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Netfinity tape solutions sg245218 Netfinity tape solutions sg245218 Document Transcript

  • Netfinity Tape SolutionsWim Feyants, Steve Russell International Technical Support Organization www.redbooks.ibm.com SG24-5218-01
  • SG24-5218-01International Technical Support OrganizationNetfinity Tape SolutionsMarch 2000
  • Take Note! Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in Appendix E, “Special notices” on page 289.Second Edition (March 2000)This redbook applies to IBM’s current line of tape products for use with Netfinity servers. At the time of writing, thesewere:IBM 40/80 GB DLT tape driveIBM 35/70 GB DLT tape driveIBM 20/40 GB DLT tape driveIBM 20/40 GB 8 mm tape driveIBM 20/40 GB DDS-4 4 mm tape driveIBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 4 mm tape driveIBM 10/20 GB NS tape driveIBM 490/980 GB DLT tape libraryIBM 280/560 GB DLT tape autoloaderIBM 3447 DLT tape libraryIBM 3449 8 mm tape libraryIBM 3570 Magstar MP tape libraryIBM 3575 Magstar MP tape libraryComments may be addressed to:IBM Corporation, International Technical Support OrganizationDept. HZ8 Building 678P.O. Box 12195Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2195When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a non-exclusive right to use or distribute the information in any wayit believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 1998 2000. All rights reserved.Note to U.S Government Users - Documentation related to restricted rights - Use, duplication or disclosure is subject to restrictionsset forth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp. View slide
  • Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix The team that wrote this redbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Comments welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x Chapter 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Chapter 2. Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .3 2.1 Why are backups necessary? . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .3 2.2 Backup methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .4 2.2.1 When will a file be backed up? . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .4 2.2.2 Backup patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .5 2.3 System and storage topologies . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .10 2.3.1 Direct tape connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .10 2.3.2 Single server model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .10 2.3.3 Two-tier model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .11 2.3.4 Multi-tier model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .13 2.4 Storage area network implementations . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .14 2.4.1 Why use SAN for tape storage? . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .15 2.4.2 Fibre Channel attached tape storage. . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .17 2.4.3 Tape pooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .18 2.5 Performance considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .19 2.5.1 Scheduling backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .19 2.5.2 Network bandwidth considerations . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .20 2.5.3 Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .21 2.5.4 Hierarchical storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .22 2.6 Database server backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .23 2.7 Selecting a tape drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .27 2.7.1 Tape capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .27 2.7.2 Single tape devices and libraries . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .27 2.7.3 Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .28 2.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .31 Chapter 3. Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .33 3.1 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .36 3.1.1 Digital Linear Tape (DLT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .36 3.1.2 8 mm tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .39 3.1.3 4 mm Digital Audio Tape (DAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .40 3.1.4 Travan Quarter-Inch Cartridge (QIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .42 3.1.5 Magstar 3570 MP Fast Access Linear tape cartridge . .. . . . . .. . . . .43 3.1.6 Linear Tape Open (LTO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .45 3.1.7 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .47 3.2 40/80 GB DLT tape drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .47 3.2.1 Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .49 3.3 35/70 GB DLT tape drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .51 3.3.1 Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .53 3.4 20/40 GB DLT tape drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .54 3.4.1 Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .56 3.5 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .58 3.5.1 Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .59 3.5.2 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .61 3.6 20/40 GB DDS-4 4 mm tape drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .62© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 iii View slide
  • 3.6.1 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 63 3.7 12/24 GB DDS-3 4 mm tape drive . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 64 3.7.1 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 65 3.8 10/20 GB NS tape drive . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 66 3.8.1 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 67 3.9 490/980 GB DLT library . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 69 3.9.1 Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 71 3.9.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 71 3.9.3 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 72 3.10 280/560 GB DLT autoloader . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 74 3.10.1 Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 75 3.10.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 75 3.10.3 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 75 3.11 3447 DLT Tape Library . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 77 3.11.1 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 79 3.11.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 79 3.11.3 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 80 3.12 3449 8 mm tape library . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 83 3.12.1 Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 86 3.12.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 90 3.12.3 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 90 3.13 3570 Magstar MP tape library . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 93 3.13.1 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 96 3.13.2 SCSI configuration . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 98 3.14 3575 Magstar MP tape library . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 98 3.14.1 Design highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 99 3.14.2 The multi-path feature . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 100 3.14.3 Bulk I/O slots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 101 3.14.4 High performance . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 101 3.14.5 High reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 102 3.14.6 3575 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 102 3.14.7 Magstar MP tape drives . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 103 Chapter 4. SAN equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 105 4.1 Netfinity Fibre Channel PCI adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 105 4.2 IBM SAN Fibre Channel switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 105 4.3 IBM SAN Data Gateway Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 107 4.4 Netfinity Fibre Channel hub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 109 4.5 Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 111 4.6 Supported configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 112 4.6.1 Fibre Channel attached tape storage . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 113 4.6.2 Netfinity server consolidation with tape pooling . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 114 4.6.3 Sample SAN configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 114 Chapter 5. Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 123 5.1 Tivoli Storage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 124 5.1.1 Products and base components . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 125 5.1.2 Server data management. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 127 5.1.3 Automating client operations . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 132 5.1.4 Supported devices . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 134 5.2 Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 135 5.2.1 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 135 5.2.2 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. 136iv Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 5.2.3 Supported devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1375.3 VERITAS NetBackup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 5.3.1 Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 5.3.2 Supported devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1405.4 Legato NetWorker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 5.4.1 Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 5.4.2 Supported devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1435.5 Computer Associates ARCserveIT for Windows NT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 5.5.1 Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 5.5.2 Supported devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1465.6 Computer Associates ARCserveIT for NetWare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 5.6.1 Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 5.6.2 Supported Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1495.7 VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows NT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 5.7.1 Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 5.7.2 Supported devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1555.8 VERITAS Backup Exec for Novell NetWare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 5.8.1 Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156 5.8.2 Job types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 5.8.3 Supported devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158Chapter 6. Installation and configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .1596.1 Tivoli Storage Manager for Windows NT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .159 6.1.1 Software installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .159 6.1.2 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .164 6.1.3 Configuring the IBM tapes and libraries . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .1866.2 Tivoli Storage Manager Server V2.1 for OS/2 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .194 6.2.1 Server configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .1976.3 Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .204 6.3.1 Configuration and use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .206 6.3.2 Configuring IBM tape devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .2106.4 Legato NetWorker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .210 6.4.1 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .2126.5 Computer Associates ARCserveIT for Windows NT . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .217 6.5.1 Preparing to install ARCserveIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .217 6.5.2 Installing ARCserveIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .217 6.5.3 Configuring ARCserveIT on Windows NT Server . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .2216.6 Computer Associates ARCserve Version 6.1 for NetWare. .. . . . . .. . . .224 6.6.1 Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .224 6.6.2 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .228 6.6.3 Managing ARCserve for NetWare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .233 6.6.4 The ARCserve changer option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .2386.7 VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows NT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .242 6.7.1 Software installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .242 6.7.2 Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .244 6.7.3 Configuring IBM tape drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .2526.8 Veritas Backup Exec for Novell NetWare . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .254 6.8.1 Software installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .254 6.8.2 Software configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .2606.9 Seagate Sytos Premium for OS/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .262 6.9.1 Installing Sytos Premium Version 2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .263 v
  • Appendix A. Sources of information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Appendix B. Hardware part numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Appendix C. Storage area networks and Fibre Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 C.1 Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275 C.1.1 Lower layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 C.1.2 Upper layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 C.2 Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276 C.3 Classes of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276 C.4 SAN components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 C.4.1 SAN servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 C.4.2 SAN storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 C.5 SAN interconnects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277 C.5.1 Cables and connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 C.5.2 Gigabit link model (GLM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 C.5.3 Gigabit interface converters (GBIC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 C.5.4 Media interface adapters (MIA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 C.5.5 Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 C.5.6 Extenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279 C.5.7 Multiplexors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 C.5.8 Hubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 C.5.9 Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 C.5.10 Bridges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 C.5.11 Gateways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 C.5.12 Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280 C.5.13 Directors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280 Appendix D. TSM element addresses and worksheets . . . . . ...... . . . . . 283 D.1 Device names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 283 D.2 Single tape devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 283 D.3 Tape libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 284 D.3.1 IBM 3502-108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 284 D.3.2 IBM 3502-x14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 284 D.3.3 IBM 3447 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 285 D.3.4 IBM 3449 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 285 D.3.5 IBM 3570 C2x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 286 D.3.6 IBM 3575 L06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 286 D.3.7 IBM 3575 L12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 287 D.3.8 IBM 3575 L18, L24, and L32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . 287 Appendix E. Special notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Appendix F. Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 F.1 IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 F.2 IBM Redbooks collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 F.3 Other resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291 F.4 Referenced Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 IBM Redbooks fax order form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296vi Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Abbreviations and acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299IBM Redbooks review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305 vii
  • viii Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Preface This redbook discusses IBM’s range of tape drives currently available for Netfinity servers. The book starts with a discussion of tape backup strategies and what concepts you should consider when designing a backup configuration. Each of the tape drives currently available from IBM is then described, listing its specifications and connectivity options. It also includes Storage Area Network implementations of tape devices. The redbook then examines the backup software that is most commonly used by customers in the Intel processor environment. Finally the book explains how to configure the tape drives and software so that they function correctly together. This redbook gives a broad understanding of data backup and how important it is to day-to-day operations of networked servers. It will help anyone who has to select, configure or support servers and tape subsystems involving software from IBM and other leading backup solution providers and IBM tape hardware.The team that wrote this redbook This redbook was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center. Wim Feyants is a Support Engineer in Belgium. He has four years of experience in supporting PCs and related software, and one year in OS/390 support. He holds a degree in Electromechanical Engineering. His areas of expertise include Tivoli Storage Manager on S/390 and Netfinity, Netfinity Servers, OS/2 and Novell NetWare. His previous publications include the redbook IBM Netfinity and PC Server Technology and Selection Reference and the first edition of this redbook. Wim can be reached at wim_feyants@be.ibm.com. Steve Russell is a Senior IT Specialist at the International Technical Support Organization, Raleigh Center. Before joining the ITSO in January 1999, Steve worked in a Technical Marketing role in IBM’s Netfinity organization in EMEA. Prior to that, he spent nearly 15 years managing and developing PC-based hardware and software projects. He holds a BSc in Electrical and Electronic Engineering and is a member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and a Chartered Engineer. This is the second edition of this redbook. The authors of the first edition were: David Watts Wim Feyants Mike Sanchez Dilbagh Singh Thanks to the following people from the ITSO for their help: David Watts, Raleigh Matthias Werner, San Jose Pat Randall, San Jose Margaret Ticknor, Raleigh Shawn Walsh, Raleigh Gail Christensen, Raleigh© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 ix
  • Linda Robinson, Raleigh Thanks also to the following IBMers for their invaluable contributions to this project: John Gates, Tape Product Manager, Raleigh Lee Pisarek, Netfinity Technology Lab, Raleigh Dan Watanabe, Tape and Optics Business Development, TusconComments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our Redbooks to be as helpful as possible. Please send us your comments about this or other Redbooks in one of the following ways: • Fax the evaluation form found in “IBM Redbooks review” on page 305 to the fax number shown on the form. • Use the online evaluation form found at http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/ • Send your comments in an Internet note to redbook@us.ibm.comx Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Chapter 1. Introduction IBM has a long heritage in the development and production of digital data storage. As Netfinity servers take on more work in the enterprise, the need for robust storage management solutions and support programs becomes a basic requirement. IBM provides industry leading tape technology in 4 mm, 8 mm, Quarter Inch Cartridge (QIC), Digital Linear Tape (DLT), and Magstar. IBM’s tape offerings are manufactured and tested to IBM’s standards and specifications and are backed by its worldwide service and support. IBM can provide a total storage solution end-to-end, from the hardware to financing. Before selecting a tape solution, you first need to determine your own specific requirements both in terms of the data to protect and the time it takes to back up and recover those files. Once you have determined the strategy you wish to use, you need to select the drive technology, then the hardware and software products that best meet those strategic requirements. This redbook leads you through the points you need to consider when determining a backup strategy, describes the hardware and software available to you and finally provides guidance about how to configure the hardware and software so that they work well together. This edition adds descriptions of hardware and software introduced since the first edition was published. In addition, we have included a chapter about storage area networks (Chapter 4, “SAN equipment” on page 105), which discusses tape implementations using a SAN fabric in particular. As well as providing an overview of newly announced SAN components, including Fibre Channel hubs, gateways, and routers, we examine configurations of these components supported in combination with tape hardware. Examples we explore include remotely attached tapes and tape library sharing solutions. Finally, the advantages of SAN attached tape devices in comparison with direct SCSI attached tape devices are discussed. This books only covers SAN solutions in a backup environment. Other implementations, such as remotely attached direct access storage devices, are not dicussed.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 1
