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  • ABSTRACTDemonstrations are used worldwide as a way of responding togrievances.This method of responding to grievances is actually agrowing phenomena especially among students.At the University ofZambia,Great East Road Campus,Students demonstrations cannot beoveremphasized.They usually occur occur whenever the studentshave a grievance to air to Management.This research,and thereof,this research report focused on demonstrations as the best way ofexpressing grievances by the University of Zambia students.O b j e c t i v e : T h e a i m o f t h i s s t u d y w a s t o i d e n t i f y a n d a n a l ys e f a c t o r sthat lead to the use of demonstrations as the best way of expressinggrievances by UNZA students.The study was also aimed at providinginformation that would help stakeholders to curb demonstrations atUNZA.Study methodology:In this research,the respondents were UNZAstudents who reside on campus and are full time students.The sampleselected comprised 150 students of which 105 were male and 45females.The sampling criteria used was simple random samplingusing Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to ensure thateach student had an equal chance of being included in thesample.The data was collected by way of self administeredquestionnaires.which consisted of closed ended questions.S t u d y f i n d i n g s : Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l ys e s o f d a t a w e r e d o n e u s i n g S P S Sand this was used to generate cross tabulations,frequencies and Chi-Square statistical tests of association.The study findings showedthat 60.7% of the respondents had participated in students’demonstrations compared to 38.7% of the respondents who had notparticipated in demonstrations.It was further found that there wasno significant relationship between sex and participation ind e m o n s t r a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l l y, t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i pbetween academic pressure and participation indemonstrations.However,research showed that there was a strongrelationship between area of residence and participation in students’demonstrations.Alcohol consumption and participation indemonstrations were found to have a significant relationship.Finally,findings were discussed,and a conclusion was drawn on theComparison of the actual findings in relation to the earlierexpectations and thereof,recommendations made. 1
  • 1.0 INTRODUCTIONWorldwide, the use of demonstrations as a way of expressinggrievances is a growing phenomenon. Zambia is not an exception tothe above assertion. The expressing of grievances by University ofZambia students through the use of demonstrations cannot beoveremphasized. This has almost become the order of the daywhenever there is a misunderstanding between administration andstudents. To this effect, academic life at UNZA is never such as m o o t h , o r d e r l y , d a y- t o - d a y r o u t i n e .I n s p i t e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f a l o t o f r e g u l a r i t i e s , t h e r e a r e a l w a ysstresses, conflicts, unfulfilled aspirations and unexpecteddisruptions. These may warrant the expressing of inner feelingswhich are precipitated by a number of reasons and factors followinga d i s a g r e e m e n t o n s o m e i s s u e s i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y. T h i s i s m a i n l ybetween administration and students. Hence the latter finding solacein demonstrating as a way of venting their grievances. Factors thatcause demonstration among UNZA students range from political,economic, administrative to academic pressure. The demonstrationscan either be destructive or non-destructive. 2
  • Therefore, apart from being an academic requirement in ResearchMethods in Social Sciences (SS 241/242), this report is meant toconclude a second year research project at UNZA during the 2007/8academic year. In particular, it attempts to identify and analyse thefactors that lead to the use of demonstrations as the best way ofe x p r e s s i n g g r i e v a n c e s b y U N Z A s t u d e n t s . U l t i m a t e l y, i t i s h o p e dthat the information obtained will help stakeholders curbdemonstrations among UNZA students.2.0 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMThe use of dialogue and consultation as a way of expressinggrievances take a central position in solving unrest in institutions.In institutions, dialogue helps administrators and students addressvarious problems affecting the smooth operations of the institution,which ensures that problems are dealt with amicably. Despite theuse of such procedures in resolving grievances, aggrieved partiessometimes opt to use demonstrations as a way of expressing theirgrievances. Demonstrations sometimes result in breach of peace. Inmore extreme cases, they result in confrontations with the police,l e a d i n g t o i n j u r i e s , a r r e s t s a n d d e s t r u c t i o n o f p r o p e r t y.It is on the basis of such a background that the University of Zambiastudents are expected to exhibit a high degree of intellect. The 3
