Great Lakes Basin EcosystemPresentation Transcript
Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem Learn about the largest freshwater ecosystem in the world and it’s right in our back yard. Quit
The Great Lakes Ecosystem
The Great Lakes ecosystem is an extensive watershed (288,000 square miles) with 5,000 tributaries and 9,000 miles of shoreline.
Great lakes Inhabitants
Non-indigenous Plants and Animals
The Importance of protecting our Great Lakes
Fish Species of Interest
Lake trout, Brook trout, Lake sturgeon, Muskellunge, Yellow perch, Pumpkinseed Sunfish , Small and Large Mouth Bass, Walleye, Chinook salmon, and Coho salmon.
Scientific Name: ( Salvelinus namaycush )
They can reach ages of twenty to thirty years and tend to reach up to 3 feet in length.
During winter lake trout can prey upon small fish and bottom insects. In summer months, lake trout feed actively upon minnows, crayfish, and abundant insect larvae that are active at that time of year in shallow areas
Brook Trout Quit Fish Species
Scientific Name: ( Salvelinus fontinalis )
Contrary to the name, Brook Trout, are found mostly in lakes were the
temperatures are colder and the oxygen levels are high.
They typically live up to five years and tend to only reach 12 inches in length.
They feed upon small fish, crayfish, small crustaceans, and insect larvae.
Scientific Name: ( Acipenser fulvescens )
Lake Sturgeon usually reach 3-5 feet long and weigh 10-80 pounds.
Scientific Name: ( Esox masquinongy )
Their diet consists of fish, frogs, snakes, small mammals, and aquatic birds. Muskies are sometimes cannibalistic to the extent of damaging their own populations.
A rapidly growing fish, they reach sizes of several feet and can be in the 40-60-pound class.
Quit Fish Species
Yellow Perch Quit Fish Species
They live in weedy, warm lake water.
Perch seldom reach large sizes, the average being l/4 to 3/4-pound fish of 6 to 10 inches.
Young perch feed on zooplankton
Scientific Name: ( Lepomis gibbosus )
They seem to prefer weedy, warm water lakes and ponds, using weed patches, docks, and logs for cover and usually staying close to shore. They are present in the calm pools of most rivers.
The average pumpkinseed is about 5 to 6 inches in length, although some may approach 10 inches.
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Smallmouth Bass Quit Fish Species Largemouth Bass
Scientific Name: ( Micropterus dolomieui )
As bass grow larger they begin to feed increasingly upon other fishes and crayfish. Smallmouth bass are uniquely suited for feeding upon crayfish, which provide an energy source not generally available to other fish predators.
Smallmouth bass are usually found along lake shorelines.
Scientific Name: ( Micropterus salmoides )
A largemouth bass can reach up to 16 inches in 3 years
Adults feed almost exclusively on other fish and large invertebrates such as crayfish. Larger fish prey upon smaller bass.
Walleye Quit Fish Species
Scientific Name: Stizostedion vitreum
The average walleye caught and kept is about 14 inches long and weighs slightly more than 1 pound.
The Walleye is named for its pearlescent eye, which is caused by a reflective layer of pigment. Its eyes help it see and feed at night or in murky water.
Chinook (King) Salmon Quit Fish Species Coho Salmon
Scientific Name: ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha )
Adults weigh 15–30 pounds
Prey on smaller fish
Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus kisutch
Although larger specimens over 30 pounds have been captured, a typical adult Coho weighs ten pounds.