  • 2 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Chapter 2. Strategy When designing a backup solution, you will start by looking at your specific needs, and then at the possibilities different products (hardware and software) have to offer. This chapter is meant to help you determine those needs, by explaining some common backup terminology. We won’t be referring to specific hardware or software. For specific information, see Chapter 3, “Hardware” on page 33 and Chapter 5, “Software” on page 123.2.1 Why are backups necessary? In today’s server environments, there is great emphasis on high availability solutions. Examples include RAID disk subsystems, redundant power supplies, ECC memory and clustering solutions. These new technologies reduce the risk of server downtime and data loss. Some people could see this as a reason not to implement a backup solution, since data is already secured. Unfortunately, hardware failures are only responsible for a small percentage of incidents involving data loss. Among other causes of data loss, one of the most common is operator errors, that is, user errors. Users may inadvertently save a file that contains erroneous information, or they may erase a critical file by mistake. Besides hardware and user errors, software errors and virus attacks can also cause data loss or data corruption. When thinking about backups, you should consider that your backup is not only necessary for disaster recovery. Being able to provide a stable storage environment for keeping earlier versions of user files is as important. You should think about your backup environment as being a storage management solution. Storage management (when discussed in a backup/archive context) embodies more than just disaster recovery. The possibility of keeping several versions of a particular file, including ways to maintain these multiple versions, is just as important. If a user or application corrupts data, and saves it, the above function will allow you to roll back changes and get back to a previous version. Backup file maintenance is also an important factor. It is fairly easy to create a backup of a file each hour. However, if there is no way to set the period for which these versions should be kept, or the number of different versions to be kept, your storage utilization will be very high (and costly). Another factor that is important is the degree of automation a backup product delivers. This is the differentiator between simple backup/restore applications and storage management tools. If the operator has to do everything manually, the chances of errors and the cost of operation will go up. Where backup data is meant to be used as a recovery resource in case of data loss, another possible use of low-cost mass storage media is archiving. The current trend of producing data in an electronic form, rather than on paper, calls for a need to have a valid archiving solution. Documents such as contracts, payroll records, employee records, etc. will need to be stored in a permanent way, without losing the advantages of the electronic form they exist in. A typical difference between backup data and archive data is their lifetime and rate of change. While backup data changes very fast and becomes obsolete in a short term period, archive data typically is static and stays current for a long time (up to© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 3
  • several years, depending on legal standards). As a result, backup products should be able to differentiate between these two types of data, since storage policies will differ. Besides a difference in handling this data, the storage device and media will have specific needs. Since data will be kept for a long time, media lifetime must be very high, which means you might need tape devices that are backward compatible. Physical storage is as important. It should be an environmentally controlled, secured area. Finally, availability of this data should be very high. That is why some sources suggest keeping a second backup server, entirely identical to the production system, on standby in a remote location, together with an extra copy of the media.2.2 Backup methodologies This section explains the different ways our data will be backed up, what will be backed up, and where will it go. Different methods exist, each having its advantages and disadvantages. We will discuss three common ways in which data is approached by backup programs. When an approach is decided upon, the next step is to set the backup pattern that will be used. The backup pattern can be seen as the way the backup program determines how data will be handled over a certain time period. This leads us to another important factor in backup operations: continuity. There is a start point, and from then on, reliable backups must be maintained. This is why backup implementation should be very well planned before starting.2.2.1 When will a file be backed up? 2.2.1.1 Full backup A full backup is simply that: a complete backup of every single file. It is the start point for every backup implementation. Every file that needs to be backed up, will have to be backed up at least once. The advantage of such a backup is that files are easily found when needed. Since full backups include all data on your hard drive, you do not have to search through several tapes to find the files you need to restore. If you should need to restore the entire system, all of the most current information can be found on the last backup tape (or set of tapes). The disadvantage is that doing nothing but full backups leads to redundancy which wastes both media and time. A backup strategy would normally include a combination of full, incremental and/or differential backups. 2.2.1.2 Incremental backup Incremental backups include files that were created or changed since the last backup (that is, the last full or incremental backup). To achieve this, the status of each file must be recorded either within the backup software or through the use of the archive attribute of the files. If no previous backup was made, an incremental backup is equivalent to a full backup.4 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Incremental backups make better use of media compared to full backups. Only files that were created or changed since the last backup are included, so less backup space is used and less time is required. Note The definition of a file change can differ between backup applications. Some criteria used for marking a file as changed include: • Data changes • Location changes • Attribute changes (last modification or access date, archive bit) • Security changes The disadvantage is that multiple tapes are needed to restore a set of files. The files can be spread over all the tapes in use since the last full backup. You may have to search several tapes to find the file you wish to restore. The backup software can minimize this by remembering where files are located; however a restoration may still require access to all incremental backups. 2.2.1.3 Differential backup A differential backup includes all files that were created or modified since the last full backup. Note the difference between incremental and differential: incremental backups save files changed since the last (incremental or full) backup, whereas differential backups save files changed since the last full backup. In some publications, a differential backup is also called a cumulative incremental backup. The advantages over full backups are that they are quicker and use less media. The advantage over an incremental backup is that the restore process is more efficient — at worst, the restore will require only the latest differential backup set and the latest full backup set, whereas an incremental backup could require all incremental backup sets and the full backup set. The disadvantage of differential backups is that longer and longer time is needed to perform them as the amount of changed data grows. Compared to incremental backups, differential backups use more time and media — each backup would store much of the same information plus the latest information added or created since the last full backup.2.2.2 Backup patterns A backup pattern is the way we will back up our data. Now that we have defined the different types of backups, the question is how should we combine them? Tape usage and reusage are important factors, because tape management will get complicated when dealing with a large numbers of tapes, and media costs will rise if we do not reuse tapes. 2.2.2.1 Full/Incremental pattern The most common way of performing backups is to take full backups on a regular basis, with incremental backups in between. To avoid the management of too many tapes, the number of incremental backups should be as few as possible. The average frequency is one full backup every week, plus five or six incremental backups (one per day) in between. This is shown graphically in Figure 1 on page 6. Chapter 2. Strategy 5
  • This way of performing backups implies: • One tape (or set of tapes) per day • Very little data on each tape (except the full backup tapes) • When performing the second full backup, you ignore all of the previous full backups, erase the tapes, and send them back to the scratch pool. The administration of the tapes, inventory and tracking, tape labeling, and archiving must be done manually in most cases. In addition, each time you do a full backup, you send all of the data again. When doing a full restore, you will need to start by restoring the full backup, then restore the changes using every incremental backup. Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Week 1 F I I I I I I Week 2 F I I I I I I F Full backup I Incremental backup Figure 1. Tape usage in full/incremental backup pattern An important factor within each backup pattern is tape usage and reutilization. In the example above (Figure 1), if in week 2, you need to restore a file that was backed up in week 1, you will need to have these tapes still available. This means that the number of tapes needed increases significantly. That is why rotation schedules are a very important part of tape management. Tape rotation schedules will provide you with different versions of files, without having a large number of tapes. A commonly used tape rotation strategy is the “grandfather-father-son” schedule. This name reflects the use of three generations of backup tapes: grandfather tapes, father tapes and son tapes. To explain, let us start our backups. On Sunday, a full backup is taken to a tape labeled “Week_1”. From Monday to Saturday, backups are taken to tapes labeled “Monday”, “Tuesday”, etc. The next Sunday, a full backup is taken to a tape “Week_2”. On Monday, we reuse the tapes labeled with the names of the week (the same tapes as used in week 1). These tapes are called the son tapes. For the next two weeks, we take weekly full backups to separate tapes, and store daily backups on the son tapes. At the end of the month, this leaves us with four father tapes, labeled “Week_1”, “Week_2”, “Week_3”, “Week_4”. This gives us the possibility to restore a version of a file that is one month in age. The last day of the month, a backup is taken to a grandfather tape, labeled “Month_1”. After this, the “Week_1” through “Week_4” tapes can be reused to do the weekly full backup.6 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • So, you will have a set of 5 son tapes reused weekly, a set of 4 father tapesreused monthly, and a set of 4 or 12 grandfather tapes (depending on the amountof time you want to cover). Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Week_1 Week_2 Week_3 Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Week_4 Monday Tuesday Month_1 Daily Backup (Son backup set) Weekly Full Backup (Father backup set) Monthly Full Backup (Grandfather backup set)Figure 2. Grandfather-Father-Son media rotation schedule2.2.2.2 Full/differential patternAnother way of performing backups is to take full backups and differentialbackups, with incremental backups in between.In this pattern: • A full backup saves every file. • A differential backup saves the files that have changed since the previous full backup. • An incremental backup saves the files that have changed since the previous incremental backup (or the previous differential backup if no previous incremental backups exist, or the previous full if no previous differentials exist).This process reduces the number of tapes to manage because you can discardyour incremental tapes once you have done a differential. You still have tomanage the incremental tapes prior to the differential backup, however.This way of performing backups implies: • One tape (or set of tapes) per day • Very little data on each tape (except the full backup tape) • More tapes to manage, because you have to keep the full backup tapes, the differential tapes, and the incremental tapes Chapter 2. Strategy 7
  • Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat F I I D I I D F Full backup New/changed data since last incremental backup I Incremental backup Data from previous days incremental backups D Differential backup Figure 3. Tape usage in full/differential backup patterns The advantage of the full/differential pattern over a full/incremental pattern is that a restore will use full, differential and incremental backups which require fewer tapes. (See 2.2.2.4, “Example” on page 9.) As in the full/incremental pattern, tape rotation can be implemented to limit the number of tapes used, while keeping a certain number of versions of each file over a certain time period 2.2.2.3 Incremental forever pattern Since one of the critical factors in any backup is the amount of data that has to be moved, a way of limiting this amount should be pursued. The best way to do this is to back up changes only. Using the incremental forever pattern, only incremental backups are performed. This means that there is no need for regular full or differential backups. Though the first backup will be an incremental that will back up everything (so, essentially the same as a full backup), only incremental backups need to be taken afterwards. It is clear that this pattern will limit the amount of backed up data, but turns tape management and usage into a very complex process. That is why you will need a backup application that is capable of managing these tapes. A good example of this is tape reusage. Since there is no determined point in time when tapes can be reused (as we had in the previous two patterns), the number of tapes can increase dramatically. Therefore, the application should be able to check tapes and clean them if necessary. This cleanup (or tape reclamation) should occur when a tape holds backup data that will no longer be used, since newer versions have been backed up. Another point is that, when backing up data from different machines, their data can be dispersed over a multitude of different tapes. Since mounting a tape is a slow process, this should be avoided. That is why some applications have a mechanism that is called collocation. Collocation will try to maintain the data of one machine on the fewest number of tapes possible. This should mean a performance gain when restoring, but will slow down the backup in cases where multiple machines need to back up their data to a single tape drive. Instead of moving the backup data of both clients to the same tape, the backup program will try to put the data of both clients on separate tapes. Therefore, the second client will have to wait until the backup of the first one completes before it can start its8 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • backup. Again, applications have been provided to limit the impact of this (see2.5.4, “Hierarchical storage” on page 22).2.2.2.4 ExampleTo make things a bit clearer, let’s look at an example. We have a machine with20 GB of data, and each day about 5% of this data changes. This means we willhave to back up about 1 GB of data for each incremental backup. The network willbe the determining factor for the data transfer rate (we will assume a 16 Mbpstoken-ring network), and backup and restore throughput is equal.Table 1 shows times needed for backup operations and the type of backups:Table 1. Backup operation: time required using specific backup patterns Pattern Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Full/increment Type Full Incr Incr Incr Incr Incr Incr al (Figure 1 on page 6) Time (sec) 10240 512 512 512 512 512 512 Full/differential Type Full Incr Incr Diff Incr Incr Diff (Figure 3 on page 8) Time (sec) 10240 512 512 1536 512 512 1536 Incremental Type Incr Incr Incr Incr Incr Incr Incr Time (sec) 5121 512 512 512 512 512 512 1.The first incremental backup will take 10240 seconds but here we assume that Sunday’s backup is not the first backup.If we look at the restore operation, we will need to determine the number of tapesthat are required and the time needed to restore the data. Let’s assume that wehave to do a full restore (that is, 20 MB) on Friday (restoring from Thursday’sbackups).Table 2. Restore operation: total number of tapes and total amount of time required Type Number of tapes Time (seconds) Full/incremental 5 6000 Sun, Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu (10240 + 4 x 512= 12288) Full/differential 3 6000 Sun, Wed, Thu (10240 +1536 + 512 = 12288) Incremental Unknown 10240From this we conclude: • A full restore is faster when using incremental strategies, but the number of tapes needed is hard to predict. • The number of tapes is the least when using the differential pattern. Chapter 2. Strategy 9
  • 2.3 System and storage topologies When implementing a backup solution, the first thing to look at is how you are going to set up your site. Different possibilities exist, each giving some advantages and disadvantages. For SAN implementations, refer to 2.4, “Storage area network implementations” on page 14. The following topology models will be discussed: • Direct connection • Single server site • Two-tier site • Multi-tier site or branch office model There is no one “best” solution applicable to every situation. Factors to be considered when deciding on a backup solution include: • The network bandwidth available • The period available for backup activity • The capabilities of the backup software • The size and number of machines to be backed up2.3.1 Direct tape connection The most easy topology to understand, is the one where we connect our tape device directly to the machine we are going to back up (see Figure 4). One advantage of this setup is the speed of the link between data and backup device (typically SCSI) versus the network connection used in other models. The disadvantages of this model are limited scalability, manageability and hardware cost (one tape device needed for every machine that requires backup). This setup can be suited for sites with a limited number of machines that need to be backed up, or for emergency restores. Storage Device Figure 4. Direct tape connection2.3.2 Single server model As opposed to the direct connection model, this type of setup is based on a backup server, connected through a network to the machines that will need to take a backup. These machines are often referred to as clients, nodes or agents. The tape device (or other storage media) will be connected to this backup server (see Figure 5). The advantages of this design are that centralized storage administration is possible and the number of storage devices is reduced (and probably the cost).10 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • However, one of the problems here could be the network bandwidth. Since all data that is backed up needs to go over the network, the throughput is smaller than what we have using a direct tape connection. Every client that is added will need some of this bandwidth (see 2.5.2, “Network bandwidth considerations” on page 20). This bandwidth issue becomes even more important when dealing with a distributed site. Let’s imagine that one of the machines that needs to be backed up is located in a different location than the backup server, with only a very slow link between these two sites. Throughput could diminish in such a way that it would take longer than 24 hours to back up the remote system. In this case, a two-tier solution would be better (as discussed in 2.3.3, “Two-tier model” on page 11). Although not required, it is advised that the machine used as backup server should be a dedicated machine. The reason for this is that backup and restore operations would have an impact on this server’s performance. If you included it in your regular server pool, acting as a file or application server, it could slow down all operations on the network servers. Machines that need to be backed up. Backup server Figure 5. Single server model This design is well suited for sites with a limited number of machines. There are multiple reasons for this. For example, network bandwidth is not unlimited. Another reason for the limit on clients that a single server will support is that each session will use resources (processor, memory) on the backup server.2.3.3 Two-tier model As discussed in 2.3.2, “Single server model” on page 10, scalability and network bandwidth are limited when working with a single server site. In a two-tier model, an intermediate backup server is used as a staging platform (see Figure 6 on page 12). The advantages are twofold: 1. The backup is done to the first backup server (or source server), which resides locally (and has a LAN connection), and only then forwarded to the central Chapter 2. Strategy 11