  • University of Zambia students are expected to portray a good picture(image) to members of the public that they are intellectuals bypromoting the use of dialogue and consultative meetings withA d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b o d y, t h e U n i v e r s i t y o fZambia Students’ Union (UNZASU). Despite the existence of such arespresentive body (UNZASU), the students often resort to the useof demonstrations as the best way of expressing their grievances. CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEMThe use of demonstrations by students has become a regularoccurrence at the University of Zambia, Great East Road Campus.These demonstrations normally change from peaceful non-violentform to open confrontations with the police, leading to injuries,arrests and destruction of property both within and outside theU n i v e r s i t y. T h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p o l i c e f u r t h e r l e a d s t o t h eclosure of the Great East Road that is situated next to the Universityo f Z a m b i a , t h e r e b y, g r e a t l y i n c o n v e n i e n c i n g m o t o r i s t s . M o r e o v e r ,the use of demonstrations also affects the academic calendarresulting in compressed semesters, non-completion of syllabi andpremature closures. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE PROBLEMA number of factors contributing to use of demonstrations as thebest way of expressing grievances among UNZA students have been 4
  • identified. These include; academic, political, structural as well asarea of residence.4.0 EXPECTED OUTCOMESa. The research is expected to provide information to therelevant stakeholders (Students, Administration and Government)that will bring about the smooth running of the University.b. The use of proper channels in airing grievances isexpected to reduce misunderstandings among the relevantstakeholders.c. The reduction in the rampancy of these demonstrations.5.0 RESEARCH OBJECTIVESThe objectives of this research are twofold; the general and specific.General Objectives(a) To identify and analyze factors that lead to the use of demonstrations as the best way of expressing grievances by UNZA students.(b) To provide information that will help stakeholders curb the demonstrations at UNZA. 5
  • Specific Objectives (a) To establish the extent to which gender contributes to demonstrations by UNZA students. (b) To investigate the influence of academic pressure ondemonstrations. (c) To determine which area of residence is more prone todemonstrations.(d) To investigate the influence of alcohol on demonstrations(e). To find out if politicians influence students to engage indemonstrations.6.0 LITERATURE REVIEWIn order to comprehend our research topic more clearly, literaturereview was conducted and references made to various studies relatedto the subject. There are a number of studies which have beenconducted on the subject of demonstrations and protests byuniversity and college students including lecturers.Adams (1986) studied the participants in the freedom summer of1964, involving hundreds of Northern College Students. Most of theparticipants were whites, who were demonstrating to help in staffingthe Freedom Schools to register black voters. The total number ofparticipants was 720 students. The findings of the study indicated 6
  • that all the participants were actively involved in thedemonstrations. Adams attributed this active participation of thestudents in the demonstrations to their belonging to differentpolitical organizations. He also found that the education level orstatus of students influenced them to participate in thedemonstrations. Furthermore, Adams attributed their participation toprior experience in highly risk and costly activities such as sit-insand freedom riots.In another study conducted by Adegoke and Akinboye (1980) it wasfound that adolescent traits, poor welfare services, political andeconomic conditions prevalent at a particular point in time causestudents’ demonstrations. They stressed that the failure byinstitutions ’ administrations to provide adequate atmosphere for freeexpression of views, deplorable infrastructural facilities as a resultof inadequate funding for maintenance and provision of new ones aswell as communication gap over the ban on student unions are alsocauses of students’ demonstrations.According to Tamuno (1980), there are three factors todemonstrations; leadership, time and circumstances which explaindifferences in the causes and consequences of students’ actorism. Hecategorized students into more mature, active as well as passive 7
  • groups. He reasoned that this classification helped in knowing thestudents’ leaders and followers.Altbauch and Leuter (1973) however, identified factors of students’d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a s t h e d e g e n e r a c y o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s ys t e m a n dinfrastructure facilities. They found that students’ demonstrationscan be traced to p s yc h o l o g i c a l traits. As part of their owncontribution towards solving student demonstrations, they suggesteddialogue and consultation as w a ys of expressing views andgrievances. They also suggested no-violent and non-destructivedemonstrations.Another research which placed much emphasis on the politicalfactors was conducted by Hanna (1974), who attributed students’demonstrations to lack of academic freedom, non-participation ofstudents in institutions ’ administration and the political situation inNigeria at the time. He opined that most of the demonstrations weresparked by unpleasant policies such as the Structure AdjustmentProgrammes (SAPs) of 1987, as well as the high handedness of theadministrators. Hanna concluded by stating that academic freedom,political and economic factors were sources of students’demonstrations in Asia, Latin America and Africa. 8
