East pakistan crisis


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East pakistan crisis

  1. 2. EAST PAKISTAN CRISIS: <ul><li>MUNEEB AHMED 04-CP-55 </li></ul><ul><li>ZAIN UL ABIDEEN 04-CP-35 </li></ul><ul><li>USMAN SAEED 04-CP-59 </li></ul>
  2. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS: <ul><li>1.GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>2.CAUSES OF ALIENATION </li></ul><ul><li>3. EQUALITY-REMEDIAL MEASURES </li></ul><ul><li>4.POLITICAL QUAGMIRE(BEGINNING OF END) </li></ul><ul><li>5.SIX POINTS OF AWAMI LEAGUE </li></ul><ul><li>6.ELECTIONS December 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>7.NATIONAL ASSEMBLY SESSION </li></ul><ul><li>8.MUKTI BAHINI </li></ul><ul><li>9.OPERATION SEARCHLIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>10.CASUALTIES OF CIVIL WAR </li></ul><ul><li>11. INDIAN PLAN OF OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>12.INDO-PAK WAR 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>13.THE SURRENDER </li></ul><ul><li>14.AFTER EFFECTS OF WAR </li></ul><ul><li>15.IMPACT ON PAKISTAN </li></ul><ul><li>16.NATURE’S RETRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUTION </li></ul>
  3. 4. PAKISTANI FLAG,a sign of national integrety…
  4. 5. PAKISTAN :BEFORE 1971..
  6. 7. SOME STATS OF EAST PAKISTAN <ul><li>Area 143,998 squre km </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller then all pakistan provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Population 40 million more then all other provinces combined </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by india from three sides </li></ul><ul><li>Three main rivers divide east pakistan to three isolated regions </li></ul>
  7. 8. 1.GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS: <ul><li>Stretegic implications : </li></ul><ul><li>These water obsticles split defenders into isolated pockets & gave advancing enemy columns of secure flanks </li></ul><ul><li>The 6000 sq. km deltaic regionalong the coast was impregnable to friends and foes alike </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Communications: </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure was poor..roads were narow </li></ul><ul><li>Only two ports with(IWT)facility I.e. khulna,chittagong </li></ul><ul><li>Most of movement (military ,civil) across the rivers took place on steamers,country boats </li></ul><ul><li>Roads linking east pakistan to india were metteled </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Climate: </li></ul><ul><li>Hot and humid climate </li></ul><ul><li>Catches full blast of monsoon </li></ul><ul><li>Average rainfall of over 2,500 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated during april-september </li></ul><ul><li>Major military operations could take place only in winter </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands perish as a result of floods every year </li></ul>
  10. 11. 2.CAUSES OF ALIENATION: <ul><li>Language issue : </li></ul><ul><li>A mojor issue which aliened the bengalis from rest of the country was language,national authorities failed to understand deep attacmentof bengalis with their mother language </li></ul><ul><li>Language riots results in the death of two students who became martyrs .sheikh mujeeb then a unknown entity take this issue and became a hero. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Culture: </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan was a multiracial and poly ethnic country </li></ul><ul><li>Bengalis came from different social stock their dree,diet,social customs differed from the rest </li></ul><ul><li>Their love for dance and poetry brought them close to bengali hindus </li></ul><ul><li>Zulfiqar ali bhutto was quite concious about this cultural divide he said”unity was not flowing from fountainhead of a single nationality” </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Behaviour of government officials: </li></ul><ul><li>Much of what is generally believed about the arrogance shown by the west pakistani official towards their sub ordinates was true eg. The chief secretary of east bengal while holdind a kutheri sit in mosquito net. </li></ul><ul><li>West pakistani troops used to call their fellow soldiers “bengali” instead of their original names ,all such kind of irritants none of them dilebate convey the message of contemptuos attitude of west pakistanis towards bengal </li></ul>
  14. 15. 3.REGIONAL EQUALITY-REMEDIAL MEASURES: <ul><li>Language issue resolved : </li></ul><ul><li>after having queered the pitch,steps were taken to pacify the emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Bengali was finally accepted second language of pakistan in 1956 constitution </li></ul><ul><li>The bengali script appeared on currency notes,official documents,postage stamps </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Political representation remedied: </li></ul><ul><li>A major cause of alienation of bengalis from west pakistan was their inability to get what they considered to be their right ful share in political arena </li></ul><ul><li>In the first constituent assembly out of 74 members 44 were bengalis.again in 1954 new assembly accorded a greater no. of seats to west pakistan there were 44 members out of 79 seats </li></ul><ul><li>As regards the two most important posts of governor general,primme minister was held by bengalis </li></ul>