  • backup server (or target server). This can be done asynchronously, so that communication performance between the first and second-level backup servers is not critical. 2. The backup completes in a much shorter time as data transmission is not slowed down by tape drive write speeds. This leads to much shorter backup windows. You could also load balance large sites by adding additional source servers. Source Servers with local backups forwarded asynchronously to... Target or Central Server Figure 6. Two-tier model Figure 7 shows what happens with the data that needs to be backed up. In the first stage, data is moved to the source server. This happens during the period of time that we have to take our backups (referred to as backup window; see 2.5.1, “Scheduling backups” on page 19).12 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Stage 1: Data is backed up to the Stage 2: Data is moved from first backup server. This operation Storage 1 to Storage 2. This should complete during the normal can happen outside of the backup window. backup window. Storage 2 Storage 1 DATA Figure 7. Data movement in a two-tier model The specifications of the storage device connected to this source server should be sufficient to store all the data that is backed up. Typically, it will also be a fast device (probably a disk drive). In the second stage, data on this storage device is moved across the network to a second backup server. This normally happens after stage 1 completes (but not necessarily, however), and can be done outside of the normal backup window. The only rule here is that all data from the source servers must be moved to the target server before the backup window restarts. This setup gives advantages with regard to scalability, since you can add as many source servers as you want. However, more intelligent software is required to manage the transfer of backed up data both in backup mode and in restore mode. In the case of a restore operation, the user should not need to know on which backup server the data is. Another advantage of this server storage hierarchy is that in case of a site disaster at the source server location, the backups still reside on the target server. Of course, this advantage will only be true if the target and source servers are geographically separated, and all backup data has been moved to the central server.2.3.4 Multi-tier model The multi-tier or branch office model is an extension of the two-tier model, but with another stage added (and you can add even more stages if you wish). The same advantages and disadvantages can be observed. Scalability goes up, but so does complexity. Chapter 2. Strategy 13
  • Branches Regional Offices Central Server Figure 8. Multi-tier model2.4 Storage area network implementations In this section, we will introduce some tape storage implementations using a storage area network architecture. This is not intended to be an introduction to SAN itself. It is limited to currently supported and tested configurations. For more information please refer to the following redbooks: Introduction to Storage Area Networks, SG24-5470 and Storage Area Networks: Tape Future in Fabrics, SG24-5474. The IBM definition of a storage area network, or SAN, is a dedicated, centrally managed, secure information infrastructure, which enables any-to-any interconnection of servers and storage systems. A SAN is made up of the following components: • A Fibre Channel topology • One or more host nodes • One or more storage nodes • Management software14 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The SAN topology is a combination of components, which can be compared to those used in local area networks. Examples of such components are hubs, gateways, switches and routers. The transport media used is Fibre Channel, which is defined in several ANSI standards. Although the name, Fibre Channel, assumes the usage of fiber connections, copper wiring is also supported. This topology is used to interconnect nodes. The two types of nodes are host nodes, such as the FC adapter of a server, and storage nodes. Storage nodes can be any devices that connect to a SAN. When looking at the above description, it is clear that many configurations can be created. However, only a limited number of implementations of the SAN architecture are currently supported for Netfinity backup solutions. This number will certainly rise in the future.2.4.1 Why use SAN for tape storage? There can be several reasons to use SAN, and the importance of these reasons will depend on your requirements, such as availability, cost and performance. One thing that should be noted is that current Netfinity SAN implementations are limited to tape libraries, and not single tape drives. Besides the lack of tested implementations using single drives, another important fact is responsible for this lack of support: the main reason for implementing SAN solutions is tape drive and media sharing. Both concepts are possible when a media pool is available, and the tape devices have enough intelligence to share this media between them. Neither of these concepts is applicable to single tape drives. When talking about the availability of tape storage, two separate points can be discussed. The first one is availability of the hardware, meaning the tape library itself. The second one is the availability of the data backed up to tape. In current high availability implementations, this data is backed up and stored off-site. Although this way of working is generally accepted, it also might be a good thing to automate this. By doing so, a copy of local tapes would be sent to a remote site without human intervention. Retrieving these copies would also be transparent. This technique, which is sometimes referred to as automatic vaulting, can be achieved by using the SAN architecture. Performance issues can also be addressed using SAN architectures. When using a client/server backup model (the client backs up the data to the backup server), all the backup data must pass through the network (LAN or WAN). In some cases, for example, if the backup client is a big database server, the network can no longer deliver the throughput that is needed to complete the backup in a certain time frame. Current solutions would consist of putting a local tape device on the backup client. Besides the extra cost of additional tape devices, decentralizing backup management can be difficult to maintain. SAN provides a solution by a technique called “LAN-free backup”. Here, only the meta data (labeled control data in Figure 9 on page 16) flows over the LAN, while the actual backup data moves directly from the client to the storage device connected to the SAN. Chapter 2. Strategy 15
  • Control Data Backup Backup Client Server Data SAN Backup Data Control Data Tape Storage Node Figure 9. SAN-based LAN-free backup Even though this solution is still in an early phase, the next step towards performance improvement has already been architected. This will be called “server-free backup”. Here, client-attached SAN storage moves data immediately to the tape storage. Besides having the advantage that most of the data no longer needs to be backed up through the network, you get an additional performance gain by bypassing the SCSI interface. Both connections (SCSI and network) have a lower throughput than the SAN interface. Its nominal throughput is rated at 1 Gbps. Future implementations will allow this figure to extend to 4 Gbps. See 2.5.2, “Network bandwidth considerations” on page 20 for network throughput figures. Compared to SCSI, operating at 40 MBps, FC-AL operates at 100 MBps. Since FC-AL supports full-duplex communications, the total throughput can go up to 200 MBps. Control Data Backup Backup Client Server SAN Control Data Backup Data Client Data Tape Storage Node Figure 10. SAN Server-free backup16 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Finally, cost reduction can be an important factor in deciding to move tape storage from traditional SCSI attachments to SAN attachments. Here, using the sharing capability of a SAN-connected tape library, two or more systems can use one library. This limits the investment in expensive hardware, and enables the use of cheaper storage media (as compared to disk). So, where a traditional implementation of a tape library would probably cost more than the equivalent in disk storage, sharing of the library increases the utilization factor and decreases the cost per amount of storage. Cost Disk Tape Tape Library Cost x Amount of Data Figure 11. Storage cost Figure 11 is a graph of Cost versus Amount of Data for both tape and disk storage. As you can see, if the amount of data that needs to be stored is lower than x, disk storage is cheaper than tape. However, by increasing the amount of data stored, the total cost goes below that of disk storage. In order to get past this point, you should increase the volume of data that is stored on tape. One way of doing this is by sharing the library between different systems.2.4.2 Fibre Channel attached tape storage Probably the most straightforward type of SAN implementation of a tape device is where a tape library is connected to one backup server using fiber. The reason why this can be done is the fact that fiber connections, using long-wave technology, can have a length up to 10 kilometers. This means that you can physically separate your tape library from your backup server, which might prove efficient for disaster recovery or automatic vaulting. Figure 12 shows the logical setup of such a configuration: Chapter 2. Strategy 17
  • SAN Tape Storage Host Node Node Fibre SCSI Channel Figure 12. Fibre Channel attached tape storage The above diagram is only a representation of a logical configuration. For information on the actual hardware and software that can be used to implement this, see Chapter 4, “SAN equipment” on page 105. This still leaves the question of how to implement the remote vaulting. Since this is typically done by using tape copies, a second library should be added. Here, for example, we could use a local SCSI-connected library.2.4.3 Tape pooling A configuration that comes closer to the general idea of storage area networks, sharing storage across multiple machines, is the tape pooling configuration. Here, one (or more) tape libraries are connected to several backup servers. This is done by using a Fibre Channel SAN switch. The main advantage of this type of installation is the ability to share a (costly) tape library between two or more backup servers. Although this might look like something that could already be accomplished in the past, using a library setup in split configuration (the library is logically split in two, each part using one tape device connected to one backup system), there are some differences. The split configuration was a static setup. This means that you connected one tape drive to one system, the other tape drive to another. If you had a library with two tape devices, the split setup meant that you created two smaller, independent libraries. Also the cartridges were assigned to one part of the split library. In a tape pooling configuration, there is no physical or logical split of the tape hardware. The entire library is available to both systems. This means that when one server needs two tape drives for a certain configuration, it will be able to get them (if they are not being used by another system). Also, the free tapes, or scratch pool, can be accessed by both systems. However, the physical media that are in use (meaning that they do not belong to the scratch pool) cannot be shared. A tape used by one system cannot be read by another. Figure 13 shows a tape pooling configuration:18 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Fibre Host Node Channel SAN Tape Storage Node SCSI Host Node Fibre Channel Figure 13. Tape pooling Again, this configuration is just a logical layout. The exact physical layout, and the necessary hardware and software will be discussed later.2.5 Performance considerations When talking to people who are using backup software intensively, one of their major problems is performance. The reason for that is as follows: while the amount of data increases steadily, the time that a machine is available for backup (which has a performance impact on the machine, and sometimes requires applications to be quiesced) often gets shorter. That is, more data has to be moved in a shorter time period. Although hardware and software manufacturers are continually improving their products to cope with this trend, some parameters affecting performance are related to the way the backup solution is implemented. The following topics discuss some of the techniques you can use, as well as some considerations that might help you determine what performance issues should be addressed.2.5.1 Scheduling backups When thinking about which machines you are going to back up, you will probably think about file or application servers. Unfortunately, these machines get updates during the day, and the only time it makes sense to back up these systems is after hours. The reason for this is that backup products need to access files and back up valid copies of them. If these files are in use and modified during a backup, the backup version you have would not be very helpful when restored. That is why you should determine a period of time in which operations on the machine that you will back up are minimal, and use this period of time to run your backup. This period is often referred to as the backup window. You will soon see that this backup window usually starts sometime late at night, and ends early in the morning, not exactly the time you or someone else wants to sit beside the machine starting or stopping backup operations. Luckily, backup programs make good use of scheduling mechanisms. These schedulers allow you to start a backup at a certain point in time. The following points are important when automating your backup processes using schedulers: • What will my backup application do in case of errors? Will it continue or stop? The worst case would be if the application stops and asks for user intervention. It would be better for the backup application to make every effort to work around problems, backing up as much of your data as possible. Chapter 2. Strategy 19
  • • Will operations and errors be logged somewhere, so I can check if the backups were successful? • If the backup operation takes longer than the defined backup window, will it continue or stop? There are different scheduling mechanisms, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. For more details, please refer to Chapter 5, “Software” on page 123.2.5.2 Network bandwidth considerations When implementing a backup solution that backs up data to a backup server over the network, an important factor is network bandwidth. The reason for this is that all the data must go over the network. This becomes even more important when different machines are trying to back up to one server at the same time, since the amount of data increases. That is why network bandwidth will be one of the factors when deciding how many machines will be backed up to one backup server, and which backup window will be needed. To calculate the time needed for a backup, the following points must be considered: • The amount of data that will be backed up Unfortunately, this number can differ from backup system to backup system. Let’s say you have a file server with 20 GB of data. When you do a full backup of this system, it will indeed send 20 GB. But most backup programs also work with incremental or differential backup algorithms, which only back up changed data. So, to figure out the amount of data that is backed up in such an operation, we will have to consider the following points: • How much data changes between two backups? • What does “changed” mean to my backup program? Backup programs will normally also compress data. Unfortunately, the compression rate is strongly dependent on the type of file you are backing up, and therefore hard to define. For initial calculations, you could take the worst case scenario, where no compression would take place. • Nominal network speed (commonly expressed in Mbps) This is the published speed of your network. Token-ring for example will have a nominal network speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. • The practical network speed Since a communication protocol typically adds headers, control data and acknowledgments to network frames, not all of it will be available for our backup data. As a rule of thumb, the practical capacity is 50-60% for token-ring, FDDI or ATM networks, and 35% for Ethernet networks.20 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Note The above values are only used as indicative values. Actual figures might differ, since they are influenced by numerous factors. These factors include network topology, number of concurrent network connections and the protocol that is used. If more exact values are necessary, we suggest that you trace your network, and get average values for data throughput. • Bandwidth available to the protocol we are using. For simplicity, we will suppose that we have the entire bandwidth for the protocol. This brings us to the following formulas: • For token-ring, FDDI or ATM: Amount of Data (MB) Time (seconds) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ × 4 - Nominal Network Speed (Mbps) • For Ethernet: Amount of Data (MB) Time (seconds) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ × 2.8 - Nominal Network Speed (Mbps) Note When calculating backup throughput, factors other than network speed will matter. For example, processing on a backup server and tape mounting will also play an important factor. See performance reports from specific products to get an idea of application capabilities.2.5.3 Compression When defining tape device capacities, you will often see two values for capacity and transfer rate. The first is referred to as native rate and the second as rate using compression. The compression rate used will often be 2:1. What do these compression rates mean? Are there differences between hardware and software compression? Which should you use? The first thing to consider is that your tape device will only be able to use one recording density — it cannot record one piece of data at one density and another at a higher density. Secondly, hardware compression uses a software compression algorithm, running in the firmware of the tape device. This means that all the rules applicable to software compression, are valid for hardware compression. Let’s list some of these rules: • Compression ratio is strongly dependent of the type of file. This means that the published 2:1 ratio is an average and can differ. • Files should only be compressed once. Compressing an already compressed file will typically make the file bigger. Chapter 2. Strategy 21