  • Still on the political causes of students’ demonstrations, Becande(1973) stated that African students are more sensitive to politicaland economic matters in their countries. He stressed further thatbecause of their contribution to political development throughagitation and military force, governments had to make certainpolitical decisions in their respective countries. This view is equallyshared by Adekanbi (1972), who stated that African students havehelped in reshaping the political pattern of their countries.Explaining further on this, Rock (1973) stated that students hadexercised considerable influence on political decisions. He gave anexample of abrogation of Nigeria-British defence as one of thepolitical pressures which the Nigerian students exerted on then a t i o n ’ s p o l i t i c a l m a c h i n e r y.D i g r e s s i n g f r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l p l a n e , N w a l a ( 1 9 8 0 ) a n a l yz i n g f r o m aMarxist perspective, argued that students’ demonstrations in Nigeriawere a product of bastardized political economy which had to dowith the exploitation of the nation’s resources by the bourgeoisieclass at the expense of the people’s welfare. He stressed further thatit was this exploitation that made students, as the nation’sconscience, rise to challenge the status quo through condemnation,strikes and demonstrations. 9
  • It is clear from the studies above that a multiplicity of factorsaccount for demonstrations by university students. Among thefactors which the studies revealed are political, economic,psychological, infrastructure dilapidation and the administration ’sinertia to respond to students problems. These factors are in linewith those that have been identified in the statement of the problemin this proposal.7.0 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKIn analyzing the problem of use of demonstrations among UNZAstudents, two theories namely; convergence and emergent norm wereadopted.According to Turner (1972), convergence theory states that peoplemerely reveal their true selves in a crowd, with the crowd servingonly as an excuse. This theory relies on the assumption that allmembers of the human race posses unconscious, primitive tendencieswhich are ordinarily held in check by organized society. Theseinstinctive tendencies include sexual desires, aggressions anddefensive reactions against danger, and remain imbedded in man’semotions ready to burn out under threatening circumstances and arevery contagious to others. Frustration is another aspect ofdemonstrations because it creates aggression in proportion to the 10
  • extent of the frustration. When such aggression towards a perceivedsource of frustration is blocked, aggression is redirected towardsother objects such as stoning of motorists.In relating this theory to the research question of the “use ofdemonstrations as the best way of expressing grievances” the theoryhelps provide a probable explanation as to how individuals cometogether to exhibit behavior that expresses their inner anxieties andaggressions unlike resorting to dialogue.I n t h e s a m e v e i n , t h e e m e r g e n t n o r m t h e o r y c a n a l s o h e l p u s a n a l yz ethe problem of demonstrations among UNZA students. This theorywhich was developed by two sociologists, Ralph Turner and LewisKillian. It states that a combination of like minded individuals,anonymity and shared emotions lead to crowd behavior. This theoryt a k e s a s ym b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s t a p p r o a c h t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g c r o w dbehavior. It states that people come together with specificexpectations and norms, but in the interactions that follow, newexpectations and norms emerge, allowing for behavior that normallywould not take place (http://www.en-wiki-books.org/).8.0 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESESI n p r e p a r i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l , t h e f o l l o w i n g h yp o t h e s e s w e r econstructed: 11
  • (a) Male students are more likely to demonstrations thanfemale students.(b) Students under more academic pressure are more likely to demonstrate than those under less academic pressure.(c) Students from the old residence are more likely to demonstrate than those from the other residences.(d) The greater the consumption of alcohol by students, thehigher the likelihood of demonstrations. Measurement ofvariables Conceptual and operational definitionsIndependent variable Conceptual definition Operational definition (i) Does UNZA administrationAdministration inertia Delay in resolving delay in resolving students’ grievances? grievances. (ii) If your answer to question 1 is yes, to what extent do these delays contribute to your participation in students’ demonstrations?Political instigation Initiation of an act by (i) Do politicians influence politicians. influence you to demonstrate? (ii) If your answer to question 1 is yes,to what extent do politicians influence you to participate in students’ demonstrations? The state of being male (i)What is your sex? or female. 12
  • SexAge How old one is. (i) How old were you at your last birthday? (i) Do you experience academicAcademic pressure Too much school work pressure at UNZA? to be done in a limited (ii) If your answer to question 1 is period of time. yes, to what extent does academic pressure influence you to participate in demonstrations?A r e a o f r e s i d e n c e A place where one lives. (i)Where do you reside on campus? Alcohol abuse The excess intake of (i) Do you consume alcohol? intoxicating liquor (ii) If you answer to question is yes, how many times per week?. (iii)Does consumption of alcohol influence you to participate in demonstrations? 13
