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Fibre optics

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Pakistan Zindabad.....

Pakistan Zindabad.....

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Transcript

  • 1. Fiber optics The Turning Point Presented by : Syed Safdar Abbas 03F-EE-20 Mohd. Shehzad Nazir 03F-EE-71
  • 2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
    • John Tyndall experiment -1870
  • 3.
    • John Logie experiment-1950
    • Charles Kao and George Hockham proposal - 1966
    • First fiber optic television transmission -1980
  • 4. What are Fiber Optics ?
    • Long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair.
    • Arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances
  • 5.  
  • 6. COMPONENTS
    • Core - Thin glass center of the fiber where the light travels
    • Cladding - Outer optical material surrounding the core that reflects the light back into the core
    • Buffer coating - Plastic coating that protects the fiber from damage and moisture
  • 7.  
  • 8. How Does an Optical Fiber Transmit Light?
    • Total internal reflection - The light in a fiber-optic cable travels through the core by constantly bouncing from the cladding.Light waves can travel a greater distance
    • Degrading - Light signal degrades within the fiber, mostly due to impurities in the glass.
  • 9.  
  • 10.
    • Extend of degradation - 850 nm = 60 to 75 percent/km; 1,300 nm = 50 to 60 percent/km; 1,550 nm is greater than 50 percent/km). Some premium optical fibers show much less signal degradation -- less than 10 percent/km at 1,550 nm.
  • 11. FACTORS AFFECT THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT
    • Coherence of the light source.
    • The size of the fiber.
    • The composition of the fiber.
    • The numerical aperture of the source and the fiber.
    • The amount of light injected into the fiber.
  • 12. CLASSIFICATION
    • Single-mode fibers
    • 1. Light follows a single path.
    • 2. Exceedingly small cores about
    • 3.5 x 10-4 inches or 9 microns in diameter.
    • 3. Light thus travels parallel to the axis,creating little pulse dispersion.
    • 4. Commonly use in telecommunication and cable system.
  • 13. SINGLE MODE FIBER
  • 14.
    • Multimode cable - Made of glass fibers, with a common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component (the most common size is 62.5 ). 
  • 15. CLASSIFICATION OF MULTIMODE CABLES
    • STEP-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER
    • 1. a large core, up to 100 microns in
    • diameter.
    • 2. Zigzag path.
    • 3. These alternative pathways cause the different groupings of light rays, referred to as modes
  • 16. STEP-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER
  • 17.
    • GRADED-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER
    • 1. A core in which the refractive index diminishes gradually from the center axis out toward the cladding
    • 2. The higher refractive index at the center makes the light rays moving down the axis advance more slowly than those near the cladding.
  • 18. GRADED-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER
  • 19. Advantages of Fiber Optics
    • Less expensive
    • Thinner
    • Higher carrying capacity
    • Less signal degradation
    • Light signals
    • Digital Signals
    • Non-flammable
  • 20. WHY FIBER OPTICS REPLACES COPPER?
    • SPEED : Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds - up into the gigabits
    • BANDWIDTH : large carrying capacity
    • DISTANCE : Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be "refreshed" or strengthened
  • 21.
    • RESISTANCE : Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables.
    • MAINTENANCE : Fiber optic cables costs much less to maintain
  • 22. CONCLUSION
    • Fiber Optics are replacing copper wire.
    • Fiber Optics providing the backbone for many network systems.
    • Now a days in Pakistan it is widely used in telecommunication and computer networks.
  • 23.
    • THANK YOU