, and three major grades a semester.
  • 5. Tardies
    • Any student will be counted tardy by the instructor if they are not inside the classroom when the tardy bell finishes ringing.
    • Five tardies equals a “U” in conduct. A “U” will mean that you may not exempt the final, and can make you ineligible for some extracurricular activities.
  • 6. Make-Up Work
    • For test, the student has 5 school days to makeup the test. Projects are due the day the student returns . It is the student’s responsibility to obtain missed assignments from the instructor.
    • I will not remind you to make up your tests or projects.
  • 7. Late Work
    • Late work is not acceptable. However, I will accept it at a penalty of 11 points off each day it is late. Once the assignment is given a grade of a “0”, it cannot be made up.
    • For major grades, I will only accept a project two days late.
  • 8. Notebooks and Supplies
    • You must have the following supplies every day:
      • Pen or pencil
      • Paper or notebook to take notes
      • Other project supplies as needed
  • 9. Headphones/Electronics/Cell Phones
    • Electronics are not allowed in the classroom, without the teacher’s permission. This includes music players, portable gaming devices, and personal computers.
    • Cell phones are to be off, not on silent, and they will be collected and turned into the office if they are seen in my classroom.
  • 10. Food/Drinks in the Classroom
    • Only water in clear water bottles is allowed in my classroom.
  • 11. Dress Code
    • All dress code guidelines in the CFISD Student Handbook will be enforced.
  • 12. Academic Dishonesty
    • There is ZERO tolerance for academic dishonesty.
    • This includes cheating, copying, plagiarizing, fabrications, or falsification.
    • If there is academic dishonesty, the student will receive a “0” for the assignment, receive a phone call home, and an office referral, which could lead to suspension.
  • 13. Classroom Procedures
    • Be Prepared
      • Come to class on time with homework completed, and supplies
    • Be Positive
      • Respect your classmates and instructor
    • Be Polite
      • Wait in your seat until the dismissal bell rings
    • Be Proud
      • Clean up after yourselves…this is YOUR classroom too!
  • 14. Now, let’s get to know each other!
  • 15. Panther Pride, Live the Tradition Monday, August 24 th 2nd Period Polite in the Hallways/Stairwells
  • 16. Being Polite in the Hallways is…
  • 17. Tuesday, August 25
    • Objective: Discuss memory processes
    • Pick up collage handout
  • 18. Memory and Forgetting -As you take notes, pay attention to the bottom of the slides. “ TRQ” indicates that the answer to a test review question is on the slide. I will only do this for your first test
  • 19. Information Processing Model
    • Encoding – process of getting information into the memory system
    • Storage – retention encoded information over time
    • Retrieval – process of getting information out of memory storage
    • TRQ: #1
  • 20. Information Processing Model
  • 21. Let’s test your memory
    • Watch the following clip, and pay close attention to the details
  • 22. Questions
    • What was the first layer mentioned in the clip?
    • What was the topping on the pizza?
    • Were any of the characters wearing a t-shirt?
  • 23. How difficult is it to memorize 30 random numbers? Using Short Term Memory
  • 24. You have 30 seconds to memorize the following numbers
  • 25. Now write them down, in sequential order
    • 4-9 Correct : Average
    • 10-19 Correct : Extraordinary
    • 20-29 Correct : Brilliant
  • 26. Which task was easier?
  • 27. Now watch a super-memorist demonstrate his abilities Super Memorist-#20
  • 28. Deja Vu
    • déjà vu is a feeling that what you are experiencing, you have experienced it before
    • Have you ever felt like you had déjà vu?
    • Psychologists associate déjà vu with the information processing model
    • Let’s see for ourselves.
  • 29. Do you have Deja Vu?
  • 30. Listen to the following words carefully...
    • REST
  • 31.
    • TIRED
  • 32.
    • AWAKE
  • 33.
    • DREAM
  • 34.
    • SNORE
  • 35.
    • BED
  • 36.
    • EAT
  • 37.
    • SLUMBER
  • 38.
    • SOUND
  • 39.
    • COMFORT
  • 40.
    • WAKE
  • 41.
    • NIGHT
  • 42. Now write as many of the words down as you can...
    • Do you remember the word “Aardvark”?
    • How about the word “Sleep”?