  • Dependent variable Conceptual Definition Operational definition (i) Have you ever Act of expressing participated in students’Demonstrations support or demonstrations? resentment towards a particular issue in (ii) if your answer to a group. question 1 is yes,how often?RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGYThe research was conducted on UNZA Students residentoncompus.Distance and Part time students were not included becausethey fell outside the sample space at the time the research wasconducted. The sample selected was 160 students.However, only 150were used in the research. The extra 10 were meant to account fornon-response cases. SAMPLINGThe sampling criteria comprised a sampling frame and table ofrandom numbers. Tables for random numbers were used to alloweach student have an equal non zero chance of included in sample.T h e 2 0 0 7 U N Z A ye a r b o o k w a s u s e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T h e y e a r b o o khas advantage of having no foreign blank elements, beingexhaustive, and allows for easy tracing of respondents through theirHalls of residents. SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDUREThe research design used was a non intervention design because thestudy was conducted in uncontrolled and natural environment, theUniversity of Zambia, Great East Road Compus.This involved the 14
  • randomization. The sample comprised of 105 males and 45 femalesresident on compus.Thus, simple random sampling method was used.The justification of using simple random sampling method is that,this method has ability to show the actual skew ness of thepopulation, the University population. The population is skewedsuch that it had more males than females; this was reflected in thesample.METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTIONData was collected by way of self-administered questionnaires whichconsisted of closed ended questions. This was because therespondents are literate and responded easily to thequestionnares.The respondents also answered the questionnairesprivately which ensured honest responses and removed the shortfallsof the interviewer effect. The other reasons were that questionnairesare cheap and easy to administer.DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONIn analyzing the data, the Chi-square test was used to measure themagnitude or variations between the hypotheses and the actualobservations. Analysis of data was done using Statistical Packagefor Sciences (SPSS) and Excel. This is because of their ability togenerate stastistics useful in the hypotheses.CHAPTER ONE: PRESENTATION OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICSTable 1.0a Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation How old were you 150 19 46 24.40 5.017 on your last birthday? 150 15
  • Table 1.0b How old were you on your last birthday? Frequency Percent Valid 19 5 3.3 20 16 10.7 21 17 11.3 22 27 18.0 23 21 14.0 24 15 10.0 25 13 8.7 26 10 6.7 27 4 2.7 28 3 2.0 29 1 .7 30 3 2.0 31 2 1.3 33 3 2.0 34 2 1.3 37 1 .7 38 1 .7 40 2 1.3 41 2 1.3 43 1 .7 46 1 .7 Total 150 100.0Tables 1.0a and 1.0b show the age distribution of respondents. The minimum age was 19,the mean age was 24.4, the maximum age was 46. The standard deviation was 5.017. Themean age of 24.4 meant that each of the student was expected to be 24.4 years. Thestandard deviation of 5.017 meant that each of the student was expected to be 5.017 yearsbelow or above that mean age of 24.4.Table 1.1 16
  • What is your sex? Frequency PercentValid male 105 70.0 female 45 30.0 Total 150 100.0 17
  • 18
  • 19
  • 20
  • Figure 1.111111 What is your sex? Male Female 21
  • Figure 1.1 and table 1.1 show the sex distribution of respondents. They indicate that ofthe 150 respondents, 105 were male representing 70% while 45 were female representing30%.CHAPTER TWO: PRESENTATION OF HYPOTHESES Table 2.1 Have you ever participated in students demonstrations at UNZA? * What is your sex? Cross tabulation .what is your sex? male female Total have you ever participated 0 Count 1 0 1 in students 1.0% .0% .7% demonstrations at UNZA? yes Count 66 25 91 62.9% 55.6% 60.7% no Count 38 20 58 36.2% 44.4% 38.7% Total Count 105 45 150 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. Value df (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 1.260 2 .532 22
  • Table 2.1 seeks to test the hypothesis that male students are more prone to demonstratethan female students. The table indicates that of the 105 male respondents, 66representing 62.9%, said that they participated in student demonstrations, 38 respondents,representing 36.2% said they did not participate, one respondent did not respond. Thetable also indicates that of the 45 female respondents, 25 representing 55.6% said thatthey participated in student demonstrations, 20 of them representing 44.4% said they didnot participate in the demonstrations. The table indicates that slightly more malerespondents (62.9%) compared to female respondents (55.6%) said they participated instudent demonstrations. However, the differences are not significant enough to justify theassumption that male students are more prone to demonstrations. This therefore suggeststhat there is no significant relationship between sex and participation in studentdemonstrations. Therefore, the hypothesis that male students are more prone todemonstrations than female students is rejected. The decision to reject the researchhypothesis is supported by the asymptotic significant value of 0.532 which is greater thanthe probability value of 0.05 suggesting that we should reject the research hypothesis.The conclusion is that the sex of a student does not influence his/her participation instudent demonstrations.Table 2.2 Have you ever participated in students demonstrations at UNZA? * Residence? Cross tabulation residence? old res new res vet Total have you ever participated 0 Count 1 0 0 1 in students 1.6% .0% .0% .7% demonstrations at UNZA? yes Count 48 38 5 91 77.4% 48.7% 50.0% 60.7% no Count 13 40 5 58 21.0% 51.3% 50.0% 38.7% Total Count 62 78 10 150 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. Value df (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 14.876 4 .005 23