  • • Reading a compressed file takes longer than reading a non-compressed file, and needs more processing to decompress it. We can conclude from the above that you should not use hardware compression and software compression at the same time. Software compression will be done by your backup software. In most cases it is more advanced than hardware compression, but also slower. Some backup applications could for example distinguish between compressed and uncompressed files, and not compress them again. Hardware compression will not do this. The advantage of software compression should become more apparent when you are using a client/server environment, where all backup data is moved over the network. If your backup client is able to compress files before sending them over the network, network traffic will decrease. The disadvantage is that client processing will become higher, and you could run out of processing power. So what should you use now? Unfortunately, there is no one answer. It is very much dependent on your environment and the capabilities of your software. In general, the following rules should be observed: • When using the direct SCSI-attached setup, hardware compression will be the better solution. • When storage space is important, use software compression that is able to distinguish compressed files from uncompressed files. This means that it will not attempt to re-compress the compressed files, and won’t use extra space doing this. • When backing up over a network, and using clients that have enough processing power, use software compression on the clients. • When backing up a file system that is mostly used for storing compressed files (code servers for example), turn compression off.2.5.4 Hierarchical storage When looking at the data flow when doing a backup, the data passes through a collection of components, each with its own throughput. Looking at Figure 14, we see that the data moves from the hard disk to the tape over many different types of components. The slowest one is the tape drive, at 400 KBps. This means that a bottleneck often occurs here. 40 MBps 1 MBps 40 MBps SCSI SCSI PCI PCI 132 MBps Token-Ring 132 MBps DDS-2 Tape Hard Disk 0.4 MBps TR Adapter TR Adapter 10 MBpsFigure 14. Component speed22 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Using newer tape technologies improves transfer rates, but unfortunately, this is not the only factor that makes the tape device slow. Tape mounts, for example, can take up to several minutes, or even more when human intervention is required. To solve this bottleneck, we could include a buffer mechanism just before the tape drive. This can be done by inserting a fast storage mechanism, for example a hard disk. This hard disk will then serve as an intermediate storage place, before transferring the data to the tape drive. This is what we call a hierarchical storage mechanism. What will happen now when we take a backup? The backup data is backed up to the hard disk. Since its transfer rate is much higher, and no mounts are necessary, the bottleneck effect disappears. At one point, though, data must be moved (or migrated) to the next storage device, in our case the tape. This data movement can occur in two ways: • System triggered • User initiated An automated, system-triggered, approach is usually preferred. One way to do this would be to define a high and low threshold. When the amount of data on the hard disk to which we are backing up reaches the high threshold, a process is started that migrates data to the tape. This process stops when the low threshold is reached. Hierarchical storage can also be used to minimize tape mounts during backup when tape collocation (see 2.2.2.3, “Incremental forever pattern” on page 8) is used.2.6 Database server backup When using a backup application, you are basically “copying” files to your backup server or tape device. This is perfectly fine when backing up a file server, where a file is the smallest entity you are working with. But what about application servers? Let’s say you have a database server running Lotus Domino, IBM DB2 or Microsoft SQL Server. In these types of systems, files are just containers of records in your database (for example, a Lotus Notes NSF file). This file consists of all notes in your database. It also means that if you change one character in one note, the entire NSF file is flagged as having changed. Normally, this would mean your backup program would send the entire file to the backup server. Since this way of working is inefficient, another solution should be found. Most backup applications have add-ons, which allow you to back up application data (for example databases) on a lower level than the entire database container or file. If we continue the above example, it would mean that changing one note in the entire Notes database would result in a backup of only this note. When an application server needs to be backed up, check the availability of backup agents for your application. Since they are application dependent, it could limit your choice of backup software. To elaborate on this topic, let’s look in detail at how Relational Database Management Systems , or RDBMSs, store data, and how backup products can interact with this data. Non-relational databases, such as Lotus Domino, will have Chapter 2. Strategy 23
  • slightly different ways of handling data, but the concepts for how backups should be performed are the same. It is important to understand the basic structure of RDBMSs so that you can put an effective backup and recovery strategy in place. You need to back up more than the database itself to ensure a successful recovery. RDBMSs share a common set of principles and similar logical and physical structures. These fundamental structures include tables, table spaces, log files, and control files. Note Please note that although all RDBMS products are based on the same set of principles, they do not all use the same terminology or structures. For example, a table space in Informix is called a dbspace, and there is no table space concept in Sybase or Microsoft SQL Server. Log files in Oracle are called redo logs, while in Sybase they are called transaction logs. Tables are used to store data. These two-dimensional tables are the entities within which the database manager will manipulate data. To keep these logical data structures separated from the physical, disk structures, many database applications use table spaces . A table space holds one or more tables, and is a physical entity on the hard disk (a file or raw partition). As explained above, backup operations could be limited to the physical part, meaning the table spaces. However, besides the fact that this could lead to a huge overhead by backing up unchanged data, there are other considerations, such as the log files. Log files are used by the database manager to keep track of changes. Whenever a transaction modifies data, all the changes are kept in these log files. The reason for that is that a transaction might start changing data in one table, and then fail later on when updating a second table. In order to maintain data integrity, that transaction must be undone. The database manager will use these logs to roll back , or undo, incomplete transactions. The use of log files in a backup environment is slightly different. Since all transactions are kept in these log files, they can be used to replay the transactions performed. This technique is commonly known as roll-forward recovery. Practically, this means that you could restore a database backup that has a certain age, and then roll forward the restored database using the log files, to end with a database that has the current changes included. This also means that if you are implementing a database backup and recovery scheme, you should pay attention to backing up log files. Finally, the control files play an important role. Control files are used to map the logical structure of the database to its physical structure. In other words, they hold information like which table is placed in which table space and which log file is currently used. Control files are very important when recovering an entire database. Some database applications will have separate files containing this information, while others will store it in the database itself. Besides the above database-related components, you should also think about the configuration files of your database manager itself. Having explained the structure and major components, we can now look at different backup techniques that are available.24 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • One method of classifying database backups, is by explaining the physicaltechniques. There are four major ways of maintaining availability of yourdatabases: • Database mirroring • Database export • Offline backup • Online backupMirroringDisk or database mirroring is probably the solution which provides the highestavailability in case of media failure. Databases are mirrored on two or moreseparate hard disks. Although this is a good solution for high-availabilityimplementations, it does not take away the need for real database backups. Asalready explained, disk mirroring will not help you in case of data corruption dueto user errors. Also, in case of a disaster, the chance that all disk volumes havebeen damaged is real.An advantage of disk mirroring is the fact that the mirror can be broken. Althoughthis normally should not happen, there is a valid reason for doing it. As we willexplain later, a full backup of a database should occur when the database isoffline. Offline means that no transactions occur, and that no users have accessto the database. With a mirrored solution, you can stop the mirroring process andtake an offline backup of the nonfunctional database while the original copy is stillonline. This technique can be called a simulated offline backup. After the backup,the mirrored disks can be resynchronized. You must, however, consider theimpact of working like this. You will be taking a physical backup of the tablespaces, and not a logical backup of the tables. This has the disadvantages oflarge backup size, as well as the fact that you will need to back up log files andcontrol files separately. Furthermore, resynchronization can be difficult, and havea serious performance impact.ExportingA second technique that can be used is database export . Using database exportfunctions, you will create a physical file that can be used to import the data backinto a database. The advantage over just backing up the physical database files isthat export and import utilities will function against the logical databasecomponents (tables). Again, the disadvantage is that you will need to get the logfiles backed up to provide serious recovery scenarios. This technique might be agood solution to make archive copies of your database for longer storage.Offline backupA third technique is an offline backup of the database. The advantage over thetwo previous methods is the fact that you will use the database manager toorganize the backup. In most cases, this means that the database manager willtake into account the control files, as well as the log file. Simplified, this meansthat the database manager will record the fact that a database backup has beentaken, and will deactivate the log files that exist, since all changes are reflected inthe database itself. The disadvantage of this technique is that you must quiescethe database, limiting access to users and batch programs. Some databaseproducts have partially solved this issue by queueing transactions during thebackup. This means that all transactions performed will be stored, and releasedwhen the database comes back online. Chapter 2. Strategy 25
  • Online backup Finally, there is the online backup technique. The online backup makes a backup of the database, while it is in use. The problem with this technique is that the backup taken is fuzzy. Transactions made during the backup will not be reflected in certain tables, while they might be in others. Therefore, it is mandatory that you maintain log files when using this technique. Solutions exist where parts of the database will be stopped during backup, leaving other tables online. It is important to understand that the backup process will be controlled by the RDBMS. The backup product you are using will interface with this RDBMS, and provide data management and placement. However, it will not include any logic on what is backed up, or how it is organized. This completes the first classification of database backups. A second approach focuses on what you will back up. The following ways exist: • Full database backup • Partial database backup • Log file backup The full database backup makes backups of all data files, log files and control files. Depending on the RDBMS you are using, you can either do this online, offline or both. Some database products let you take an incremental backup, which will only include changed database pages. This is also called true incremental backup (as opposed to simulated incremental backup, which will be explained below). Partial database backups let you make backups of certain database parts, such as a single table space. Although faster than a full database backup, it is often more difficult to maintain a consistent backup when using this method. Log file backups are used to create a simulated incremental backup. What happens is that, at some point in time, a full database backup is taken and, from then on, only the log files are backed up (on a daily basis for example). Recovery consists of restoring the full database backup and the log files, and then using the roll-forward technique to get an up-to-date restore of the database. The advantage is the smaller amount of data that needs to be backed up on a daily basis, but the roll-forward recovery can be a slow process. With all the techniques explained, one question is still unanswered: which backup technique should be used? This all depends on the daily change in your database. This change is typically around 15%, which clearly indicates that a daily full backup might give a huge overhead. Therefore, for large databases, it might be a good idea to make a weekly full backup, with daily or hourly (depending on the recovery level you need) log file backups. As explained above, this makes recovery more complicated, but could save you time in backups. Also, in some cases, the size of the database could be too large to complete its backup over a one-day period. In that case, daily full backups are impossible. When a database changes almost entirely, or if the size is very small, the daily full backup is a good practice. In the first case (high change rate), the size of the log files will be comparable or even larger than the original database. In the case of a small database, the simplicity of working with daily full backups is an advantage. As explained above, true incremental backups might help you in the case of small database change rates. However, this is only possible for some RDBMSs (and26 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • non-relational databases, such as Lotus Domino). Two things should be kept in mind however: • True incremental backups are based on the incremental backup paradigm (see 2.2.1.2, “Incremental backup” on page 4), which means you will need a periodic full backup. Therefore, incremental forever techniques provided by some backup applications (like Tivoli Storage Manager) are not exploited. • True incremental does not mean that you cannot take log file backups between incremental backups. This enhances the incremental pattern, and can give you a more up-to-date database when restored. This completes the section on database backups. With the above information, you should now have an idea of what is possible, and what is necessary. It is a good idea to check with the database administrators about availability requirements, and the backup possibilities of your database product.2.7 Selecting a tape drive When designing your backup solution, one important question is: which tape solution is the best for my environment? Different factors will affect your choice. The following factors should be taken into account: • Capacity • Manual tape load or a library • Speed • Reliability • Cost2.7.1 Tape capacity A primary factor in determining which tape device you will use is the capacity you need. Although this looks unimportant at first sight because you can have as many tapes as you want, it will become clear that large numbers of tapes contribute to performance, manageability and reliability problems. The needed capacity all depends on one question: will it be possible to change media manually during your backup operation? If the answer is no, you will need a tape drive that is capable of backing up the amount of data passed to it in one backup session on one tape. Keep in mind that the amount of data can grow. Current tape media capacity ranges from 4 to 80 GB (for details, please refer to Chapter 3, “Hardware” on page 33). If more space is needed, tape libraries might be a better solution.2.7.2 Single tape devices and libraries You will also need to make a choice between single tape devices and tape libraries. A manual device requires the operator to insert and remove tapes manually. A tape library can hold a certain number of tapes, and load them automatically. Libraries may also make use of more than one tape device, increasing throughput and functionality. It is quite simple to determine your needs in this case. When automating your backups to run at night, you should be able to do this without manual intervention (unless you have operators who can mount tapes). This means that your backup should be contained on one tape. This can easily be determined if you are using a full backup pattern (see 2.2.2.1, “Full/Incremental pattern” on page 5 and Chapter 2. Strategy 27
  • 2.2.2.2, “Full/differential pattern” on page 7), but could get difficult if you’re using the incremental pattern (because you do not have a clear view of tape usage/reusage). Besides the enlarged capacity, libraries can also be used to install a low maintenance backup solution. This could mean that you can hold a series of backups in your libraries, reducing the need for operator intervention. Another point to consider is the total number of backup copies which should be stored (in other words, the expiration time of a backup). For several reasons it is a wise decision to keep more than one backup generation: • Any backup may fail. Even so-called verify options (if provided by the backup software) cannot detect all types of failures and inconsistencies. For example, for most databases there is no way to compare byte for byte the tape contents with the database files because the database is permanently modified in the background, and the special database backup agents can ensure a “frozen picture” only during a small time window. • The reason for a restore may be a software or human error which was detected some days after the last full backup. If this is the only complete backup copy available then the situation becomes difficult to correct. • A larger disaster in the data center may damage some or all cartridges there, or they may not be accessible for disaster recovery at a remote site. Thus there are rules established for moving backup copies of business-critical data to separate and safe locations. This leads to a dilemma: such copies are in a very safe place, but it may not be acceptable that to restore a deleted document you need to visit a bank safe. Working with multiple backup generations gives a way to balance the requirements. Using single tape drives, the solution is simple: buy enough cartridges. Do not try to save money here — even multiplying the cartridge stock is much cheaper than the financial loss in critical situations. For tape libraries, you have to decide how many backup generations will be kept in the library itself. This may change the choice of the library model dramatically, since you will need to add these copies to the storage capacity needed.2.7.3 Reliability When discussing the reliability of a tape system, the following distinction has to be made: • Device reliability • Media reliability When searching for reliability figures, the mean time between failure (MTBF) value is a metric commonly used. So, what is the relation to the life expectancy of your device? Unfortunately, none. MTBF and life expectancy have no direct relationship. The reason for this lies in the way MTBF is calculated. If you look at Figure 15, you see a curve expressing the relationship between the number of failures over time for a population of devices. As you can see, the largest number of failures will occur in the beginning (called early life failures) and after a certain amount of time has passed (wear-out failures). In between these two periods, there is a phase where failures are rare and rather constant. This is called the useful life. MTBF values are based on failure rates during this useful life. So no28 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • early life and no wear-out failures are taken into account. This means that themean time between failure will be much higher than the life expectancy, sincefailures are more likely to occur during the two phases that are not taken intoaccount. Number Of Failures Time Early Useful Life Wear-Out Life PeriodFigure 15. Failure rate bathtub curveSo what can you do with an MTBF value? One way to use this value is byintroducing it into the Poisson formula to make a quantitative estimation ofreliability. To do this, we need to convert the MTBF to a new value: failure rate.Failure rate will be expressed as a probability of failure during one machinemonth (MM). One machine month is rounded to 730 hours. This means that thefailure rate will be equal to the inverse of the MTBF (expressed in hours) timesthe hours per machine month. If we have, for example, an MTBF value of 100,000hours, the failure rate will be 1/100,000 failures per machine hours, or730/100,000 failures per machine month. So, the failure rate expresses theprobability (p) of a single event occurring in a selected time period. Table 3 showsan overview of the MTBF and this probability.Table 3. Relationship of failure probability to MTBF MTBF (khrs) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 p (Fails/MM) 0.0073 0.00365 0.00243 0.00183 0.00146 0.00122 0.00104 Note This table is based on an MTBF calculated with a 100% duty cycle. Some publications will show an MTBF with a lower duty cycle. To convert these, multiply the published MTBF with the duty cycle percentage used and divide by 100.What is usually of interest however, is an estimate for the probability of a certainnumber of failures during a defined time period. To do this, we will use thePoisson distribution function. Chapter 2. Strategy 29