    • Sure about that?
  • 43. Panther Pride, Live the Tradition
    • Tuesday, August 25
    • 2nd Period
    • Proud in the Hallways/Stairwells
  • 44. Being proud in the hallways is…
  • 45. Wednesday, August 26
    • Objective: Analyze how humans encode, store, and retrieve information
    • Signed Syllabus is due
  • 46. Encoding: Serial Position Effect
  • 47. How many US presidents can you name?
    • On a sheet of paper, list the names of all the US presidents you can, in order.
    • You have two minutes, and you must work by yourself.
  • 48. US Presidents
    • Listen as I read the list of presidents.
    • How many of you put “Washington”?
    • How many of you listed “Obama”?
    • What about “Lincoln”?
    • This exercise is a demonstration of the serial-position effect
  • 49. Serial Position Effect
    • Tendency to recall the first and last items in a list more easily
    • Primacy effect – the ability to recall information near the beginning of a list
    • Recency effect – the ability to recall information near the end of a list
    • TRQ: #2
  • 50. Primacy/Recency Effect
  • 51. Encoding: Automatic and Effortful Processing
  • 52. Automatic Processing
    • Unconscious process of encoding certain information without effort
    • Usually information on space, time and frequency
    • Example: Reading a book for fun
    • TRQ: #3
  • 53. Effortful Processing
    • Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
    • The best processing is through rehearsal or practice.
    • Example: Reading an assigned textbook
    • TRQ: #3
  • 54. Automatic/Effortful Processing
  • 55. Encoding: Encoding Meaning
  • 56. Encoding Exercise
    • Read the instructions at the top of the page silently.
    • This activity will demonstrate semantic encoding.
  • 57. Semantic Encoding
    • Encoding of meaning
    • Encoding information that is meaningful enhances recall
    • TRQ: #4
  • 58. Self-Reference Effect
    • Now get out a sheet of scratch paper and number to 18.
    • Listen to the adjectives as I read them one at a time.
    • Circle the number if the adjective could describe you.
  • 59. Self-Reference Effect
    • Now, flip your paper over, and number to 18.
    • List all the adjectives you can remember hearing.
    • Then fill out the handout.
  • 60. Self-Reference Effect
    • Enhanced semantic encoding of information that is personally relevant
    • Making information meaningful to a person by making it relevant to one’s life
    • TRQ: #5
  • 61. Overlearning
    • Continuing to rehearse even after it has been memorized
    • Rehearsing past the point of mastery
    • Helps ensure information will be available even under stress
    • For example, athletes might use this technique during practice before a game
    • TRQ: #6
  • 62. Panther Pride, Live the Tradition
    • Wednesday, August 26
    • 2nd Period
    • Prepared in the Hallways/Stairwells
  • 63. Being prepared in the hallways is…
  • 64. Thursday, August 27
    • Objective: Analyze how humans encode, store, and retrieve information
    • Extra-credit collage is due tomorrow
  • 65. Encoding: Spacing of Rehearsal
  • 66. Spacing Effect
    • The tendency for distributed practice to yield better retention than is achieved through massed practice
    • TRQ: #7
  • 67. Distributed Practice
    • Spreading rehearsal out in several sessions separated by period of time
    • Usually enhances the recalling of the information
  • 68. Massed Practice
    • Putting all rehearsal together in one long session (cramming)
    • Not as effective as distributed practice
    • TRQ: #7
  • 69. Rehearsal
    • Conscious repetition of information
    • The more time spent on rehearsal, the more information one tends to remember.
    • TRQ: #8
  • 70. Rehearsal and Retention
  • 71. Encoding:
  • 72. Semantic Encoding
  • 73. Acoustic Encoding
    • Encoding information based on the sounds of the information
    • Auditory information is held in sensory memory for 3-4 seconds
    • TRQ: #9
  • 74. Acoustic Encoding
  • 75. Visual Encoding
    • Encoding information based on the images of the information
    • Iconic memory is a momentary sensory memory of visual data
    • TRQ: 10
  • 76. Visual Encoding
  • 77. Encoding: Encoding Imagery
  • 78. Encoding Imagery
    • Visual images easily encode
    • Especially extremely positive or negative images
  • 79. Encoding: Organizing Information
  • 80. Chunking Take ten seconds to memorize the above line of letters.