  • It was hypothesized that students from the old residences are more likely to demonstratethan students in the other halls of residences. Table 2.2 above attempts to present therelationship between students’ halls of residences and their participation in studentdemonstrations. The table shows that of the 150 respondents, 62 were from the oldresidences, 78 were from the new residences and 10 were from the Vet hostels. Of the 62respondents from the Old residences, 48 representing 77.4% said they participated instudent demonstrations, 13 representing 21% said they did not participate indemonstrations. It also shows that of the 78 respondents from the New residences, 38respondents, representing 48.7% said they participated in demonstrations and 40 of them,representing 51.3% said they did not participate. Of the 10 respondents from the VetHostels, 5 representing 50% said they participated while the other 50% said they did notparticipate.From the table, we can see that a higher proportion of respondents from the Oldresidences (77.4%) indicated that they participated in demonstrations as compared to only48.7% and 50% respectively from the New Residences and the Vet Hostels. Thisdifference is large enough to justify the claim that students from the Old Residences aremore likely to demonstrate than those from the other residences. We therefore accept theresearch hypothesis that students from the old residences are more likely to demonstratethan those from the other residences. The decision to accept the research hypothesis issupported by the asymptotic significance value of 0.005 which is less than the probabilityvalue (P – Value) of 0.05 indicating that we should accept the research hypothesis. Table 2.3 24
  • Have you ever participated in students demonstrations at UNZA? Do you experience academicc pressure at UNZA? Cross tabulation Do you experience academic pressure at UNZA? yes no Total Have you ever participated 0 Count 1 0 1 in students .7% .0% .7% demonstrations at UNZA? yes Count 86 5 91 60.6% 62.5% 60.7% no Count 55 3 58 38.7% 37.5% 38.7% Total Count 142 8 150 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. Value df (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square .064 2 .969Table 2.4 presents the hypothesis that students who experience academic pressure aremore likely to demonstrate than those who do not experience academic pressure. Thetable shows that of the 150 respondents, 142 said they experienced academic pressurewhile only 8 students said they did not experience academic pressure. Of the 142respondents who reported that they experienced academic pressure, 86, representing60.6% said they had participated in demonstrations while 55, representing 38.7% saidthey had not participated in demonstrations. Of the 8 respondents who said they did notexperience academic pressure, 5, representing 62.5% said they had participated indemonstrations while 3, representing 37.5% said they had not participated.The table indicates that the majority (142 out of 150) of respondents said theyexperienced academic pressure. The table does not show significant differences in levelsof participation in demonstrations between those who said they experienced academicpressure and those who said they did not experience it. This means that there is not asignificant relationship between academic pressure and participation in demonstrations. 25
  • We therefore reject the research hypothesis that student who experience academicpressure are more likely to demonstrate than those who do not experience academicpressure. This decision is in fact supported by the asymptotic significant value of 0.969which is greater than the probability Value (P – Value) of 0.05 indicating that we shouldreject the research hypothesis.Table 2.4 Have you ever participated in students demonstrations at UNZA? Do you consume alcohol? Cross tabulation Do you consume alcohol? yes no Total Have you ever participated 0 Count 0 1 1 in students .0% 1.1% .7% demonstrations at UNZA? yes Count 46 45 91 73.0% 51.7% 60.7% no Count 17 41 58 27.0% 47.1% 38.7% Total Count 63 87 150 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. Value df (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 7.289 2 .026Table 2.4 above was constructed in an attempt to determine if alcohol consumption hasany influence on student participation in demonstrations. The hypothesis being tested 26
  • here was that the greater the consumption of alcohol by a student, the more likely it isthat he/she will participate in demonstrations. The table indicates that of the 150respondents, 63 said they took alcohol while 87 said they did not. Of the 63 respondentswho said they took alcohol, 46, representing 73% said they had participated indemonstrations while 17 representing 27% said they had not participated indemonstrations. Of the 87 respondents who said they did not take alcohol, 45,representing 51.7% said they had participated in demonstrations while the remaining 41,representing 47.1% said they had not participated in demonstrations.By comparison, a greater proportion of respondents who said they took alcohol (73%)also participated in demonstrations while only 51.7% of those who said they did not takealcohol indicated that they had participated in demonstrations. The differences in thepercentages are large enough to support the research hypothesis. Therefore, the researchhypothesis is accepted. The decision to accept the research hypothesis is supported by theasymptotic significance value of 0.026 which is less than the probability value (P –Value) of 0.05 indicating that we should accept the research hypothesis.CHAPTER THREE: PRESENTATION OF GENERAL FINDINGTable 3.1 Does UNZA management delay in resolving grievances? Frequency Percent Valid 0 5 3.3 yes 130 86.7 no 15 10.0 Total 150 100.0 27