  16. 17. 4.POLITICAL QUAGMIRE(BEGINNING OF END) <ul><li>In july 1968 field marshal ayub suffered a severe heart attack and remained seriously ill for 10 days ,he didn’t handed control to speaker national assembly.the deliberate violation of constitution angered bengalis </li></ul><ul><li>In west pakistan agitation led by zulfikar ali bhutto began to gain grounds.. Strikes ,looting,burning ,lathi charge was then a routine. </li></ul><ul><li>Ayub khan tried to solve issue by calling all parties conference but it failed. </li></ul>
  17. 18. CONTINUED.. <ul><li>Political forces in the country demended immediate lifting of marshal law and a free and fair elections, field marshal decided to handover control to C in C pakistan army GENERAL AGHA MUHAMMAD YAHYA KHAN </li></ul>
  18. 19. 5.SIX POINTS OF AWAMI LEAGUE: <ul><li>1. The Constitution should provide for a Federation of Pakistan in the true sense on the basis of the Lahore Resolution and for a parliamentary form of government based on the supremacy of a directly elected legislature on the basis of universal adult franchise. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Federal Government shall deal with only two subjects; Defense and Foreign Affairs. All residuary subjects will be vested in the federating states. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>3. There should be either two separate, freely convertible currencies for the two Wings, or one currency with two separate reserve banks to prevent inter-Wing flight of capital. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The power of taxation and revenue collection shall be vested in the federating units. The Federal Government will receive a share to meet its financial obligations. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Economic disparities between the two Wings shall disappear through a series of economic, fiscal, and legal reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>6. A militia or paramilitary force must be created in East Pakistan, which at present has no defense of it own. </li></ul>
  20. 21. GENERAL AGHA MUHAMMAD YAHYA KHAN: <ul><li>Old wine in new bottles: </li></ul><ul><li>Was commisioned in baloach regiment in 1938. </li></ul><ul><li>He was GSO before partition OF GRADE 2 AT GHQ,a prestigious appoinment. </li></ul><ul><li>Brig. Lauder of Royal british army ranked him as”an outstanding officer” </li></ul><ul><li>General Musa C in C of pak army in 1965 judged him”as an officer with clean habits and a first class chief of general staff” </li></ul><ul><li>Gen. Gracey C in C pak army thought then col. Yahya as an” outstanding officer” </li></ul>
  21. 22. CONTINUED.. <ul><li>Yahya life style has changed as he became senior </li></ul><ul><li>Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. </li></ul><ul><li>Before becoming head of state his personal conduct become questionable </li></ul><ul><li>After becoming president he fell into bad company </li></ul><ul><li>Over addiction to wine ,women earned him a very bad name. </li></ul>
  22. 23. 6.ELECTIONS December 1970: <ul><li>GEN. Yahya announced elections to be held in dec 1970 ,election campaingn spread over 12 months longest in the history of subcontinent. </li></ul><ul><li>Elections results are as follows : </li></ul><ul><li>Awami league won 160 out of 162 seats contested, 7 uncontested seats also went in their hands making it 167 out of 169 </li></ul><ul><li>PPP won 81 seats out of 120 contested ,6 uncontested seats also went to PPP making it 87 out of 120 </li></ul>
  23. 24. CONTINUED.. <ul><li>In East pakistan awami league won 75.11% of total votes .PPP didn’t contested at all </li></ul><ul><li>In west pakistan Awami league obtained .o7 of total votes ,PPP won 41.66% in punjab,45% in sindh,14.28% in nwfp,only 2.8 in balochistan </li></ul>
  24. 25. 7.NATIONAL ASSEMBLY SESSION: <ul><li>The date of inaugural session was initially not a big issue for either mujeeb or bhutto.sheikh did mention 15 feb. as his choice,bhutto was in favour of 23 march. </li></ul><ul><li>President annouced 3 march the date for inaugural session for framing a constitution of pakistan </li></ul>
  25. 26. POSTPONENT OF NATIONAL ASSEMBLY SESSION: <ul><li>All political leaders ,except PPP wanted power to be transferred to awami league. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether it was bhutto or some of the generals who encouraged Yahya khan to postpone the session. </li></ul><ul><li>Yahya gave three reasons for postponent </li></ul><ul><li>1.one major party announced boycott of session2.tense situation created by india3.more time is needed by political leaders to bring a consensus on constitution making. </li></ul>
  26. 27. 8.MUKTI BAHINI: <ul><li>Mukti Bahini is an organisation of so called freedom fighters ,created by indian army to help and guide them in their invation of east pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>The training ,supply of weapons ,planning all done by indian army </li></ul><ul><li>Strenght of this organisation is approx 100,000 persons </li></ul>
  27. 28. MUKHTI BAHINI:
  28. 29. EFFECTIVENESS OF MUKHTI BAHINI: <ul><li>Mukhti bahini were not trained to fight side by side with indians </li></ul><ul><li>They were trained for urgency operations </li></ul><ul><li>There a large no. of civilians who were inducted they cant handle mortars.or stay under artillery fire </li></ul><ul><li>However after surrender GEN.Niazi admitted that MUKHTI BAHINI made him blind and deaf. </li></ul>