  • -np x Exp (np) P(x) = ------------------------------ - for x=0,1,2,3,... ; np > 0 x! Where: n Number of trials p Probability of a single event during a selected time period (Fails/MM) x Number of events P(x) Probability of x events occurring in n trials How can we use this formula now? Let’s say we have 10 devices, and we want to check them over a time period of 12 months. This means that the number of trials will be 120 (one trial is defined as one machine during one machine month).The value p can be obtained from Table 3. We can now calculate the probability of a number of failures occurring during one year on these 10 devices. Table 4. Probability of an Error Occurring on 10 Devices during 12 Months MTBF Probability of no Probability of one Probability of two or (Khrs.) failures (x=0) failure (x=1) more failures (x>1) P(0) P(1) P(>1) 100 .416 .365 .219 200 .645 .283 .072 300 .747 .218 .035 400 .803 .176 .021 500 .839 .147 .014 600 .864 .126 .010 700 .882 .110 .008 n=120 trials Another item that is mostly unpublished in MTBF claims is the preventive and scheduled maintenance that is done. This could significantly extend MTBF. The main thing to remember is that when comparing MTBFs, extreme caution should be used. A second factor in overall reliability is media reliability. Again, published figures tend to get confusing and are hard to compare. The following terminology is commonly used: Error rate: Average number of errors that can be expected per one unit of information processed, and this on the entire population of tapes. Data reliability: Number of units processed per one error, or the inverse of the error rate. When looking at these figures, you should ask yourself the following questions before actually comparing them:30 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • • Are these calculated or measured values? • If calculated, what are the underlying assumptions? • If measured, is it the average over the entire population? • Who performed the tests or calculations? • What do they mean by an error? Most bit or byte level errors could go undetected, because an ECC mechanism in tapes can correct them. An error that would fail the system would probably be an error on an entire block of data. Another published figure in media reliability is life expectancies. The problem however is that this value is highly dependent on external factors, like temperature and humidity. As a general rule, DLT and Travan technologies have a better reliability than 4 mm or 8 mm tapes.2.8 Summary After reading the previous topics, it should be clear that choosing a backup solution is a process of many steps, involving a lot of different parameters. It should also be clear that there is no “best” solution. All solutions have their advantages and disadvantages. The trick is to make the choice based on your current and future needs. Questions that you should ask are: • What is the purpose of my backups? • Are they limited to one location, or do I have to secure different locations? • How much data will be backed up? • What performance level is required? • What kind of network do I have available? • How much will it cost? • What is the expected growth of my environment? After answering these questions, using the descriptions we have provided in this chapter, you should be able to decide on what backup strategy is best for your environment. The following chapters will explain the industry standard backup applications, and describe the current IBM tape hardware that is available for Netfinity systems. With these chapters, you should be able to select hardware and software to match your strategy. Chapter 2. Strategy 31
  • 32 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Chapter 3. Hardware This chapter describes each of the tape products currently available from IBM for Netfinity servers. Specifically, we cover the following tape drives: • IBM 40/80 GB DLT tape drive (see page 47) • IBM 35/70 GB DLT tape drive (see page 51) • IBM 20/40 GB DLT tape drive (see page 54) • IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive (see page 58) • IBM 20/40 GB DDS-4 4 mm tape drive (see page 62) • IBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 4 mm tape drive (see page 64) • IBM 10/20 GB NS tape drive (see page 66) and these libraries: • IBM 490/980 GB DLT tape library (see page 69) • IBM 280/560 GB DLT tape autoloader (see page 74) • IBM 3447 DLT tape library (see page 77) • IBM 3449 8 mm tape library (see page 83) • IBM 3570 Magstar MP tape library (see page 93) • IBM 3575 Magstar MP tape library (see page 98) The part numbers for the different models and related options are conveniently grouped in Appendix B, “Hardware part numbers” on page 269. For each tape drive, we describe: • Specifications • Connectivity requirements • Performance information The following tables show tape drive support for IBM Netfinity systems and backup applications. Table 5 and Table 6 list the Netfinity systems that support each of the individual tape drives and tape libraries discussed respectively. Table 7 and Table 8 list the major backup software that supports the tape drives and tape libraries covered here. Note: Since this information is subject to change, check the software manufacturers and the following IBM Web site for up-to-date information: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/matrix.shtml#tape© Copyright IBM Corp. 2000 33
  • Table 5. Supported internal tape drives on IBM Netfinity models 40/80 GB 35/70 GB 20/40 GB 20/40 GB 20/40 GB 12/24 GB IBM NS20 DLT DLT DLT 8 mm 4 mm 4 mm DDS-4 DDS-3 Netfinity √ √ √ 1000 Netfinity √ √ √ 3000 Netfinity √2,3 √4 √4 3500 M10 Netfinity √2,3 √2,3 √2,3 √4 √4 √4 √4 5000 Netfinity √ √ √ √ √ √ 5500 Netfinity √ √ √ √ √ √ 5500 M10 Netfinity √ √ √ √ √ 5500 M20 Netfinity √5 √5 √5 √5 5600 Netfinity √2,3 √2,3 √2,3 √1,3 √1 √1,3 7000 M10 Netfinity √2,3 √2,3 √2,3 √1,3 8500R √: Supported by IBM, Blank: Not supported 1. Externally connected to the IBM External SCSI half-height enclosure 2. Externally connected to the IBM DLT External SCSI Enclosure 3. Externally connected to the IBM NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL 4. If a RAID adapter is used, add an internal cable, part 36L9636 5. No free SCSI connections. Add RAID adapter to free internal connector, or add SCSI adapter. Netfinity servers also support the following tape library systems:Table 6. Supported libraries on IBM Netfinity models 490/980 280/560 IBM 3447 IBM 3449 IBM 3570 C21, GB DLT Library GB DLT Loader C22 Netfinity 5000 √ √ √ Netfinity 5500 √ √ √ √ √ Netfinity 5500 M10 √ √ √ √ √ Netfinity 5500 M20 √ √ √ √ √ Netfinity 5600 √ √ Netfinity 7000 M10 √ √ √ √ √ Netfinity 8500R √ √: Supported by IBM, Blank: Not supported34 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • A variety of software to support single tape drives is available. At the time of writing, the supported software is as follows:Table 7. Supported software 40/80 GB 35/70 GB 20/40 GB 20/40 GB 20/40 GB 12/24 GB IBM NS20 DLT DLT DLT 8 mm 4 mm 4 mm DDS-4 DDS-3 TSM NT V3.7.1 S S S S S S TSM OS/2 S S S S V2R1L15 TDP for S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 Workgroups Veritas Netbackup NetWorker NT S1,3 S1 S1 S1 S V5.5.1 NetWorker S2 S1 S1 NetWare ARCServeIT S1 S S S S1 S1 S1 V6.6x ARCServeIT S1 S S S S1 S1 NetWare V6.6 BackupExec NT I I I I I I I BackupExec I I I I I I I NetWare Sytos Premium S S S V2.2a for OS/2 I: Supported by IBM S: Supported by software manufacturer Blank: Not supported Notes: 1.Support for generic Quantum, Exabyte and HP devices. 2.Only supported on NetWare 4.12 3.Currently supported as DLT 7000 type Chapter 3. Hardware 35
  • Finally, software to support tape libraries on Netfinity servers is shown in the following table:Table 8. Software support for libraries IBM 3502 IBM 3502 IBM 3447 IBM 3449 IBM 3570 IBM 3575 Library Loader C2x TSM NT V3.7.1 S S S S S S TSM OS/2 V2R1L15 S S S S TDP for Workgroups S S S Veritas Netbackup S S S S NetWorker NT V5.5.1 S S S S NetWorker NetWare ARCServeIT NT S S S S V6.6x ARCServeIT NetWare S S S V6.6 BackupExec NT S S S BackupExec NetWare S S S S Sytos Premium V2.2a for OS/2 I: Supported by IBM S: Supported by software manufacturer Blank: Not supported3.1 Technology There is a continuing proliferation of incompatible tape formats appearing constantly, not from newcomers, but from some of the biggest names in the tape technology world, such as IBM, Seagate, Exabyte, Quantum to name but a few. There are several sizes of tape, 4 mm Digital Audio Tape (DAT), 8 mm, Quarter-Inch Cartridge (QIC), and half-inch such as Digital Linear Tape (DLT), and each has several formats. For example, there are four different types of 4 mm DAT tape: DDS-1, DDS-2, DDS-3 and DDS-4. Fortunately, DDS-4 tape drives are backward compatible with the earlier versions. Each of these formats is normally used in particular environments; for example, QIC and 4 mm products are designed for low-end applications in PC and small network backup environments, while the 8 mm and DLT half-inch products are popular in the mid and high-end for their capacity to store vast amounts of data. Let’s take a closer look at each technology and discuss the merits of each.3.1.1 Digital Linear Tape (DLT) The Digital Linear Tape (DLT) technology conforms to both ANSI and ECMA format standards, and greatly improves data storage capacity and data transfer rates over other media formats. The DLT technology is owned, developed, and manufactured by Quantum Corporation who bought it from Digital Equipment36 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Corporation in 1994 along with a number of patents associated with DLTtechnology. Any drive that uses the name “DLT” is manufactured by QuantumCorporation. While Quantum is the only company that manufactures DLT drives,the company licenses the rights to manufacture DLT tape cartridges to othercompanies such as Hewlett-Packard and IBM, who must follow the Quantummodel-naming standards. DLT University For more information about DLT technology, look at Quantum’s DLT University Handbook at the following URL: http://www.dlttape.com/resource/university/home.htmlWhat distinguishes DLT technology from other tape storage technologies arespeed, capacity, and reliability.Table 9. DLT characteristics Media Cartridges Capacity Speed Durability GB MB/sec (head passes)1 DLTtape III DLT 2000 10 GB 1.25 500,000 DLTtape III XT DLT 2000XT 15 GB 1.25 1,000,000 DLTtape IV DLT 4000 20 GB 1.5 1,000,000 DLT 7000 35 GB 5.0 1,000,000 DLT8000 35 GB 6.0 1,000,000 1. 1,000,000 passes are equal to about 15,000 uses.DLT technology uses linear recording and writes each data track on the entirelength of the tape (about 1,800 feet for DLTtape IV media). Data is first writtenonto a track along the entire length of the tape, and when the end is reached theheads are repositioned to record a new track again, along the entire length of thetape, now travelling in the opposite direction. This continues back and forth untilthe tape is full. Current DLT drives record either 128 tracks (DLT 2000XT and DLT4000 drives) or 208 tracks (DLT 7000 and DLT 8000) on half-inch tape.Figure 16 on page 38 illustrates the direction in which data is recorded on the DLT4000 and DLT 7000 drives. The DLT 4000 drive records data in avertically-oriented pattern along the entire length of the tape on each track,whereas the DLT 7000 recording head is slightly angled and therefore the data isrecorded at angles on adjacent tracks. As a result, a gap or “guard band”between each track is not required on the DLT 7000 which allows for greater datastorage capacity.The DLT 7000 tape drive provides backward compatibility with the DLT 4000 driveas it can automatically position the read/write head to a vertical orientation. Chapter 3. Hardware 37
  • DLT 4000 DLT 7000 Track 2 Track 4 Track 3 Track 1 Track 2 Track 1 Track 0 Track 0 Tape Edge Tape Direction Tape Edge Tape Direction Figure 16. Recording data on DLT 4000 versus DLT 7000 3.1.1.1 Tape path Another characteristic of the DLT drive is the head guide assembly (HGA) which is different from technologies found in 4 mm and 8 mm. These latter formats use a helical scan system where the head guide systems are designed to move, as illustrated in Figure 17. By contrast, the DLT head drive system assembly never moves. Instead of the tape being wrapped around a rotating read/write drum, the DLT drive guide system guides the tape around the head guide assembly and wraps it around the take-up reel in the drive. Figure 17. Tape path of a conventional two-reel cassette versus DLT tape path using HGA A conventional two-reel 8 mm or 4 mm DAT cassette contains a take-up reel leaving less space for the tape. In contrast a DLT tape cartridge contains only tape because the take-up reel is inside the tape drive. 3.1.1.2 Self-cleaning heads Another characteristic of a DLT tape drive is the use of self-cleaning heads which contain fixed “outriggers” that wipe any debris from the tape, thereby reducing head wear and helping to maintain the longevity of the tape.38 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Write Read Write Heads Heads Heads Outriggers Figure 18. Recording head on DLT drive showing the position of the outriggers A next step in the DLT tape technology will be the release of Quantum’s SuperDLT tape technology. This will bring capacity per cartridge up to 100 GB (500 GB compressed), with transfer rates going from 10 MBps up to 40 MBps.3.1.2 8 mm tape 8 mm tape technology was originally designed for the video industry for the purpose of transferring high-quality color images to tape for storage and retrieval. Now, 8 mm technology has been adopted by the computer industry as a reliable way to store large amounts of computer data. Reliability has improved considerably over earlier models with the introduction of advanced metal evaporated (AME) media and the Mammoth tape drive. 3.1.2.1 Advanced metal evaporated media Current generations of 8 mm media have been manufactured using metal particle (MP) technology. As for most tape products, MP media comprises several layers: a substrate that provides the base for other layers, the magnetic layer where data is stored and a back coat that controls the media’s frictional characteristics. In some cases, an additional surface treatment, such as lubrication, burnishing, or other conditioning may be added to enhance media and tape-head contact for better performance and durability of both components. The magnetic layer of AME media is applied by evaporating the magnetic material onto the base layers in a vacuum chamber. An electron beam evaporates the material. With AME, this process creates a much thinner, pure magnetic layer that doesn’t contain any binders or lubricants. These qualities give AME tape greater potential data density so that more information can be stored, as well as improved performance and durability. The AME magnetic layer is 100% cobalt which enhances the magnetic qualities of the media. 3.1.2.2 Mammoth technology Mammoth technology, introduced in 1996, incorporates fast transfer rates, high capacity, fast SCSI response, gentle tape handling, extensive error recovery and high-performance AME media. Mammoth uses a capstanless design which eliminates the part of the tape drive that creates unpredictable wear and exerts the most pressure on the media. With Chapter 3. Hardware 39
  • a capstanless drive, damage to the edge of the tape is prevented during repositioning. The gentle tape path supports the thinner AME media. The combination of Mammoth technology and AME media have helped to improve head-life to 35,000 hours. Mammoth drives calibrate themselves regularly, search for and report errors. Mammoth supports up to 64 variable-length partitions. A partition is a segment of tape that is used as an entity unto itself. Data within a predefined partition can be erased and new data written in its place. Preserving data is of paramount importance in a tape storage product. Mammoth uses two-level Reed-Solomon error checking and correction (ECC) which corrects errors on the fly by rewriting the blocks within the same track. The design of Mammoth drives enables them to achieve a 250,000 hour mean time between failure (MTBF) specification. 8 mm hardware features data compression and a Read-While-Write standard. It has high capacity and transfer rate for a relatively small 5.25” half-high form factor, and provides faster drive performance than 4 mm and quarter-inch tape drive offerings. Data cartridge costs are low and the drives have downward read compatibility with older 8 mm formats. Data storage capacity and performance are lower than DLTtape technology. Mammoth has better price/performance than DLT.3.1.3 4 mm Digital Audio Tape (DAT) DAT is an acronym for Digital Audio Tape, and was originally used for consumer audio recording technology based on 3.81 mm (0.15 inch) wide tape used in a helical scan recorder compatible with the DAT Conference Standard. DDS DDS is short for Digital Data Storage, and is a data storage format developed by Hewlett-Packard and Sony to allow DAT drives to be used for reliably storing computer data. The use of the DDS logo on media must be approved through a process managed by Sony, and on tape drives from manufacturers that are licensed by HP and Sony which meet the specifications set out in the ISO/EIC 10777 (for 60 meter DAT) or 12247 (for 90 meter DAT). DDS-SC DDS-SC is a complementary format with several extensions which allow data compression to be used on DDS. DDS-SC drives may use normal DDS media. DDS-SC uses a data compression algorithm known as DCLZ (data compression Lempel-Ziv) which is the industry standard for hardware-compressed (DDS-DC) tapes. DDS-2, DDS-3, DDS-4 DDS-2, DDS-3, and DDS-4 are new formats providing higher capacity formats based on DDS. DDS-2, DDS-3, and DDS-4 media are different from DDS media and will only work in drives which support these new formats. Media Recognition System The Media Recognition System allows a DDS drive to distinguish DAT media from DDS media. In relation to DDS drives and DDS media, there is a logo for Media40 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Recognition System which has four vertical bars after the DDS logo representingthe recognition stripes that distinguish a Media Recognition System tape from atape without these features. It is not appropriate to use the four bar logo inrelation to DDS-2, DDS-3 and DDS-4 formats.DDS is the first generation 4 mm drive and media with a native storage capacityof 2.0 GB and a sustained transfer rate of 183 KBps. DDS-1 tape drives supportthe 60 meter DAT tape with a capacity of 1.3 GB and the 90 meter DDS tape witha capacity of 2.0 GB. The drives have a single-ended SCSI-2 interface.DDS-DC uses the industry standard data compression giving a typical storagecapacity of 4.0 GB of data on a 90 meter cartridge, and a sustained transfer rateof 366 KBps. DDS-DC drives typically support 60 meter, 90 meter DDS and DDSMedia Recognition System cartridges. The drives have a single-ended SCSIinterface.DDS-2 drives provide 4.0 GB native storage capacity, and a maximum storagecapacity of 8.0 GB with data compression (DCLZ) on a DDS-2 (120 meter)cartridge, with a transfer rate of 500 KBps (native), 1.0 MBps (compressed).Read and write compatibility is provided with DDS format (60 meter and 90meter) and DDS-2 format (120 meter), and Media Recognition System cartridges,allowing for interchange of data with existing DDS drives. The DDS-2 drive has asingle-ended, narrow SCSI-2 interface.DDS-3 drives provide three times the capacity of DDS-2 using linear bit densitywhich is twice as great and track format efficiency which is 1.5 times as great,yielding 12.0 GB of native storage capacity and 24.0 GB with data compressionon a DDS-3 (125 meter) cartridge, with a sustained transfer rate of 1.0 MBps(native), 2.0 MBps (compressed). DDS-3 drives are read and write compatiblewith DDS format (60 meter and 90 meter) and DDS-2 (120 meter), and MediaRecognition System cartridges. Data integrity is ensured with read after writeverification without requiring a time consuming verification pass. DDS-3 driveshave a single-ended, narrow SCSI-2 interface.DDS-4 offers yet more expanded capacity and performance than DDS-3. At20 GB native capacity (40 GB with compression) and transfer rates of up to4 MBps. These drives also offer read/write compatibility with older DDS-2 andDDS-3 tapes.Table 10. Evolution of the DDS tape format Capacity (native) Transfer Rate DDS 1.3 GB 183 KBps DDS-DC (DDS-1) 2.0 GB 183 KBps DDS-2 4.0 GB 360 KBps to 750 KBps DDS-3 12.0 GB 1 MBps to 1.5 MBps DDS-4 20.0 GB 2 MBps to 4 MBpsThe advantages of 4 mm DAT are its popularity in the midrange Netfinity servermarket, and its large installed base. 4 mm DAT is a mid-capacity andmid-performance solution, in a compact 3.5-inch half-high form factor. It issignificantly lower priced than DLT and 8 mm. The data cartridges are also Chapter 3. Hardware 41