  • Figure3.1 Does UNZA management delay in resolving grievances? 140 120 100 80 Frequency 60 40 20 0 0 yes no Does UNZA management delay in resolving grievances? 28
  • Table 3.2 To what extent do delays by management contribute to your participation in demonstrations? Frequency Percent Valid 0 22 14.7 to a larger extent 36 24.0 to a large extent 51 34.0 to a less extent 26 17.3 to a lesser extent 15 10.0 Total 150 100.0Figure 3.2 29
  • To what extent do delays by management in resolving grievances contribute to your participation in demonstrations? 60 50 40 30 Frequency 20 10 0 0 to a larger to a large extent to a less extent to a lesser extent extentTable 3.1 above was constructed to determine if management delays in resolvingstudents` grievances contribute to student demonstrations. The hypothesis being testedwas, the longer management takes to respond to students` problems, the more likelystudents are to demonstrate. The table indicates that of the 150 respondents, 130representing 86.7% said that management delayed in responding to students` problems,15 respondents representing 10% said management did not delay in responding tostudents problems. 5 respondents representing 3.3% did not respond.From table 3.2 and figure 3.2, the findings showed of the 150 respondents, 36,representing 24% said that management delayed in resolving their grievances to a largerextent, 51 representing 34% said that management delayed in resolving their grievances 30
  • to a large extent. 26 respondents representing 17.3% said that management delayed inresolving their grievances to a less extent, 15 representing 10% said that managementdelayed in resolving their grievances to a lesser extent, 22 representing 14.7% did notrespond.Table 3.3 Do politicians influence you to demonstrate? Frequency Percent Valid yes 23 15.3 no 127 84.7 Total 150 100.0 31
  • Figure 3.3 Do politicians influence you to demonstrate? 140 120 100 80 Frequency 60 40 20 0 yes no 32
  • Table 3.3 and figure 3.3 above were constructed to determine if politicians influencestudents to demonstrate. The hypothesis being tested was that the higher the influence ofpoliticians on students, the more likely the students are to demonstrate. From table 3.3and figure 3.3, the findings showed that of the 150 respondents, 23 representing 15.3%said that politicians influenced students to demonstrate, while 127 respondentsrepresenting 84.7% said that politicians did not influence students to de CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS.Originally, demonstrations were seen as a last alternative in expressing grievances amongUniversity of Zambia students, but currently students view demonstrations as the first andbest way of expressing grievances. Its use is becoming popular as shown in Table 2.1where 60.7% of the total 150 respondents indicated having participated in students’demonstrations while 38.7% responded as not having ever participated in students’demonstrations.In relation to our findings, trends have shown no change in students’ attitudes towardsdemonstrations. Adams (1986) studied the participants in the freedom summerdemonstrations of 1964 whose major participants where Northern College students. Thetotal number of students who participated in a voluntary questionnaire that he distributedwas 720. All these students were actively involved in demonstrations. He found thateducational level or status of students made them fully participate in the demonstrations.Studies conducted by Hanna (1974) and Akinboye (1980), revealed that there are variousfactors that lead to students demonstrations, among them include; Institutionsmanagements’ failure to respond to students grievances quickly, national polices, lack ofstudents participation in the management of the institution and lack of academic freedom. 33
  • In line with this, our research had one of its objectives as finding out which gender (maleor female students), participate more in demonstrations. Our findings as shown in Table2.1 revealed that of the 105 male respondents, 66 representing 62.9% said they hadparticipated in students demonstrations. While of the 45 female respondents, 25representing 55.6% said they participated in student demonstrations. This shows thatmore male students participate in students’ demonstrations than female students but thedifference in proportion is not significant enough to justify the claim that more malestudents are prone to participate in students’ demonstrations than female students.Therefore, this hypothesis is rejected.Another objective of this research was to test the hypothesis as to whether students fromthe old residences are more likely to demonstrate than students from other halls ofresidence. From the findings indicated in table 2.2, it can be seen that a higher proportionof residents from the old residence, 48 representing 77.4% of the 150 respondentparticipated in student demonstrations as compared to 38 representing 48% of therespondents from the new residences and 5 representing 50% of respondents from Vethostels participated in student demonstrations. This difference is large enough to justifythe claim that students from the old residences are more likely to demonstrate than thosefrom other residences. We therefore, accept the hypothesis that students from the oldresidence are more likely to demonstrate than those from other halls of residences.Our research found out that management delays in resolving students’ problems is onefactor that contributes to students demonstrations. This is according to the results inFigure 3.2 that show that out of the 150 respondents, 130 representing 86.7% saidmanagement delay in resolving student grievances contribute to students demonstrations,15 respondents representing 10% said management does not delay in responding tostudent grievances. While 5 respondents representing 3.3% did not respond. It is clearfrom figure 3.2 that delays by management in resolving students’ grievances contribute toa large extent to student demonstrations. 34
