Fibre optics

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Fibre optics

  1. 1. Fiber optics The Turning Point Presented by : Syed Safdar Abbas 03F-EE-20 Mohd. Shehzad Nazir 03F-EE-71
  2. 2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND <ul><li>John Tyndall experiment -1870 </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>John Logie experiment-1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Kao and George Hockham proposal - 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>First fiber optic television transmission -1980 </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are Fiber Optics ? <ul><li>Long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances </li></ul>
  5. 6. COMPONENTS <ul><li>Core - Thin glass center of the fiber where the light travels </li></ul><ul><li>Cladding - Outer optical material surrounding the core that reflects the light back into the core </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer coating - Plastic coating that protects the fiber from damage and moisture </li></ul>
  6. 8. How Does an Optical Fiber Transmit Light? <ul><li>Total internal reflection - The light in a fiber-optic cable travels through the core by constantly bouncing from the cladding.Light waves can travel a greater distance </li></ul><ul><li>Degrading - Light signal degrades within the fiber, mostly due to impurities in the glass. </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Extend of degradation - 850 nm = 60 to 75 percent/km; 1,300 nm = 50 to 60 percent/km; 1,550 nm is greater than 50 percent/km). Some premium optical fibers show much less signal degradation -- less than 10 percent/km at 1,550 nm. </li></ul>
  8. 11. FACTORS AFFECT THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT <ul><li>Coherence of the light source. </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>The composition of the fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>The numerical aperture of the source and the fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of light injected into the fiber. </li></ul>
  9. 12. CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Single-mode fibers </li></ul><ul><li>1. Light follows a single path. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Exceedingly small cores about </li></ul><ul><li>3.5 x 10-4 inches or 9 microns in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Light thus travels parallel to the axis,creating little pulse dispersion. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Commonly use in telecommunication and cable system. </li></ul>
  10. 13. SINGLE MODE FIBER
  11. 14. <ul><li>Multimode cable - Made of glass fibers, with a common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component (the most common size is 62.5 ).  </li></ul>
  12. 15. CLASSIFICATION OF MULTIMODE CABLES <ul><li>STEP-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER </li></ul><ul><li>1. a large core, up to 100 microns in </li></ul><ul><li>diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Zigzag path. </li></ul><ul><li>3. These alternative pathways cause the different groupings of light rays, referred to as modes </li></ul>
  13. 16. STEP-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER
  14. 17. <ul><li>GRADED-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER </li></ul><ul><li>1. A core in which the refractive index diminishes gradually from the center axis out toward the cladding </li></ul><ul><li>2. The higher refractive index at the center makes the light rays moving down the axis advance more slowly than those near the cladding. </li></ul>
  15. 18. GRADED-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER
  16. 19. Advantages of Fiber Optics <ul><li>Less expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Thinner </li></ul><ul><li>Higher carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Less signal degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Light signals </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Signals </li></ul><ul><li>Non-flammable </li></ul>
  17. 20. WHY FIBER OPTICS REPLACES COPPER? <ul><li>SPEED : Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds - up into the gigabits </li></ul><ul><li>BANDWIDTH : large carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><li>DISTANCE : Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be &quot;refreshed&quot; or strengthened </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>RESISTANCE : Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables. </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTENANCE : Fiber optic cables costs much less to maintain </li></ul>
  19. 22. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Fiber Optics are replacing copper wire. </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber Optics providing the backbone for many network systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Now a days in Pakistan it is widely used in telecommunication and computer networks. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>

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