  • relatively low priced. Downward read/write compatibility is maintained with older 4 mm DAT formats.3.1.4 Travan Quarter-Inch Cartridge (QIC) Quarter-Inch Cartridge (QIC) technology, also known as DC6000, developed for data storage applications, includes the following characteristics: • Single capstan drive units containing magnetic read/write heads and electronics for read/write, motion control, and system interface functions. • Data cartridges containing up to 1,500 feet of quarter-inch magnetic tape, with integral tape motion and guidance mechanisms. • Data is recorded on up to 144 tracks along the length of the tape in serial, serpentine fashion, with storage capacities currently ranging up to 13 GB (uncompressed). Travan technology is one implementation of the QIC format using shorter length tape. The Travan Quarter-Inch Cartridge (mini-QIC) has grown from the desktop market. Early products had floppy interface drives with limited server features. Early mini-QIC drives had capacities of 100-200 MB. The initial Travan class mini-QIC drives allowed use of a larger capacity data cartridge, and extended capacities to 400 MB and more. TR1, TR2, and TR3 drives use a diskette drive interface. The TR1 has a 400 MB capacity, the TR2 capacity is doubled to 800 MB, and the TR3 capacity is doubled again to 1.6 GB. A TR3 drive has a data storage capacity of 1.3 GB native and 3.2 GB using software data compression, using the QIC-3020 tape format cartridges, and a typical transfer rate of 250 KBps. TR3 drives have a 3.5-inch form factor and typically have a floppy interface for connection to a spare floppy disk connector which can be found in most servers. Read and write compatibility is provided with the QIC-3010, and QIC-80 tape format. A TR4 drive has a data storage capacity of 4.0 GB native and 8.0 GB with software controlled data compression using TR4 tape cartridges from 3M in the QIC-3095 tape format, and a sustained transfer rate of 600 KBps. TR4 drives are typically available in 3.5-inch form factor, and have both SCSI and ATAPI (EIDE) interfaces. The TR4 provides read and write compatibility with the QIC-3080 tape format. The TR5 drives (renamed NS20) offer a 10 GB native data storage capacity, with sustained transfer rates of 1 MBps, and added Netfinity server features (read-while-write and hardware data compression) which helps it to bridge the gap from being a desktop device to a true server class backup option. The advantages of the Travan mini-QIC drives are that they are low cost, and are available in a compact (3.5-inch slimline) form factor. However, the data cartridge costs can be higher than 4 mm and 8 mm tape. Another disadvantage is that every time the cartridge is inserted, all ¼-inch drives read the tape header, and search to the beginning of the tape to check if any data is written on the tape. This process can take a minute or two.42 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Compatibility between QIC formats varies by tape drive model and manufacturer. The minimum acceptable compatibility is 1 level downward read only. This allows the customer to upgrade to the next level of capacity without losing backup data. For a quick comparison of IBM’s Travan technology tape drives and the QIC format compatibility see Table 11. Table 11. QIC formats supported by IBM tape drives (N/S not supported) Tape Formats Capacity IBM TR3 Tape IBM TR4 Tape IBM 10/20 GB Drive Drive NS Tape Drive QIC 3020 1.3/3.2 GB Read and Write N/S N/S QIC 3080 1.6 GB N/S Read and Write N/S QIC 3095 4/8 GB N/S Read and Write Read Only QIC 3220 10/20 GB N/S N/S Read and Write Capacity is stated in normal and compressed mode, for example 10/20. The first, or lower, figure is the capacity of the cartridge when the data is written in normal mode. The second figure is the maximum expected storage capacity when using data compression.3.1.5 Magstar 3570 MP Fast Access Linear tape cartridge Because the Magstar MP Fast Access Linear tape cartridge has been specially designed for repeated handling, it is ideal for use in automated libraries. The tape medium is protected from outside environmental factors as it is enclosed in the cartridge at all times. Two tape spools inside the cartridge hold the tape. The tape path, unique in design, also eliminates tape thread time, creates a simplified tape path, and provides higher reliability. Load point is established at the tape mid-point for fastest loading and access to data. The tape itself is a metal particle tape, developed for durability and capacity. Data write is provided by an exclusive thin-film write module that is designed for extremely accurate recording. Data read is provided by IBMs leading MR head based on Magstar 3590 technology. The 8-track head of the Magstar MP Model C tape drive also provides data redundancy and servo tracking to ensure superior data integrity in the mid-range tape marketplace. The B-Format cartridge is designed to be read and written in the 3570-B1A tape drive, and the C-Format cartridge is designed for the Magstar MP Model C tape drive. However, to preserve compatibility between the 3570-B1A tape drive and Magstar MP Model C tape drive, the Magstar MP Model C tape drive can read the cartridges written by the 3570-B1A tape drive and write to B-Format cartridges that can then be read by a 3570-B1A tape drive. The 3570-B1A tape drive rejects C-Format cartridges as “invalid media”. Figure 19 shows two views of the Magstar MP tape cartridge: Chapter 3. Hardware 43
  • ch1f03 AAAAAAAAA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAA AAA AAAA AAAAAAAAA AAA AAA AAAA AAAAAAAAA AAA AAA AAAA AAAAAAAAA AAA AAA AAAA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAA AAA AAAA AA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAA AAA AAAA AA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAA AAA AAAA AA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAA AAAA AAA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAAA AAAA AAAA AAAAAAAAA AAA AAA AAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAA AAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA Twin Reels Cartridge Door Head Contact Figure 19. Magstar MP Fast Access Linear Tape cartridge 3.1.5.1 B-Format data cartridge Data is written on or read from metal particle tape enclosed in a tape cartridge. Each tape cartridge includes a file-protect selector that, when placed in the upward position write-protects the tape. A B-Format data cartridge is identified by a blue file-protect selector. The automatic cartridge loader in the drive opens the cartridge door and allows the read/write element to access the tape path. The cartridge door remains closed during storage and handling to protect the medium and tape path from contamination. Each data cartridge is identified by a factory-applied volume serial number (volser) and bar code. Another label is placed on the cartridge along the bottom of the plastic face. The label reads IBM Magstar MP Fast Access Linear Tape in blue lettering. The capacity of a B-Format cartridge is 5 GB in uncompressed, or native, mode. The B-Format cartridge can be used in both Model B and Model C tape drives. 3.1.5.2 C-Format data cartridge A C-Format cartridge has the same external format and can be described in the same way as a B-Format cartridge. A C-Format cartridge is identified by a green file-protect selector. The label reads IBM Magstar MP Fast Access Linear Tape, C-Format in green lettering. The capacity of a C-Format cartridge is 5 GB in uncompressed, or native, mode, the same capacity as the B-Format cartridge. The C-Format cartridge is supported only by the Magstar MP Model C tape drive. If a C-Format cartridge is mounted in a 3570-B1A tape drive, the tape drive rejects it with an error message.44 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 3.1.5.3 C-XL format data cartridge The C-XL format is an extended version of the C format cartridge, which provides a larger capacity. The C-XL can hold up to 7 GB uncompressed data.3.1.6 Linear Tape Open (LTO) LTO (Linear Tape Open) is a joint IBM, HP and Seagate initiative to create new de facto tape standards in the Open System markets. The group developed the formats to serve multiple market areas and to be supported by multiple suppliers. These formats provide customers with a clear and straightforward technology road map, destined to have broad industry support. Licenses are available to all manufacturers for the two formats based on the technology: Ultrium, a single-reel implementation, optimized for high-capacity, that offers up to 200 GB of capacity assuming a 2:1 compression ratio (100 GB native) and Accelis, a dual-reel implementation, designed for fast access, that offers smaller capacity, at 25 GB, but with data retrieval in under 10 seconds. Magstar technologies are at the foundation of the LTO specifications. This includes the extension of the Magstar method of writing data, the linear serpentine Magstar track recording, an enhanced servo tracking mechanism based on the Magstar MP servo system, a compression scheme derived from the same algorithm as the Magstar LZ1 algorithm, error correction code based on the Magstar architecture, magnetically sensitive highly stable metal particle media used in Magstar today, and the implied use of MR heads already in the Magstar products. An important fact regarding SAN solutions is the provision of a native fibre-channel interface that will be available on products of the LTO format. This enhances configurations and it is not necessary to use a Gateway. The device can be directly attached to switches for easier fan-out. ACCELIS ULTRIUM Figure 20. LTO cartridge formats Chapter 3. Hardware 45
  • 3.1.6.1 Ultrium The Ultrium tape format is the implementation of LTO technology optimized for high capacity and performance with outstanding reliability, in either a stand-alone or an automated environment. The Ultrium tape format uses a single reel cartridge to maximize capacity. It is ideally suited for backup, restore, and archival applications. They will load in a manner similar to DLT and will fit in DLT automation slots. Here are the basic specifications of the Ultrium tape format: • The first generation of Ultrium allows for 100 GB native capacity in a single compact cartridge. The cartridge is smaller than existing single-reel tape cartridges. • Ultrium provides for data transfer rates of 10-20 MBps with the 8-channel head version and 5-10 MBps with the 4-channel head version. • Ultrium provides for 4 different cartridge capacities (10, 30, 50, and 100 GB). • LTO-CM (Cartridge Memory) enhances functionality by providing a redundant file log as well as user-defined information. A non-contacting passive RF interface embedded in the cartridge allows remote reading of the contents without having to insert the cartridge into a drive. 3.1.6.2 Accelis The Accelis tape format is the implementation of LTO technology optimized for fast access to data, with exceptional reliability and performance characteristics. It uses a two-reel cartridge that loads at the middle of the tape to minimize access time. The Accelis tape format is targeted at automated environments and can enable a wide range of online data inquiry and retrieval applications. • The first generation of Accelis allows 25 GB native capacity. Aself-enclosed tape path in the cartridge eliminates tape threading, which greatly improves time to first data byte. • Cartridges are loaded in the middle of the tape rather than at the beginning, reducing average search time for random files. • Accelis provides for data transfer rates of 10-20 MBps with the 8-channel head version or 5-10 with MBps with the 4-channel head version in the first generation. • Accelis is ideal for library use, with high-speed access to relatively short files. Accelis is suited for applications like data mining and image retrieval, as well as traditional backup/restore. • LTO-CM (Cartridge Memory) enhances functionality by providing a redundant file log as well as user-defined information. A non-contacting passive RF interface embedded in the cartridge allows remote reading of the contents without having to insert the cartridge into a drive. For more information, see: http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/tape/lto/lto.htm46 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 3.1.7 Summary Table 12 shows an overview of all currently used tape technologies and which tape drives use them. Actual capacity and transfer rates depend on many factors, and are often less than stated. Table 12. Tape drive standards overview Technology Tape Drive Capacity (native) Native Transfer Rate TR5 IBM 10/20 GB NS 10 GB 1 MBps DDS-3 IBM 12/24 DDS-3 DAT 12 GB 1 MBps DDS-4 IBM 20/40 DDS-3 DAT 20 GB 2.75 Mammoth IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm 20 GB 3 MBps IBM 3449 8 mm Tape Library DLT 4000 IBM 20/40 GB DLT 20 GB 1.5 MBps DLT 7000 IBM 35/70 GB 35 GB 5 MBps IBM 3447 DLT Tape Library IBM 3502 machines DLT8000 IBM 40/80 GB 40 GB 6 MBps 3570 Tapes IBM Magstar MP 3570 and 6 GB 7 MBps C-XL-Format 3575 libraries LTO Ultrium 100 GB 5 MBps Stage 1 LTO Accelis 25 GB 5 MBps Stage 13.2 40/80 GB DLT tape drive The IBM 40/80 GB DLT tape drive is a SCSI-2 Fast/Wide LVDS/SE tape device, using a 68-pin SCSI connector, that functions according to DLT8000 standards (see 3.1.1, “Digital Linear Tape (DLT)” on page 36). The tape drive has a capacity up to 40 GB, with a sustained transfer rate of 6 MBps (20 MBps burst transfer rate). If hardware compression is used, capacity and transfer rate typically double. These numbers can be obtained by using DLT IV 1700 foot data cartridges. The tape drive is also downward read compatible with DLT III and DLT III xt cartridges (see 3.1.1, “Digital Linear Tape (DLT)” on page 36). Note Low voltage differential SCSI, or LVDS, is an implementation of differential SCSI using the Single-Ended (SE) interface. Changes in mechanical and electrical design have improved reliability compared to earlier DLT devices. The current MTBF is rated at 250 000 hours with a 100% duty cycle. One model is available from IBM with a black front bezel that matches with the current Netfinity servers. It is an internal device, but also can be used as an Chapter 3. Hardware 47
  • external device. For this, you can use one of the following two external enclosures: 1. The IBM DLT External SCSI Enclosure When using this external enclosure, make sure to add a terminator, which is not included in with the enclosure. 2. The IBM NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL The NetMEDIA enclosure features two 5.25-inch full-height bays, housing any combination of up to four half-height or two full-height tape drives and is designed to fit into a Netfinity NetBAY3 Stackable Enclosure or the Netfinity Rack Cabinet, or an equivalent EIA standard 19-inch rack. Figure 21. NetMEDIA drive installation overview The following machines support this tape device: • Netfinity 3500 M10 • Netfinity 5000 • Netfinity 5500 • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 5500 M20 • Netfinity 5600 • Netfinity 7000 M10 • Netfinity 8500R Support information is updated at the ServerProven URL whenever new machines are announced and become available: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/matrix.shtml48 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The tape drive is shipped with the following items: • User manual • Trial version backup/restore software CD-ROMs, containing: • Seagate Backup Exec • CA ArcserveIT These trial versions typically expire within 90 days after installation. For information on getting permanent copies, please refer to the IBM tape Web site at: http://www.ibm.com/pc/us/solutions/accessories/tapedrives.html • Data cartridge Note: A SCSI terminator is not included with the tape drive.3.2.1 Installation Installing the tape drive will require three main steps: 1. Installing the hardware 2. Installing SCSI cables and SCSI setup 3. Installing power cables The tape device fits into two adjacent half-high 5.25-inch bays. For each of the supported servers where the drive is supported internally, the drive fits in specific internal bays. • Netfinity 3500 M10 The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 3500-M10 has a standard 68-pin external SCSI connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected. • Netfinity 5500 (including M10 and M20) The drive will be installed in bays A and B, combining these two half-height bays to one full height. The tape can be connected to the internal two-drop SCSI cable, which is self-terminating. Therefore, no additional SCSI terminator is needed. The SCSI cable itself should be connected to the second RAID channel connector. • Netfinity 5600 The drive will be installed in bays A and B, combining these two half-height bays to one full-height. The tape can be connected to the supplied internal SCSI cable, which is self-terminating. Therefore, no additional SCSI terminator is needed. When the internal SCSI onboard channel is used for the hard disks, an additional SCSI adapter (for example, the IBM PCI Fast/Wide Ultra SCSI Adapter) should be installed. When an optional RAID adapter is installed, connected to the hot-swap disk backplane, the onboard SCSI adapter can be used to connect the tape drive. • Netfinity 7000 M10 The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 7000-M10 has an external 0.8 mm very high density connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected. Chapter 3. Hardware 49
  • • Netfinity 8500R The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 7000-M10 has an external 0.8 mm very high density connector, to which the external box can be connected. • IBM DLT External SCSI Enclosure When installing the tape drive into this external enclosure, be sure to add an active terminator to the rear of the enclosure. The 68-pin connector of the enclosure, can be connected to an external SCSI connector on the Netfinity system. An external cable is not included, so it should be ordered separately. Internally, connect the tape drive to the 68-pin cable, connect power, and connect the SCSI ID cable to the SCSI jumpers on the device. Remove all other jumpers before doing this. • IBM NetMEDIA SCSI Expansion unit EL The NetMEDIA enclosure can hold up to two DLT drives. The internal cabling is terminated, so the device itself must not be. You will have to set the required SCSI ID on the tape drive. Attach the 68-pin internal SCSI cable and power to the tape device. The external SCSI connection on the NetMEDIA enclosure consists of a 0.8 mm VHD connector. The 40/80 GB DLT tape drive uses a single-ended low voltage differential Fast/Wide Ultra-2 interface. To connect the tape device to the SCSI adapter, you will need a cable providing a 68-pin connector. The first step is to set the SCSI ID so that it does not conflict with any other devices on the bus. SCSI IDs can be set from 0 to 15. The factory default is SCSI ID 5. Note Assign the drive to one of the higher priority IDs available (0-6). Assign the lower IDs to faster, more accessed devices. Do not assign SCSI ID 7, which is usually the SCSI adapter ID. Next, you will have to check if termination is necessary. If your tape device is the last device on the SCSI bus, you will need to terminate it using a 16-bit active terminator. The tape device itself cannot be used as a terminator. You also need to provide termination power, which is enabled by setting the correct jumper on the left side of the tape device, and shown as 5 in Figure 22. 1 Right side view 2 Left side view 3 SCSI ID jumper block 4 SCSI termination jumper block 5 SCSI termination power jumper 6 SCSI parity jumper block 7 SCSI parity jumper Figure 22. 40/80 GB DLT SCSI switch blocks50 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • When SCSI-2 or higher adapters and devices are used each adapter and device can supply termination power. As a general rule, only the adapter should supply termination power. If the SCSI cable is longer than 1.2 meters, termination power should also be supplied from the last device on this cable, but no other devices in such a chain should have termination power enabled. If you are planning to connect the tape to a bus that already has other devices connected, adhere to the following guidelines: • Connect the tape after fast 16-bit devices (like hard disks). • Ensure that all 8-bit devices (for example CD-ROMs) are connected after the tape device.3.3 35/70 GB DLT tape drive Withdrawn from marketing The IBM 35/70 GB DLT Tape Drive was withdrawn from marketing at the end of 1999. This section was kept in this edition for reference. The IBM 35/70 GB DLT tape drive is a SCSI-2 Fast/Wide tape device, using a 68-pin SCSI connector, that functions according to DLT7000 standards (see 3.1.1, “Digital Linear Tape (DLT)” on page 36). The tape drive has a capacity up to 35 GB, with a sustained transfer rate of 5 MBps (20 MBps burst transfer rate). If hardware compression is used, capacity and transfer rate typically double. These numbers can be obtained by using DLT IV 1700 foot data cartridges. The tape drive is also downward read compatible to DLT III and DLT III xt cartridges (see 3.1.1, “Digital Linear Tape (DLT)” on page 36). Note DLT tape drives use the LZ-1 compression algorithm, a variant of the Lempel-Ziv compression algorithm. Actual compression ratios can differ from the published 2 to 1 ratio. Binary files will typically compress to a 1.5 to 1 ratio, and image files up to a 4 to 1 ratio. Files that have been previously compressed however, will typically increase 5% in size. That is why combining software and hardware compression is inadvisable. Chapter 3. Hardware 51