  • Another factor that Hanna (1974) and Akiniboye (1980) found to contribute to studentdemonstrations was student involvement in the politics of their nations. However, inrelation to our findings, political influence could not be identified as a contributing factorto students’ demonstrations. This is according to figure 3.3 that showed out of the 150respondents, 23 representing 15.3% said that politicians influenced students todemonstrate, while 127 respondents representing 84.7% said that politicians did notinfluence students to demonstrate. It is clear according to the results that politicalinfluence does not contribute to students’ demonstrations. This hypothesis is thusrejected.Adegoke (1980) identified academic pressure or lack of academic freedom as acontributing factor to students’ demonstrations. In our research, Table 2.4 shows that ofthe 150 respondents, 142 said they experience academic pressure, of which 86representing 60.6% said they had participated in demonstrations, while 55, representing38.7% said they had not participated in demonstrations. Of the 8 respondents who saidthey did not experience academic pressure, 5, representing 62.5% said they participatedin demonstrations while 3 representing 37.5% said they had not participated. Therefore, itis clear according to the table that there is no significant difference between those whosaid they had experienced academic pressure and those who said they had notexperienced it. Hence, it can be concluded that there is no significant difference betweenacademic pressure and students’ demonstrations. This rejects the research hypothesis thatstated that students who experience academic pressure are more likely to demonstratethan those who do not experience academic pressure.Another objective was to test the hypothesis that the greater the consumption of alcoholby a student, the more likely it is that the student will participate in students’demonstrations. From the findings in table 2.5, it can be seen that of the 150 respondents,87 did not take alcohol while 63 took alcohol. The results further show that of those whotake alcohol, 46, representing 73% participated in demonstrations while 17 representing27% did not participate in demonstrations. Of the respondents who said they did not takealcohol 45, representing 51.7% participated in demonstrations while 41, representing 35
  • 47.1% did not participate in demonstrations. It is clear from these findings that themajority of those who take alcohol participate in students’ demonstrations. This isbecause the differences in percentages between those who take alcohol and participate indemonstrations from those who participate in demonstrations but do not take alcohol arestatistically significant. Therefore, this hypothesis is correct.Originally, demonstrations were seen as a last alternative in expressing grievances amongUniversity of Zambia students, but currently students view demonstrations as the first andbest way of expressing grievances. Its use is becoming popular as shown in Table 2.1where 60.7% of the total 150 respondents indicated having participated in students’demonstrations while 38.7% responded as not having ever participated in students’demonstrations.In relation to our findings, trends have shown no change in students’ attitudes towardsdemonstrations. Adams (1986) studied the participants in the freedom summerdemonstrations of 1964 whose major participants where Northern College students. Thetotal number of students who participated in a voluntary questionnaire that he distributedwas 720. All these students were actively involved in demonstrations. He found thateducational level or status of students made them fully participate in the demonstrations.Studies conducted by Hanna (1974) and Akinboye (1980), revealed that there are variousfactors that lead to students demonstrations, among them include; Institutionsmanagements’ failure to respond to students grievances quickly, national polices, lack ofstudents participation in the management of the institution and lack of academic freedom.In line with this, our research had one of its objectives as finding out which gender (maleor female students), participate more in demonstrations. Our findings as shown in Table2.1 revealed that of the 105 male respondents, 66 representing 62.9% said they hadparticipated in students demonstrations. While of the 45 female respondents, 25representing 55.6% said they participated in student demonstrations. This shows thatmore male students participate in students’ demonstrations than female students but the 36