  • 81. Chunking Take ten seconds to memorize the above line of letters.
  • 82. Chunking
  • 83. Chunking
    • Organizing information into meaningful units
    • More information can be encoded if organized into meaningful chunks.
    • TRQ: #13
  • 84.  
  • 85. Storage
  • 86. Three Storage Systems
    • Three distinct storage systems :
      • Sensory Memory
      • Short-Term Memory (includes Working Memory)
      • Long-Term Memory
  • 87. Storage: Sensory Memory
  • 88. Sensory Memory
    • Brief, initial coding of sensory information in the memory system
      • Iconic store – visual information
      • Echoic store – sound information
    • Information held just long enough to make a decision on its importance
  • 89. Storage: Short-Term Memory
  • 90. Short-Term Memory
    • Part of your memory system that contains information you are conscious aware of before it is stored more permanently or forgotten
    • Holds approximately seven, plus or minus two, chunks of information
    • Can retain the information as long as it is rehearsed
    • Also called “working memory”
    • TRQ: #11
  • 91. Short-Term Memory
  • 92. Storage: Long-Term Memory
  • 93. Long-Term Memory
    • Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
    • Holds memories without conscious effort
    • TRQ: #12
  • 94. Flashbulb Memory
    • Vivid, clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
    • Can be personal memories or centered around a shared event
  • 95. Storage: Explicit and Implicit Memories
  • 96. Explicit Memory
    • Memory of facts and experiences
    • Processed through the hippocampus
    • TRQ: #14
  • 97. Explicit Memories
  • 98. Explicit Memories
  • 99. Implicit Memory
    • Memory of skills and procedures
    • Processed through the cerebellum
    • TRQ: #14
  • 100. Implicit Memories
  • 101. Implicit Memories
  • 102. Retrieval
  • 103. Retrieval Exercise
    • Remembering the Seven Dwarfs.
  • 104. Step One
    • On a sheet of paper, silently list the names of the seven dwarfs that appear in the Disney film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
    • You have ninety seconds to do this
    • When you are finished, turn your paper over, and wait silently
  • 105. Step Two
    • Let’s Discuss:
      • How difficult was this task?
      • Did you have the feeling that you knew the name, but were unable to retrieve it?
        • This is called “Tip of the Tongue” (TOT) phenomenon
  • 106. Step Three
    • Look at your list and examine the order that you recalled the names. Is there any pattern?
    • Would you do better if you only had to recognize the names?
      • You would only have to decide if the information is correct or not
      • This is called “Recognition”
  • 107. Silently, decide which are correct
    • Grouchy
    • Gabby
    • Fearful
    • Sleepy
    • Happy
    • Jumpy
    • Hopeful
    • Bashful
    • Droopy
    • Dopey
    • Sniffy
    • Wishful
    • Sneezy
    • Doc
    • Pop
    • Grumpy
  • 108. The Correct List
    • Sleepy
    • Happy
    • Bashful
    • Dopey
    • Sneezy
    • Doc
    • Grumpy
  • 109. Step 5
    • Now, flip your paper over and once again, list the seven dwarfs
    • You have sixty seconds
  • 110. Debrief
    • When you were first asked to list the seven dwarves, you were using your long-term memory
    • If you were able to successfully list the dwarves the second time, then you were using your short-term memory
    • Your short-term memory can hold seven pieces of information. Coincidence?