  • Figure 23. 35/70 GB DLT tape drive One model is available from IBM with a black front bezel that matches the current Netfinity servers. It is an internal device. In addition, it can be used as an external device. For this, you can use one of the following two external enclosures: 1. The IBM DLT External SCSI Enclosure. When using this external enclosure, be sure to add an active terminator. 2. The IBM NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL. The following machines support this tape device: • Netfinity 5000 • Netfinity 5500 • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 5500 M20 • Netfinity 7000 M10 Support information is updated at the ServerProven URL whenever new machines are announced and become available: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/matrix.shtml Note The DLT drive included in the IBM 3447 library and its optional second drive are not compatible with the IBM 35/70 GB DLT Tape Drive. They are the same drive but have different firmware. Consequently they cannot be interchanged. The tape drive is shipped with the following items: • User’s guide • Data cartridge • Internal 4-drop 68-pin SCSI cable52 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • • Application software CD-ROM, containing: • Seagate Backup Exec Version 7.0 or later for Windows NT • Seagate Backup Exec Version 7.5 or later for Novell NetWare • Sytos Premium for OS/2 Version 2.2a Note: A 16-bit active SCSI terminator is not included with the tape drive.3.3.1 Installation Installing the tape drive will require three main steps: 1. Installing the hardware 2. Installing SCSI cables and SCSI setup 3. Installing power cables The tape device fits into two adjacent half-high 5.25-inch bays. For each of the supported servers, the drive fits in specific internal bays: • Netfinity 5000 The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 5000 has a standard 68-pin external SCSI connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected. • Netfinity 5500 (including M10 and M20) The drive will be installed in bays A and B, combining these two half-height bays to one full-height. The tape can be connected to the internal two-drop SCSI cable, which is self-terminating. Therefore, no additional SCSI terminator is needed. The SCSI cable itself should be connected to the second RAID channel connector. • Netfinity 7000 M10 The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 7000 M10 has an external 0.8 mm very high density connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected. • IBM DLT External SCSI Enclosure When installing the tape drive in this external enclosure, be sure to add an active terminator to the rear of the enclosure. The 68-pin connector of the enclosure can be connected to an external SCSI connector on the Netfinity system. An external cable is not included, so it should be ordered separately. Internally, connect the tape drive to the 68-pin cable, connect power, and connect the SCSI ID cable to the SCSI jumpers on the device. Remove all other jumpers before doing this. • IBM NetMEDIA SCSI expansion unit EL The NetMEDIA enclosure can hold up to two DLT drives. The internal cabling is terminated, so the devices must not be. You will have to set the required SCSI ID on the tape drive. Attach the 68-pin internal SCSI cable and power to the tape device. The external SCSI connection on the NetMEDIA enclosure consists of a 0.8 mm very high density (VHD) connector. Note: For each of these servers, if the tape drive is the last (or only) device on the SCSI channel, a 16-bit terminator should be connected to the end of the cable to ensure proper termination of the SCSI bus. Chapter 3. Hardware 53
  • The 35/70 GB DLT tape drive uses a single-ended SCSI-2 Fast/Wide interface. To connect the tape device to the SCSI adapter, you will need a cable providing a 68-pin connector. The first step is to set the SCSI ID so that it does not conflict with any other devices on the bus. SCSI IDs can be set from 0 to 15. The factory default is SCSI ID 5. Next, you will have to check if termination is necessary. If your tape device is the last device on the SCSI bus, you will need to terminate it using a 16-bit active terminator. You also need to provide termination power, which is enabled by setting the correct jumper on the left side of the tape device, and shown as 5 in Figure 24. 1 Right side view 2 Left side view 3 SCSI ID jumper block 4 SCSI termination jumper block 5 SCSI termination power jumper 6 SCSI parity jumper block 7 SCSI parity jumper Figure 24. 35/70 GB DLT SCSI switch blocks When SCSI-2 or higher adapters and devices are used each adapter and device can supply termination power. As a general rule, only the adapter should supply termination power. If the SCSI cable is longer than 1.2 meters, termination power should also be supplied from the last device on this cable, but no other devices in the chain should have termination power enabled. If you are planning to connect the tape drive to a bus that already has other devices connected, adhere to the following guidelines: • Connect the tape after fast 16-bit devices (like hard disks). • Ensure that all 8-bit devices (for example CD-ROMs) are connected after the tape device.3.4 20/40 GB DLT tape drive The IBM 20/40 GB DLT Tape Drive is a SCSI-2 Fast tape device, using a 50-pin SCSI connector, that functions according to DLT4000 standards (see 3.1.1, “Digital Linear Tape (DLT)” on page 36). The tape drive has a capacity up to 20 GB, with a sustained transfer rate of 1.5 MBps (10 MBps burst transfer rate). If hardware compression is used, capacity and transfer rate typically double. These numbers can be obtained by using DLT IV 1700 foot data cartridges. The tape drive is also downward read compatible with DLT III and DLT III xt cartridges (see 3.1.1, “Digital Linear Tape (DLT)” on page 36).54 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Note DLT tape drives use the LZ-1 compression algorithm, a variant of the Lempel-Ziv compression algorithm. Actual compression ratios can differ from the published 2 to 1 ratio. Binary files will typically compress to a 1.5 to 1 ratio, and image files up to a 4 to 1 ratio. Files that have been previously compressed however, will typically increase 5% in size. That is why combining software and hardware compression is inadvisable.Figure 25. 20/40 GB DLT tape driveThe IBM 20/40 GB DLT tape drive is an internal device. However, you can install itin an external enclosure. The following two external enclosures are available:1. The IBM DLT External SCSI Enclosure. When using this external enclosure, make sure to add a terminator.2. The IBM NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL.The following machines support this tape device: • Netfinity 5000 • Netfinity 5500 • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 5500 M20 • Netfinity 5600 • Netfinity 7000 M10 • Netfinity 8500RSupport information is updated at the ServerProven URL whenever newmachines are announced and become available:http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/matrix.shtmlThe shipment group contains the following items: • Base drive • Manual Chapter 3. Hardware 55
  • • Application software CD-ROM, containing: • Seagate Backup Exec Version 7.0 or later for Windows NT • Seagate Backup Exec Version 7.5 or later for Novell NetWare • Sytos Premium for OS/2 Version 2.2a • One data cartridge • SCSI wide-to-narrow (68-pin to 50-pin) converter • Internal SCSI fast/wide cable • SCSI terminator3.4.1 Installation Installing the tape drive will require three main steps: • Installing the hardware • Installing SCSI cables and SCSI setup • Installing power cables The tape device fits into two adjacent half-high 5.25-inch bays. For each of the supported servers where the drive is supported internally, the drive fits in specific internal bays. • Netfinity 5000 The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 5000 has a standard 68-pin external SCSI connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected. • Netfinity 5500 (including M10 and M20) The drive will be installed in bays A and B, combining these two half-height bays to one full-height. The tape can be connected to the internal two-drop SCSI cable using the supplied 68-50 pin converter. Since this cable is self-terminating, you should not enable termination on the device. The SCSI cable itself should be connected to the second RAID channel connector. • Netfinity 5600 The drive will be installed in bays A and B, combining these two half-height bays to one full-height. The tape can be connected to the supplied internal SCSI cable using the supplied 68-50 pin converter. Since this cable is self-terminating, you should not enable termination on the device. When the internal SCSI onboard channel is used for the hard disks, an additional SCSI adapter (for example the PCI Fast/Wide Ultra SCSI Adapter) should be installed. When an optional RAID adapter is installed, connected to the hot-swap disk backplane, the onboard SCSI adapter can be used to connect the tape drive. • Netfinity 7000 M10 The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 7000 M10 has an external 0.8 mm very high density connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected. • Netfinity 8500R The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 8500R has an external 0.8 mm very high density connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected.56 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • • IBM DLT External SCSI Enclosure When installing the tape drive into this external enclosure, be sure to add an active terminator to the rear of the enclosure. The 68-pin connector of the enclosure can be connected to an external SCSI connector on the Netfinity system. An external cable is not included, so it should be ordered separately. Internally, connect the tape drive to the 68-pin cable using the supplied 68-50 pin converter, connect power, and connect the SCSI ID cable to the SCSI jumpers on the device. Remove all other jumpers before doing this. • IBM NetMEDIA SCSI expansion unit EL The NetMEDIA enclosure can hold up to two DLT drives. The internal cabling is terminated, so the devices must not be. You will have to set the required SCSI ID on the tape drive. Attach the 68-pin internal SCSI cable, using the 68-50 pin convertor, and power to the tape device. The external SCSI connection on the NetMEDIA enclosure consists of a 0.8 mm VHD connector.Note: For each of these servers, if the tape drive is the last (or only) device on theSCSI channel, a 16-bit terminator should be connected to the end of the cable toensure proper termination of the SCSI bus. A terminator is supplied with the tapedrive.The 20/40 GB DLT tape drive uses a single-ended SCSI-2 Fast interface. Toconnect the tape device to the SCSI adapter, you will need a cable providing a68-pin connector, and a wide-to-narrow convertor, which converts the 68-pinconnector on the cable to a 50-pin connector, as found on the device.The first step is to set the SCSI ID so that it does not conflict with any otherdevices on the bus. SCSI IDs can be set from 0 to 7. The factory default is SCSIID 5. Next, you will have to check if termination is necessary.If your tape device is the last device on the SCSI bus, you will need to terminate itusing a 16-bit active terminator. The tape device itself cannot be used as aterminator. That is why you will need to install the included terminator. You alsoneed to provide termination power, which is enabled by setting the correct jumperon the tape device. 1 SCSI ID Jumper BlockFigure 26. SCSI ID jumpers (left side view) Chapter 3. Hardware 57
  • 2 Jumper Block 3 Parity Jumper 4 Power Termination Jumper Figure 27. SCSI termination jumper block (right side view) When SCSI-2 or higher adapters and devices are used each adapter and device can supply termination power. As a general rule, only the adapter should supply termination power. If the SCSI cable is longer than 1.2 meters, termination power should also be supplied from the last device on this cable, but no other devices in the chain should have termination power enabled. If you are planning to connect the tape to a bus that already has other devices connected, ensure that you connect the tape device after all 16-bit devices. This will allow the 16-bit devices to work at their nominal speed.3.5 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive The 20/40 GB 8 mm internal SCSI tape drive uses the Mammoth tape technology, providing a 20 GB native (uncompressed) data storage capacity, with a sustained transfer rate of 3 MBps (uncompressed). These figures are doubled with the use of the hardware controlled data compression, allowing 20 GB of critical data to be backed up in just about two hours. The 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive uses the 170 meter Advanced Metal Evaporated (AME) cartridge from Exabyte, IBM and Sony. The tape drive is black in color and matches the IBM Netfinity servers. Figure 28. The 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive The tape drive has a SCSI-2 fast/wide interface. The tape drive is designed to be installed in a half-high, 5.25-inch drive bay. It has a black front bezel. This tape drive is read compatible with Exabyte formats.58 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The following machines support this tape device: • Netfinity 3500 M10 • Netfinity 5000 • Netfinity 5500 • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 5500 M20 • Netfinity 5600 • Netfinity 7000 M10 • Netfinity 8500R Support information is updated at the ServerProven URL whenever new machines are announced and become available: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/matrix.shtml The IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive is an internal device. However, you can install it in an external enclosure. The following two external enclosures are available: 1. The IBM external half-height SCSI storage enclosure 2. The IBM NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL The 20/40 8 mm tape drive is shipped with the following components: • IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm Tape Drive • One data cartridge • One cleaning cartridge • Multi-lingual manual • Four mounting screws • Application software CD-ROM The physical specifications of the device are as follows: • Height: 42.9 mm (1.69 inches) • Width: 208.3 mm (8.2 inches) • Depth: 149.1 mm (5.87 inches) Tape Compatibility The tape drive can also read data from metal particle (MP) tape when it is written in 8500c, 8500, or 8200 formats. The drive cannot write to an MP tape or read data written in 8200c format. Before using an AME cartridge after reading an MP tape, clean the tape drive.3.5.1 Installation Installing the tape drive is comprised of three main steps: • Installing the hardware • Installing SCSI cables and SCSI setup • Installing power cables The tape fits in a single half-height 5.25-inch drive bay. It has a standard 68-pin SCSI connector and standard internal power connector, as shown in Figure 29 on page 61. For each of the supported servers where the drive is supported internally, the drive fits in specific internal bays. Chapter 3. Hardware 59
  • • Netfinity 3500 M10 The drive should be installed in bay 2. It connects to the internal self-terminating cable. Therefore, no additional termination is required. Since this cable is also used to connect the disk backplane, it cannot be used to connect the tape drive when a RAID adapter is added to the system. In that case, an additional internal two-drop cable is needed. • Netfinity 5000 The drive should be installed in bay A. It connects to the internal self-terminating cable. Therefore, no additional termination is required. Since this cable is also used to connect the disk backplane, it cannot be used to connect the tape drive when a RAID adapter is added to the system. In that case, an additional internal two-drop cable is needed. • Netfinity 5500 (including M10 and M20) The drive can be installed in bay A or B. The tape can be connected to the internal two-drop SCSI cable using the supplied 68-50 pin converter. Since this cable is self-terminating, you should not enable termination on the device. The SCSI cable itself should be connected to the second RAID channel connector. • Netfinity 5600 The drive can be installed in bay A or B. The tape can be connected to the supplied internal SCSI cable. Since this cable is self-terminating, you should not enable termination on the device. When the internal SCSI onboard channel is used for the hard disks, an additional SCSI adapter (for example the IBM PCI Fast/Wide Ultra SCSI Adapter) should be installed. When an optional RAID adapter is installed, connected to the hot-swap disk backplane, the onboard SCSI adapter can be used to connect the tape drive. • Netfinity 7000 M10 The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 7000 M10 has an external 0.8 mm very high density connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected. • Netfinity 8500R The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 8500R has an external 0.8-mm very high density connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected. • IBM External SCSI half-height enclosure Since the standard cabling of this enclosure follows the narrow (50-pin) standards, you need to replace this with the provided 68-pin wide cabling. When installing the tape drive into this external enclosure, be sure to add an active terminator to the rear of the enclosure. The 68-pin connector of the enclosure, can be connected to an external SCSI connector on the Netfinity system. An external cable is not included, so it should be ordered separately. Internally, connect the tape drive to the 68-pin cable, connect power, and connect the SCSI ID cable to the SCSI jumpers on the device. Remove all other jumpers before doing this. • IBM NetMEDIA SCSI expansion unit EL The NetMEDIA enclosure can hold up to four 8 mm drives. The internal cabling is terminated, so the devices must not be. You will have to set the60 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • required SCSI ID on the tape drive. Attach the 68-pin internal SCSI cable and power to the tape device. The external SCSI connection on the NetMEDIA enclosure consists of a 0.8 mm VHD connector. 1 Ground hole 2 Grounding tab 3 Pin 1 of the SCSI connector 4 Service port (reserved) 5 Power connector 6 SCSI ID jumper block 7 SCSI connector Figure 29. Rear view of 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive When setting the SCSI ID on the tape drive ensure that it does not conflict with any other devices on the same SCSI bus. SCSI IDs can be set from 0 to 15. The factory default for this tape drive is SCSI ID 5. Do not use ID 7 as this is usually assigned to the SCSI host adapter. It is best to assign the tape drive to the lowest priority ID available (that is the biggest number), and leave higher priority numbers to those devices that are most often used or are faster than other devices in the chain. If the tape drive is the last device on the SCSI bus, the chain must be terminated at the drive using a 16-bit SCSI terminator.3.5.2 Configuration When the server is switched on, the tape drive performs a power-on self-test (POST) within 30 seconds and performs a drive reset. It is important to not insert a tape cartridge into the tape drive during POST, as the tape drive will simply eject it. The LCD on the front of the tape drive, as shown in Figure 30 on page 62, is capable of displaying messages in a number of languages. To change the language, press and hold the Unload button. After the Reset message appears on the LCD, the LCD cycles through the available languages: English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese. When the desired language is displayed, release the Unload button. During the reset sequence, the tape drive rewinds the tape in the unit and restores the drive to its initial state. When the tape drive is ready to accept a cartridge, the indicator lights on the front panel of the tape drive turn off. Once a cartridge is inserted into the tape drive, it will take approximately 20 seconds for the tape drive to load it before the middle indicator lights show it is ready for read and write operations. Chapter 3. Hardware 61
