Growth hormone

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Growth hormone

  1. 1. Growth Hormone Dr. Sadaf Mumtaz 17/02/11
  2. 2. Growth hormone promotes growth of many body tissues
  3. 3. Metabolic actions of GH unrelated to growth <ul><li>Increased mobilization of FA from adipose tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased rate of glucose utlization </li></ul>
  4. 4. Growth-promoting actions of GH on soft tissues and skeleton <ul><li>Soft tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperplasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell division </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>apoptosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertrophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting synthesis of proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancement of AA transport through the cell membrane </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancement of RNA translation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased nuclear transcription </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dec catabolism of proteins and AA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Effect of growth hormone on FA utilization <ul><li>FA------acetyl coenzyme A-----citric acid cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Ketoacidosis </li></ul>
  6. 6. GH decreases carbohydrate utilization <ul><li>Dec glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits gluconeogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased glucose production by the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Increased insulin secretion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensatory increase --- arginine and glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein anabolic effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diabetogenic effects </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bone <ul><li>Thickness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblastic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of chondrocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Somatomedins <ul><li>IGF-1 </li></ul><ul><li>African pygmies </li></ul><ul><li>Levi Lorain Dwarfs </li></ul><ul><li>Half life of Somatomedin C is more as compared to GH </li></ul>
  9. 9. Typical variations in growth hormone secretion 5 to 20yrs 6ng/ml 20 to 40yrs 3ng/ml 40 to 70yrs 1.6ng/ml
  10. 10. Effect of extreme protein deficiency on plasma concentration of growth hormone in the disease Kwashiokor The name is derived from the Ga language of coastal Ghana , translated &quot;the sickness the baby gets when the new baby comes
  11. 12. Abnormalities <ul><li>Panhypopituitarism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dec Glucocorticoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppresses Gonadotrophic hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dwarfism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can they reproduce? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African pygmy or Levi-Lorain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hereditary inability to form somatomedin C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rx </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Gigantism <ul><li>Acidophillic tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Before adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperglycemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes develops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tumor overgrows leads to death in early adulthood </li></ul>
  13. 14. Acromegaly
  14. 15. Age and growth hormone
  15. 16. Thanks

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