  • difference in proportion is not significant enough to justify the claim that more malestudents are prone to participate in students’ demonstrations than female students.Therefore, this hypothesis is rejected.Another objective of this research was to test the hypothesis as to whether students fromthe old residences are more likely to demonstrate than students from other halls ofresidence. From the findings indicated in table 2.2, it can be seen that a higher proportionof residents from the old residence, 48 representing 77.4% of the 150 respondentparticipated in student demonstrations as compared to 38 representing 48% of therespondents from the new residences and 5 representing 50% of respondents from Vethostels participated in student demonstrations. This difference is large enough to justifythe claim that students from the old residences are more likely to demonstrate than thosefrom other residences. We therefore, accept the hypothesis that students from the oldresidence are more likely to demonstrate than those from other halls of residences.Our research found out that management delays in resolving students’ problems is onefactor that contributes to students demonstrations. This is according to the results inFigure 3.2 that show that out of the 150 respondents, 130 representing 86.7% saidmanagement delay in resolving student grievances contribute to students demonstrations,15 respondents representing 10% said management does not delay in responding tostudent grievances. While 5 respondents representing 3.3% did not respond. It is clearfrom figure 3.2 that delays by management in resolving students’ grievances contribute toa large extent to student demonstrations.Another factor that Hanna (1974) and Akiniboye (1980) found to contribute to studentdemonstrations was student involvement in the politics of their nations. However, inrelation to our findings, political influence could not be identified as a contributing factorto students’ demonstrations. This is according to figure 3.3 that showed out of the 150respondents, 23 representing 15.3% said that politicians influenced students todemonstrate, while 127 respondents representing 84.7% said that politicians did notinfluence students to demonstrate. It is clear according to the results that political 37
  • influence does not contribute to students’ demonstrations. This hypothesis is thusrejected.Adegoke (1980) identified academic pressure or lack of academic freedom as acontributing factor to students’ demonstrations. In our research, Table 2.4 shows that ofthe 150 respondents, 142 said they experience academic pressure, of which 86representing 60.6% said they had participated in demonstrations, while 55, representing38.7% said they had not participated in demonstrations. Of the 8 respondents who saidthey did not experience academic pressure, 5, representing 62.5% said they participatedin demonstrations while 3 representing 37.5% said they had not participated. Therefore, itis clear according to the table that there is no significant difference between those whosaid they had experienced academic pressure and those who said they had notexperienced it. Hence, it can be concluded that there is no significant difference betweenacademic pressure and students’ demonstrations. This rejects the research hypothesis thatstated that students who experience academic pressure are more likely to demonstratethan those who do not experience academic pressure.Another objective was to test the hypothesis that the greater the consumption of alcoholby a student, the more likely it is that the student will participate in students’demonstrations. From the findings in table 2.5, it can be seen that of the 150 respondents,did not take alcohol while 63 took alcohol. The results further show that of those whotake alcohol, 46, representing 73% participated in demonstrations while 17 representing27% did not participate in demonstrations. Of the respondents who said they did not takealcohol 45, representing 51.7% participated in demonstrations while 41, representing47.1% did not participate in demonstrations. It is clear from these findings that themajority of those who take alcohol participate in students’ demonstrations. This isbecause the differences in percentages between those who take alcohol and participate in 38
  • demonstrations from those who participate in demonstrations but do not take alcohol arestatistically significant. Therefore, this hypothesis is correct.11.0 LIMITATIONS • A few respondents were not cooperative when answering questions,hence,making data analysis difficulty especially in cases were respondents decided not to answer. • Difficulties in accessing computers,especially those installed w i t h S P S S f o r d a t a e n t r y a n d a n a l ys i s w e r e e x p e r i e n c e d . • Re-administering of questionnaires had to be undertaken due to some respondents not being available and others had exchanged rooms. • There was limited time in which to conduct the research carefully and also to effectively master the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). CONCLUSIONC o n s i d e r i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t f a c t o r s s u c has management’s delay in resolving students grievances as well asalcohol consumption among students contributes to the use ofdemonstrations as a way of expressing grievances by the UNZAstudents.However,the findings showed that there is no relationship 39
  • between sex,academic pressure and political influence.This iscontrary to the assertion that politicians,academic pressure and sexinfluence one’s participation in demonstrations.Nevertheless,there isneed for further research in this area in order to draw conclusionswith certainty. RECOMMENDATIONSBased on research findings, it is recommended that:(a).Associations should be set up in universities and colleges tosensitize students on the need not to consume alcohol.(b).Universities and colleges should be situated in areas far awayfrom the main roads.(c).Managements of universities and colleges should be quick inresponding to students’ grievances. 40
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