Data is the Border: An overview of surveillance technologies in Europe Jill Baron December 10, 2009
bor⋅der–noun The frontier line which separates one country from another. A side, an edge, a brink, a margin, a limit.
Maps make borders
Walls make borders
U.S. Mexican border Israeli Separation Barrier
Frontier lines are visible borders
What about borders that are invisible?
What if all you have is
Your border is more like a A side an edge a brink a margin a limit
The EU and its borders
Brief Chronology: 1951: Treaty of Paris signed by France, Italy, West Germany, and the Benelux countries. 1985: The Schengen Agreement abolished internal borders within the European Union. 1986: Spain joins the EU. 1989: Berlin Wall comes down, Germany reunifies. 1990: Birth of the Schengen Information System (SIS).
SIS An EU-wide database that allows countries to store and share alphanumeric data about:
Wanted or missing persons
SIS 2 Planned deployment in Fall 2011. Will integrate digital images and biometric data (fingerprints and facial image) into holdings. Will answer police requests within 5 seconds.
Schengen Area 2009
E-passports In 2004 the US Visa Waiver program required that all new and existing EU Member States issue machine-readable passports with a radio-frequency identification tag (RFID). The RFID tag in EU passports contains biographical information about the passenger including fingerprint biometrics.
S.I.V.E. SistemaIntegrado de Vigilancia Exterior (Integrated System of Border Surveillance) 2001: 1st station in Gibraltar 2009: 43 stations along the Spanish coastline
S.I.V.E. in the Canary Islands, Spain
S.I.V.E.: Towers provisioned with radars and infrared and thermal cameras Control centers remotely manipulate the radars (positioning, focus) view images and coordinate command Interception units (boats, helicopters) receive orders from control centers and dispatch when called.
S.I.V.E. Now controls 1,000 km of Spanish coastline. Fixed and mobile detection devices can identify a small vessel 10 km from shore Can estimate number of passengers 5 km from shore. In Canary Islands, S.I.V.E. uses advanced radar technology deployed in the war in Afghanistan.
That’s right: War technology is being used against non-criminals.
Spanish IT and defense systems company. Implements technology of S.I.V.E. Defense and security account for 29% of business. Maker of Lanza Radar with a range of 470 km. Radar has a moving target detection and indicator system. Chief Executive in USA is Emilio Gonzalez, former undersecretary of Homeland Security under the Bush Administration.
Sea Horse EU funded project (1.8 beuros) Satellite-based high-speed communications network that allows neighboring countries to exchange information and coordinate efforts against irregular migrants. Automatic identification system to facilitate viewing images geographically in real time. Technology is not new, but the application is.
20 years ago…
Today, “The European policy on border security appears to be primarily focused on the development of non-tangible, technology-based and dispersed borders centered on the need to track and ‘manage’ the individual through the use of new technologies and Europe-wide databases.” Carrera, S. (2007). “The EU Border Management Strategy: FRONTEX and the Challenges of Irregular Immigration.” Centre for European Policy Studies.