  29. 30. 9.OPERATION SEARCHLIGHT: <ul><li>The decision for supressing the insurgency in east pakistan by military force if necessary was made on march 22 at a meeting between president,governor and martial law administrator at Dacca. </li></ul><ul><li>On 23march Pakistan day Dacca gave a grim look instead of Pakistani flags black flags fluttered. </li></ul><ul><li>However it was not till 24 march that final decision to crush the awami league and its supporters was taken. </li></ul>
  30. 31. CRACKDOWN: <ul><li>Military crack down down began at 1am between 25,26 march. </li></ul><ul><li>Within 15 minutes of the operation shiekh MUJEEB UR REHMAN was captured. </li></ul><ul><li>Decca university centre of militant wing of awami league was raided. </li></ul><ul><li>All radio,tv stations were captured from the hands of rebels. </li></ul><ul><li>Decca airport, Chittagong and Khulna ports were also captured. </li></ul>
  31. 32. 10.CASUALTIES OF CIVIL WAR: <ul><li>Shiekh mujeeb says 3 million were killed </li></ul><ul><li>Indian reduced figure to 1 million </li></ul><ul><li>Tikka khan admitted 34,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Casualties suffered by pak army were 237 officers ,136 jco,3,559 other ranked officers killed </li></ul><ul><li>More than 100,000 people were killed by awami league militant wing in taking there revenge. </li></ul>
  33. 34. CONTINUED..
  34. 35. 11. INDIAN PLAN OF OPERATION: <ul><li>Avoiding frontal attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Bypassing strong points </li></ul><ul><li>Paratroopers to speed up operations </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing pakistani troops from falling into decca bowl </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching Decca in 14-15 days to prevent UN from interfrence to arrange ceasefire. </li></ul>
  35. 36. 12.INDO- PAK WAR 1971: <ul><li>Using refugee issue as a reason indian army attacked east pakistan with foreign support.pakistan army could only resisit for two weeks .When Indian paratroopers reached Decca they found there only razakars,men from engineering corps,mujhahids. </li></ul>
  36. 37. MILITARY BALANCE: <ul><li> Ind.Army Pak Army Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Corps headquarter 3 1 3:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Infantory Division 8 3 2.5:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Infantory brigde 28 9 3:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Para Brigade 1 - 1:0 </li></ul><ul><li>Infantory Battalions 72 34 2.5:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Armour Regiments 6 1 6:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Armed Sqns 3 1 3:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Artillery Regiment 46 6 8:1 </li></ul><ul><li>A A Regiments 4 1 4:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Para –Military Forces </li></ul><ul><li>(Battalions) 32 13 3:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Mukti Bahani 100,100 - </li></ul><ul><li>Air Force Squardons 11 1 11:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Navy ,aircraft carrier 1 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Landing Ship Tanks 3 - </li></ul>
  37. 38. 13.THE SURRENDER: <ul><li>Lieutenant GENERAL AMIR ABDULLAH KHAN NIAIZI signed instrument of surrender at 4:31 p.m.on 16 December ,1971.handed over the countrol of PAKISTAN eastern province to its bitterest enemy . </li></ul>
  40. 41. 14.AFTER EFFECTS OF WAR: <ul><li>The sudden realisation on 16 December that country which the Quaid e Azam carved out and that it has been dismembered cast a pall of gloom throughout the country. </li></ul><ul><li>But gradually wounds began to heel the new Pakistan not only remained but began to rise like a pheonix from ashes. </li></ul><ul><li>The Islamic summit in lahore put Pakistan agin in limelight again. </li></ul>
  43. 44. 15.IMPACT ON PAKISTAN : <ul><li>Pakistan economy despite of having cut to size grow and expand GDP of $19.7 billion rose to 49billion in 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita income increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreingn exchange reserves crossed $12billion mark. </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated weapons and nuclear technology acquired. </li></ul>
  44. 45. F-16s..
  45. 46. 16.NATURE’S RETRIBUTION <ul><li>It is a fact that all involved in breakup of pakistan did not die a natural death </li></ul><ul><li>Mujeeb was gunned down </li></ul><ul><li>Bhutto was hanged </li></ul><ul><li>Zia ur rehman was assasinated </li></ul><ul><li>Yahya khan remained prisoner </li></ul>
  46. 47. CONCLUSION: <ul><li>The pain and anguish of Dec 1971 would gradually fade away.but what should always be remembered is that history has a cruel habit of repeating itself if past mistakes were repeated over and over again. </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>“ Oh, East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet, Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God's great Judgment Seat; But there is neither East nor West, Border, nor Breed, nor Birth, When two strong men stand face to face,              tho' they come from the ends of the earth! “ -- Rudyard Kipling    </li></ul>