Objectives – After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
Identify characteristics of police work.
Understand operational styles in policing.
Understand the police functions and put them into practice.
Drug enforcement strategies.
Types of terrorism.
Roles of the Police
Role Expectation: (After notes show the nest slide.)
Michigan Department of State Police began as a temporary, wartime emergency force for the purpose of domestic security during World War I . On April 19 , 1917 , Governor Albert Sleeper created the Michigan State Troops Permanent Force, (also known as the Michigan State Constabulary). With Colonel Roy C. Vandercook as the first commanding officer, this new force consisted of five Troops of mounted, dismounted and motorized units, totaling 300 men. On March 26 , 1919 , Public Act 26 reorganized the Constabulary as the permanent, peace-time Michigan State Police. Role of the Michigan State Police: 1919 – present.
Throughout the history of the department, its members have participated in many important events. Some of the earliest duties of the department involved its troopers being dispatched on horseback to the iron-rich regions of the state's Upper Peninsula to guarantee the mining and distribution of the vital ore. MSP troopers were deployed in Benton Harbor in the summer of 2003 to quell civil unrest that was occurring within that city. Troopers were also deployed to Louisiana in September of 2005 following Hurricane Katrina to assist local authorities with search and rescue, law enforcement, and humanitarian efforts in the devastated city of New Orleans, Louisiana . In January and February of 2006, the Michigan State Police deployed several hundred Troopers to Detroit during Super Bowl XL and worked with local and federal agencies to ensure a safe environment for the game and its related festivities. The summer of 2007 saw a major mobilzation of departmental resources for the National Governor's Conference in Traverse City. The state police were also requested to assist local police agencies with patrol support in the cities of Flint and Saginaw; a similar request was made in February 2008 by the city of Pontiac after budget difficulties forced the cash-strapped city to layoff many police officers.
Characteristics of Police Work
Quick decision making:
Independent nature of police work:
Operational Styles of James Wilson
John Broderick style
William Muir’s style
Preventive patrol: (Kansas City experiment)
Foot patrol: (Flint, Michigan & Newark, New Jersey.)
Overview of the Problem
High number of deaths and injuries
Types of Crashes
Traffic Crashes and Enforcement Initiatives
Priority Teams for enforcement
Selected by Violation
Selected by Location
Purpose of Teams
Cost and Trickle Down
Impact on Legislation
State and Federal Organizations
Crime Connection to Traffic Enforcement
Visibility Does What?
Training and the Individual Officer
Post LE Career
Commonly Called Problem Oriented Policing
Community is directly involved
Community doesn't direct police
Community interaction with input and assistance
Philosophy and Method
Philosophy is that Citizens and Police Partnership
Method is a set of strategies
Development of Citizen groups
Typical Problems Addressed with C.O.P.S.
Benefits of C.O.P.S.
Increased quality of life
Traffic homicide/hit and run.
Undercover – narcotics, vice, gang.
Criminal Investigation Homicide, and complex, time-consuming investigations. Locate witnesses, collect/preserve/analyze evidence, interrogate suspects, prepare cases for court. Does not answer calls for assistance.
Productivity Cards are stacked against them. They receive many crimes long after the initial incident. Research shows that much of what a detective does is not needed and that their technical knowledge often does little to solve cases. Interrogation and case presentation skills assist prosecution. Technical knowledge in some cases does help in some investigation. Executives can assign detectives to high profile cases for public image.
Recent Identification Developments DNA profiling – Linking or eliminating identified suspects to a crime, identifying “cold hits” where a sample from a crime scene is matched agains a database, and clearing convicted rapists and murderers.
Drug Enforcement None of the following strategies have had any long-term effect on the U.S. drug problem.
Street level enforcement Interruption of suspected drug transactions, raids, buy-bust operations, reverse stings. Responsible for most arrest and seizures Problem – Those arrested are small time dealers and users handling small amounts of drugs.
Mid-level/Major investigations Mid – level - Basically low level positions easily replace after arrest. Major Investigations – The goal is to arrest drug kingpins and shut down the organizations responsible for importing and distributing large quantities of drugs. State and Federal agencies.
Crop Eradication Targets growing marijuana – Local police involved. This is the only drug grown in the U.S. Difficulty – It is easy to hide in hard to get locations. In order to destroy it law enforcement may need to spray with chemicals which is hazardous to water supplies. Due to hugh profits suspects don’t stop when the crop is located.
Smuggling Interdiction Difficult to investigate and work up the organization. Primarily done by Federal agencies.
Community Policing Strategies Drug Enforcement Reduce street level dealing by the use of foot patrol while encouraging citizens to report drug crimes and identify dealers. Visible drug enforcement efforts to discourage users/abusers. Arrest to obtain court ordered treatment, public education in school, and increase funding for treatment, prevention, and education.
Asset Forfeiture 1970 law authorizing the government to seize and forfeit illegal drugs, manufacturing and storage equipment, and vehicles used to transport drugs. Requirement for forfeiture – probable cause to seize a person’s property and the owner must prove in a civil proceeding by a preponderance of evidence that the property was not used or purchased from drug money. Problem for Defendants – burden of proof on the owner, expensive, innocent owners can lose their property when someone else uses it, only probable cause needed to prove and police are sometimes more interested in getting the proceeds then the criminal.
Criticism 3,600 people die from drugs, 200,000 alcohol and 400,000 tobacco deaths. 100 law enforcement officers prosecuted on drug charges. $300 billion spent on the war against drugs in the last 23 years. More money then that spent on medical research into cancer, heard disease or AIDS. Racist – 1.6 million arrest, 64% white, 34% black. (14 % public is black) Crack cocaine conviction (mostly black defendants) get more prison time then powder cocaine dealers. (Mostly white.)
Definition of Terrorism based on the U.S. code – Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.
Unlawful use, or threatened use , of force or violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States or its territories without foreign direction committed against persons or peroperty to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian popultiaon, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
Domestic Terrorist Aryan Nations – Oppose government in general and government regulation in particular. Virulent racists who believe in racial supremacy and conspiracy theories.
International terrorist State sponsors of terrorism – Cuba, Iran, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria. Formal terrorist organizations – Irish Republican Army, Palestinian Hamas, the Egyptian AlGama al-Islamiyya, Lebanese Hizballah, 17 November, (Greese), Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia.
Presidential Policy involving Terrorist Make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals. (Even if U.S. citizens are held hostage.) Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes. Isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism. Bolster the counterterrorist capabilities of those countries that work with the U.S.