Plant Species of Interest There are far too many native plant species of great importance to the Great Lakes so I will only name a few. Quit
Blue violet ( Viola sororia ) The blue violet can be found throughout the entire Great Lakes basin, and is Minnesota's and Illinois' state flower. The violet's colors can vary, ranging from blue to yellow, white, lilac and even green. White oak ( Quercus alba ) The white oak, Illinois' state tree, is a flowering angiosperm that can grow to be 100 feet tall, three feet wide, and can live to be 400 years old! The tree has grayish-white bark, which gives its name, and green-brown acorns. In the fall, the leaves will turn a variety of colors including red, gold, yellow, or purple. Quit Plant Species
Key Characteristics Small orchid (20-30 cm) of prairie fens and lake plain prairies; leaves narrowly elliptic; flower a small ivory-white pouch-like slipper. Key Characteristics Small forbs (10 cm) of forested floodplains; leaves small (3-4 cm), oval and bluish, with distinct petioles; flowers stalked, small, white with 3 narrow petals (1 cm wide), blooming in early April. Quit Plant Species White Lady-slipper Cypripedium candidum White Lady-slipper Cypripedium candidum Snow Trillium Trillium nivale
White pine ( Pinus strobus ) The white pine, Michigan's state tree, is considered to be the largest conifer in the northeastern United States. The needles are soft, bluish-green to silver green in color and are regularly arranged in bundles of five. The eastern white pine forests in the lower peninsula of Michigan and northern Wisconsin were clear-cut for lumber from 1850 to 1890; standing over 200 feet (60 meters) tall, each tree could provide 6,000 board feet (10 cubic meters) of lumber. However, reforestation efforts are beginning the slow regrowth of this much loved tree. Quit Houghton’s Goldenrod ( Oligoneuron houghtonii ) This shoreline goldenrod grows nowhere else in the world but along the Great Lakes shoreline, mostly along the northern shores of Lakes Michigan and Huron. Increased human activity, such as foot and car traffic, along shorelines has caused Houghton's goldenrod to be listed as a threatened species. Plant Species
Quit The Morel Mushroom
Morchella conica , the black morel
Morchella esculenta , the gray or white morel
Morchella semilibera , the half-free morel
Morels grow in the early spring and are harvested by morel hunters. They are a considered to be a great delicacy, because of their unique flavor. They arrive in early spring, because the trees don’t block the sunlight with their leaves allowing the mushrooms to grow. Plant Species
Mammal Species of Interest Quit
White Tailed Deer
Quit Mammal Species Timber Wolf Canis lupus A full grown timber wolf weighs from 70 to 100 pounds. Powerfully built with steel-strong jaws, muscular legs, and large feet, the wolf is an efficient predator. The Timber Wolf was once endanger of becoming extinct, but they have finally returned to the Michigan. This drawing was created by Catie Burcroff
Quit Mammal Species White Tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer are the smallest of the three members of the deer family found in Michigan, the others being elk and moose. They range throughout Michigan and are a game animal in this state. “White-tailed" refers to the distinctive white tail that when raised is a flag and provides a flash of white, signaling other deer when there is danger. Deer are graceful and swift runners (up to 35 miles per hour), but do not generally run long distances, preferring to seek the nearest shelter whenever possible.
Quit Mammal Species Coyotes can often live six to eight years in the wild. Coyotes can be difficult to distinguish from a medium sized German shepherd dog from a distance. There is wide variation in the coyote's color, but generally their upper body is yellowish gray, and the fur covering the throat and belly is white to cream color. The coyote's ears are pointed and stand erect, unlike the ears of domestic dogs that often droop. When observed running, coyotes carry their bushy, black tipped tail below the level of their back. Wolves, which are found in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, are larger than coyotes and carry their tail in a horizontal position while running. Coyote Canis latrans
Quit Mammal Species Black Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Freshwater Otter Lontra canadensis Raccoon Procyon lotor
Invasive Species Issues in the Great Lakes Ecosystem Quit Invasive Species These species compete with the native species for food and territory. The invasive or alien species do not have natural predators to reduce their numbers so they over populate an area were they are introduced and out compete the native species. Zebra mussel Spiny water flea (GLIN)Fishhook water flea (US EPA) Rusty crayfish (GLIN) New Zealand mud snail (USGS) Japanese knotweed European gypsy moth Common reed Emerald ash borer Canada thistle Asian long horned beetle (US Forest Service) TERRESTRIAL PLANTS INVERTEBRATES Water chestnut Sea Lamprey Purple loosestrife Round goby Hydrilla Northern snakehead Eurasian water milfoil Eurasian ruffe Curly leaf pondweed (GLIN) Asian carp AQUATIC PLANTS FISH
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Author’s Slide Hi my name is Catie Burcroff and I am an Integrated Science major at Grand Valley State University. I chose to create my PowerPoint with a science theme that I thought was important for children to understand. Children must learn the importance of our Great Lakes or they will misuse them. If you have any questions about the material contained in this power point or further questions about our class please contact me at: [email_address] Quit