  • 111. Retrieval
    • The process of getting information out of memory storage
    • Two forms of retrieval
      • Recall
      • Recognition
  • 112. Recall
    • Type of retrieval in which you must search for information that you previously stored
    • Essay, fill-in-the-blank, and short answer test questions test recall
    • TRQ: #15
  • 113. Recognition
    • Type of retrieval in which must identify items learned earlier
    • Multiple choice and matching test questions test recognition
    • TRQ: #15
  • 114. Retrieval
  • 115. Retrieval: Context
  • 116. Context Effect
    • Enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are in an environment similar to the one in which you encoded the information
  • 117. Context Effect
  • 118. Retrieval: State Dependency
  • 119. State Dependent Memory
    • Enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are in the same physical and emotional state you were in when you encoded the information
    • The retrieval state is congruent with the encoding state
  • 120. Panther Pride, Live the Tradition
    • Thursday, August 27
    • 2nd Period
    • Positive in the Hallways/Stairwells
  • 121. Being positive in the hallways is…
  • 122. Friday, August 28
    • Objective: Apply memory enhancement techniques to everyday life
    • Extra-Credit Collage due
  • 123. Exploratorium
    • Explore this website for a few minutes to learn memory enhancement techniques, and to play memory games
    • Memory Games
  • 124. Forgetting and Memory Construction
  • 125. Information Processing Model
    • Encoding – process of getting information into the memory system
    • Storage - retention of encoded information over time
    • Retrieval – process of getting encoded information out of memory storage
  • 126. Forgetting as Encoding Failure
  • 127. Encoding Failures
    • People fail to encode information because:
      • It is unimportant to them
      • It is not necessary to know the information
      • A decrease in the brain’s ability to encode
      • TRQ: #16
  • 128. Which is the Right Penny? (From Nickerson & Adams, 1979)
  • 129. Which is the Right Penny? (From Nickerson & Adams, 1979)
  • 130. Forgetting as Storage Failure
  • 131. Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
    • German philosopher who did early memory studies with nonsense syllables
    • Developed the forgetting curve, also called the “retention curve” or “Ebbinghaus curve”
      • TRQ: #18
  • 132. The Forgetting Curve (Adapted from Ebbinghaus, 1885)
  • 133. Forgetting Exercise
    • The rumor chain
  • 134. Permastore Memory
    • Long-term memories that are especially resistant to forgetting and are likely to last a lifetime
      • TRQ: #19
  • 135. Storage Failure
    • Occurs when information in our memory decays, and is forgotten
    • For example, do you remember what you ate for lunch last Wednesday?
      • TRQ: #20
  • 136. Memory Loss
    • Most memory loss occurs within a few days of encoding
    • What happens to information you study after you have been tested on it?
      • TRQ: #21
  • 137. Forgetting as Retrieval Failure: Interference
  • 138. Interference
    • A retrieval problem when one memory gets in the way of remembering another
    • Two types of interference:
      • Proactive interference
      • Retroactive interference
  • 139. Proactive Interference
    • When an older memory disrupts the recall of a newer memory
      • TRQ: #22
  • 140. Proactive Interference
  • 141. Retroactive Interference
    • When a more recent memory disrupts the recall of an older memory
      • TRQ: #22
  • 142. Retroactive Interference
  • 143. Forgetting as Retrieval Failure: Motivated Forgetting
  • 144. Repression
    • Part of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
    • Process of moving anxiety-producing memories to the unconscious
    • Supposed means of protecting oneself from painful memories
    • Not well-supported by research; stressful incidents are actually more likely to be encoded
      • TRQ: #23, 24
  • 145. Memory Construction
  • 146. Memory Jigsaw Analogy
    • Memories, rather than being like a video tape, are formed as bits and pieces.
    • People may retrieve only some of the pieces of the memory
  • 147. Misinformation Effect
    • Incorporating misleading information into a memory of an event
    • Affects eyewitness testimony
    • TRQ: #25
  • 148. Elizabeth Loftus (1944- )
    • Does research in memory construction
    • Has found that subjects’ memories vary based on the wording of questions
    • Demonstrated the misinformation effect
    • TRQ: #26
  • 149. Misinformation Effect
  • 150. Memory Construction: Children’s Recall
  • 151. Children’s Testimony on Abuse
    • Research has shown children’s testimony to be unreliable
    • Children are very open to suggestions
    • As children mature their memories improve
  • 152. Watch the following clip on children as witnesses in abuse cases
    • Need to get Quicktime player, or see if Google Videos will work
  • 153. Accurate Interviewing Methods
    • To promote accuracy with children’s testimony the interviewer should:
      • Phrase questions in a way the child can understand
      • Have no prior contact with the child
      • Use neutral language and do not lead or suggest answers
  • 154. Memory Construction: Recovered Memories
  • 155. Accuracy of Memories
  • 156. Homework
    • This will be due Monday, no exceptions!
  • 157. Panther Pride, Live the Tradition
    • Friday, August 28
    • 2nd Period
    • Hallway Expectations
  • 158. Hallway Expectations
  • 159. The End