  • 3 1 Indicator lights 2 LCD display 3 Unload button 1 Indicator lights: • Top light (amber): Flashes when error has occurred. When lit, tape drive needs cleaning. •Middle light: (green): When lit, tape cartridge is loaded and tape drive is operational. •Bottom light (green): Flashes when tape is in motion. 2 LCD shows information about the operational status of the tape drive. Figure 30. Front view of 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive3.6 20/40 GB DDS-4 4 mm tape drive The IBM 20/40 GB DDS-4 4 mm tape drive is an internal Ultra-2 SCSI low voltage differential device. The drive can store up to 20 GB in native capacity, and up to 40 GB via hardware data compression, on an industry standard DDS-4 data cartridge. The tape drive is downward read/write compatible with the IBM 4/10 GB DDS-2 and 12/24 GB DDS-3 drives. Note When announcing this device, IBM gave a statement of direction that an autoloader based upon DDS-4 tape drives would be announced in the year 2000. The drive has a 68-pin SCSI connector at the rear of the unit. The native transfer rate is 2.75 MBps. This figure is typically doubled when hardware compression is used. The following servers support this tape drive: • Netfinity 1000 • Netfinity 3000 • Netfinity 5000 • Netfinity 5500 • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 5600 Support information is updated at the ServerProven URL whenever new machines are announced and become available: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/matrix.shtml The IBM 20/40 GB DDS-4 4 mm tape drive is an internal device. However, you can install it in an external enclosure. The following two external enclosures are available: 1. The IBM external half-height SCSI storage enclosure 2. The IBM NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL62 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The tape drive includes the following components: • User’s guide (multilingual) • Application software CD-ROM containing Seagate Backup Exec and Arcserve trial software • Data cartridge • Cleaning cartridge • Black 5.25 and 3.5-inch faceplates3.6.1 Installation Installing the tape drive is comprised of three main steps: • Installing the hardware • Installing SCSI cables and SCSI setup • Installing power cables The tape fits in a single half-height 5.25-inch or 3.5-inch bay. It has a standard 68-pin SCSI connector and standard internal power connector. For each of the supported servers where the drive is supported internally, the drive fits in specific internal bays. • Netfinity 3000 The drive should be installed in bay 2. It connects to the internal self-terminating cable. Therefore, no additional termination is required. • Netfinity 5000 The drive should be installed in bay A. It connects to the internal self-terminating cable. Therefore, no additional termination is required. Since this cable is also used to connect the disk backplane, it cannot be used to connect the tape drive when a RAID adapter is added to the system. In that case, an additional internal two-drop cable is needed. • Netfinity 5500 (including M10 and M20) The drive cna be installed in bay A or B. The tape can be connected to the internal two-drop SCSI cable. Since this cable is self-terminating, you should not enable termination on the device. The SCSI cable itself should be connected to the second RAID channel connector. • Netfinity 5600 The drive can be installed in bay A or B. The tape can be connected to the supplied internal SCSI cable. Since this cable is self-terminating, you should not enable termination on the device. When the internal SCSI onboard channel is used for the hard disks, an additional SCSI adapter (for example, the IBM PCI Fast/Wide Ultra SCSI Adapter) should be installed. When an optional RAID adapter is installed, connected to the hot-swap disk backplane, the onboard SCSI adapter can be used to connect the tape drive. • IBM External SCSI half-height enclosure Since the standard cabling of this enclosure follows the narrow (50-pin) standards, you need to replace this with 68-pin wide cabling. When installing the tape drive into this external enclosure, be sure to add an active terminator to the rear of the enclosure. The 68-pin connector of the enclosure can be connected to an external SCSI connector on the Netfinity system. An external cable is not included, so it should be ordered separately. Internally, connect the tape drive to the 68-pin cable, connect power, and connect the SCSI ID Chapter 3. Hardware 63
  • cable to the SCSI jumpers on the device. Remove all other jumpers before doing this. • IBM NetMEDIA SCSI expansion unit EL The NetMEDIA enclosure can hold up to four 4 mm drives. The internal cabling is terminated, so the device itself must not be. You will have to set the required SCSI ID on the tape drive. Attach the 68-pin internal SCSI cable and power to the tape device. The external SCSI connection on the NetMEDIA enclosure consists of a 0.8 mm VHD connector.3.7 12/24 GB DDS-3 4 mm tape drive The IBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 4 mm tape drive is an internal SCSI-2 Fast device. The drive can store up to 12 GB in native capacity, and up to 24 GB via hardware data compression, on an industry standard 125 meter DDS-3 data cartridge. The tape drive is downward read/write compatible with the IBM 4/10 GB DDS-2 drive. The drive has a SCSI-2 Fast interface and a 50-pin SCSI connector at the rear of the unit. The native transfer rate is 1.1 MBps. This figure is typically doubled when hardware compression is used. Figure 31. 12/24 GB DDS-3 4 mm internal drive (with 5.25-inch black bezel) The following servers support this tape drive: • Netfinity 3000 • Netfinity 5000 • Netfinity 5500 • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 7000 M10 Support information is updated at the ServerProven URL whenever new machines are announced and become available: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/matrix.shtml The IBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 4 mm tape drive is an internal device. However, you can install it in an external enclosure. The following two external enclosures are available:64 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 1. The IBM external half-height SCSI storage enclosure 2. The IBM NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL The drive includes the following components: • User’s guide • Application software CD-ROM containing Seagate Backup Exec and Sytos software • Data cartridge • Cleaning cartridge • Bezel kit • 68-50 pin SCSI converter The drive is shipped with a 5.25-inch white bezel and mounting brackets already installed, similar to Figure 31. The bezel kit contains the following additional bezels: • 5.25-inch black bezel • 3.5-inch black and white bezels3.7.1 Installation Installing the tape drive is comprised of three main steps: • Installing the hardware • Installing SCSI cables and SCSI setup • Installing power cables The tape fits in a single half-height 5.25-inch or 3.5-inch bay. It has a standard 50-pin SCSI connector and standard internal power connector. For each of the supported servers where the drive is supported internally, the drive fits in specific internal bays. • Netfinity 3000 The drive should be installed in bay 2. It connects to the internal SCSI cable using the provided 68-50 pin converter. Since the internal cable is self-terminating, no additional termination is required. Due to the fact that this device is an 8-bit SCSI device, be sure to add it as the last device on the SCSI chain. • Netfinity 5000 The drive should be installed in bay A. It connects to the internal SCSI cable, using the provided 68-50 pin converter. Since the internal cable is self-terminating, no additional termination is required. Due to the fact that this device is an 8-bit SCSI device, be sure to add it as the last device on the SCSI chain. Since this cable is also used to connect the disk backplane, it cannot be used to connect the tape drive when a RAID adapter is added to the system. In that case, an additional internal two-drop cable is needed. • Netfinity 5500 (including M10 and M20) The drive can be installed in bay A or B. The tape can be connected to the internal two-drop SCSI cable, using the 68-50 pin converter. Since this cable is self-terminating, you should not enable termination on the device. The SCSI cable itself should be connected to the second RAID channel connector. Chapter 3. Hardware 65
  • • Netfinity 7000 M10 The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 7000 M10 has an external 0.8 mm very high density connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected. • IBM External SCSI half-height enclosure Since the standard cabling of this enclosure follows the narrow (50-pin) standards, you need to replace this with 68-pin wide cabling. This might look unnecessary, due to the fact that the DDS-3 tape is a narrow device, but it will be the only way to properly terminate the external 16-bit SCSI bus. When installing the tape drive into this external enclosure, add an active terminator to the rear of the enclosure. The 68-pin connector of the enclosure can be connected to an external SCSI connector on the Netfinity system. An external cable is not included, so it should be ordered separately. Internally, connect the tape drive to the 68-pin cable using the provided 68-50 pin converter, connect power, and connect the SCSI ID cable to the SCSI jumpers on the device. Remove all other jumpers before doing this. • IBM NetMEDIA SCSI expansion unit EL The NetMEDIA enclosure can hold up to four 4 mm drives. The internal cabling is terminated, so the device itself should not be. You will have to set the required SCSI ID on the tape drive. Attach the 68-pin internal SCSI cable, using the 68-50 pin converter and connect power to the tape device. The external SCSI connection on the NetMEDIA enclosure consists of a 0.8 mm VHD connector.3.8 10/20 GB NS tape drive The IBM 10/20 GB NS (Network Series) tape drive is a Travan technology drive suitable for many mid-range servers. It is designed for users who need higher performance and capacity than the IBM 4/8 GB TR4 tape drive can provide but cannot yet justify the cost of a DLT solution for their backup strategy. Figure 32. The 10/20 GB NS tape drive Using the QIC 3220 format this drive can store up to 10 GB of data in normal mode and up to 20 GB in compressed mode. The recording media is packaged in a Travan TR5 cartridge or an NS20 cartridge. Both are functionally equivalent. The drive is downward compatible (read mode only) with the TR4 cartridge in QIC66 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 3095 format. This allows administrators to restore data from the older backup tapes created on 4/8 GB TR4 tape drives. The maximum data transfer rate is up to 2 MBps when using the drive’s hardware compression feature. Reading and writing is done in a precisely controlled continuous tape motion to get the most efficient use of resources. The streaming tape and serpentine recording technique combine to increase the capacity and speed of backing up and restoring data. There is no time lost starting and stopping the tape, no space lost to inter-record gaps, and no stretching or crimping of the tape due to intermittent tape movement. The 10/20 GB NS tape drive has a 50-pin connector at the back of the unit. The connector is a SCSI-2 interface. The tape drive can be attached to a 68-pin cable by inserting a 50-pin to 68-pin converter shipped with the tape drive. If the tape drive is the last device in the SCSI chain it must be terminated. The following servers support this tape drive: • Netfinity 3000 • Netfinity 3500 M10 • Netfinity 5000 • Netfinity 7000 M10 Support information is updated at the ServerProven URL whenever new machines are announced and become available: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/matrix.shtml The IBM 10/20 GB NS tape drive is an internal device. However, you can install it in an external enclosure. The following two external enclosures are available: 1. The IBM external half-height SCSI storage enclosure 2. The IBM NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL The following items are supplied with the tape drive: • User’s guide • Data cartridge • Four M3 x 5 screws • Recess bezel kit • SCSI 68-50 pin SCSI converter • 5.25-inch mounting kit • Software CD-ROM containing Seagate software3.8.1 Installation Installing the tape drive is comprised of three main steps: • Installing the hardware • Installing SCSI cables and SCSI setup • Installing power cables The tape fits in a single half-height 5.25-inch or SL 3.5-inch bay. It has a standard 50-pin SCSI connector and standard internal power connector. For each of the supported servers where the drive is supported internally, the drive fits in specific internal bays. Chapter 3. Hardware 67
  • • Netfinity 3000 The drive should be installed in bay 2. It connects to the internal SCSI cable using the provided 68-50 pin converter. Since the internal cable is self-terminating, no additional termination is required. Due to the fact that this device is an 8-bit SCSI device, be sure to add it as the last device on the SCSI chain. • Netfinity 3500 M10 The drive should be installed in bay 2. It connects to the internal self-terminating cable. Therefore, no additional termination is required. Since this cable is also used to connect the disk backplane, it cannot be used to connect the tape drive when a RAID adapter is added to the system. In that case, an additional internal two-drop cable is needed. • Netfinity 5000 The drive should be installed in bay A. It connects to the internal SCSI cable, using the provided 68-50 pin converter. Since the internal cable is self-terminating, no additional termination is required. Due to the fact that this device is an 8-bit SCSI device, be sure to add it as the last device on the SCSI chain. Since this cable is also used to connect the disk backplane, it cannot be used to connect the tape drive when a RAID adapter is added to the system. In that case, an additional internal two-drop cable is needed. • Netfinity 7000 M10 The drive is not supported as an internal device. Therefore, it should be installed in an external enclosure. The 7000 M10 has an external 0.8 mm very high density connector, to which the external enclosure can be connected. • IBM External SCSI half-height enclosure Since the standard cabling of this enclosure follows the narrow (50-pin) standards, you need to replace this with 68-pin wide cabling. This might look unnecessary, due to the fact that the NS-20 tape is a narrow device, but it will be the only way to properly terminate the external 16-bit SCSI bus. When installing the tape drive into this external enclosure, add an active terminator to the rear of the enclosure. The 68-pin connector of the enclosure can be connected to an external SCSI connector on the Netfinity system. An external cable is not included, so it should be ordered separately. Internally, connect the tape drive to the 68-pin cable using the provided 68-50 pin converter, connect power, and connect the SCSI ID cable to the SCSI jumpers on the device. Remove all other jumpers before doing this. • IBM NetMEDIA SCSI expansion unit EL The NetMEDIA enclosure can hold up to four NS-20 drives. The internal cabling is terminated, so the device must not be. You will have to set the required SCSI ID on the tape drive. Attach the 68-pin internal SCSI cable, using the 68-50 pin converter and connect power to the tape device. The external SCSI connection on the NetMEDIA enclosure consists of a 0.8 mm VHD connector.68 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 1 Jumpered 2 Not Jumpered 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 16 1412 10 8 6 4 2 Figure 33. SCSI ID and termination jumpers3.9 490/980 GB DLT library The IBM 490/980 GB DLT library is a 14-cartridge library, using the DLT 7000 tape drives. The library is available in both a tower model (machine type 3502, Model 314) and a rack mountable model (machine type 3502, Model R14). It is equipped with one DLT 7000 tape drive, but can be upgraded to hold up to three drives, using the drive upgrade option. The cartridges are grouped in two, 7-cartridge removable magazines. The library functions according to the SCSI-2 single ended standard. It is equipped with 68-pin external connectors. Chapter 3. Hardware 69
  • Figure 34. The IBM 490/980 DLT library (3502-314) The shipment group contains the following: • 3502-314 or 3502-R14 library • User’s guide • SCSI jumper cable • Adaptec 2940U2B SCSI host adapter • SCSI terminator • 3 meter SCSI fast/wide cable • DLT IV data cartridge • Cleaning cartridge The drive upgrade option contains the following products: • A DLT 7000 tape drive • SCSI jumper cable, used to complete the SCSI chain. The library is supported on the following Netfinity systems: • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 5500 M20 • Netfinity 5600 • Netfinity 7000 M10 • Netfinity 8500R70 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 3.9.1 Operation The library can be configured to operate fully automatically, under control of a software application, or can be used to access tapes in a sequential mode. The following modes can be used: • Random mode, where the host will request a specific tape to be mounted. The loader will locate the requested tape and load it in the DLT drive. • Sequential mode, where the loader will load all cartridges sequentially. It will start with the cartridge in the lowest available slot (an available slot is a slot in which a data cartridge is loaded), and end with the last one. After this, the sequential command must be issued to restart this cycle. Cartridges are automatically loaded when this function is enabled (see 3.9.3, “Configuration” on page 72). • Circular sequential mode, where the loader acts the same as in sequential mode, but automatically restarts the cycle after using the last available cartridge. • Autoclean mode, where the autoloader automatically loads the cleaning cartridge when a cleaning operation is necessary. When this mode is selected, one slot is reserved for a cleaning cartridge. This means that only 13 slots are available for data cartridges, thus reducing the maximum capacity of the autoloader.3.9.2 Installation The main work in installing the library will consist of connecting the SCSI cables. Since the ship group contains all necessary material when one drive is installed, no additional options are necessary. To start, install the supplied SCSI host adapter in the Netfinity server. Connect the 3 meter SCSI cable to the connector 8 at the far right on the rear of the library. This connector connects to the SCSI interface of the library robotic arm. Next, complete the SCSI chain by connecting the pre-installed DLT 7000 drive (far left) using the SCSI jumper cable ( 1 and 7 ). If this is the last device on the chain, install the SCSI terminator on the second connector 2 of the tape drive. Figure 35. 490/980 GB DLT library rear view Chapter 3. Hardware 71
  • Note The above method of connecting is just an example that provides a clean, logical manner of connecting the cables. However, since this is a normal SCSI bus, you can connect each device in any order you prefer. The main concern should be that the bus is terminated properly, and that SCSI cable length limitations are not exceeded. To install additional tape drives, remove the metal plates. Next, slide in the tape drive and connect internal cables (see Figure 36). These consist of power supply cables for fan 3 and tape drive 1 , SCSI ID cable 2 and tape information cable 4. Next, secure the tape by inserting the panel screws. Finally, use additional SCSI jumper cables to complete the SCSI chain, again terminating the last device on the SCSI chain. Figure 36. Adding an additional DLT 7000 tape drive3.9.3 Configuration After installing, the library needs to be configured. The configuration will consist of the following steps:72 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 1. Setting the SCSI ID2. Setting the mode of operationThe setup of the library is done by using the operator control panel (OCP), shownin Figure 37. 1 Display 2 Previous 3 Select 4 Enter 5 NextFigure 37. 490/980 GB DLT library operator control panelAs a first step, it might be necessary to change the SCSI IDs of both theautoloader controller and the DLT 7000 tape drives. By default, the SCSI ID of thecontroller is set to 0, while the pre-installed DLT 7000 tape drive is set to 1. Tochange the SCSI ID, follow the next steps:1. Press the Select button on the OCP repeatedly until it displays the SCSI ID? selection prompt.2. Press the Enter button. The View ID? selection for the library is shown. By pressing the Next button, you will get the Set ID? function. Use the Enter button to scroll through the different devices, until you reach the Library setting. After pressing Enter, the current ID of the controller is shown. Press the Down button until it reaches the required SCSI ID. Press the Enter button to confirm the change.3. By pressing Enter again, you will arrive in the set ID section for the first drive. Repeat the same procedure as for changing the ID of the controller.4. By pressing Enter again, you will arrive in the set ID section for the next drive. Repeat the same procedure as for changing the ID of the first drive.5. Restart the autoloader for the new SCSI IDs to take affect.As explained in 3.9.1, “Operation” on page 71, the autoloader can function indifferent modes. As with setting the SCSI ID, the operational mode can be set byusing the operator panel. To set the mode, press the Select button on the OCPrepeatedly until it displays the MODE? selection prompt. By pressing the Downbutton, you can circulate through the different modes. Press Enter to set one ofthe modes.In addition, you will encounter the following two modes of operation:1. The autoload cartridge mode, which will only function when one of the sequential base modes is selected. This function enables the machine to automatically load tapes in the drive when they are needed.2. The enable barcode function. This function will scan the barcodes when initializing the autoloader. This happens when the loader is turned on, or the door has been opened and then closed.This completes the setup and configuration part of the autoloader. If you needmore information, please refer to the 490/980 GB DLT Autoloader User’s Guide. Chapter 3. Hardware 73
  • 3.10 280/560 GB DLT autoloader The IBM 280/560 GB DLT autoloader is a robotic tape handling system, based on the DLT 7000 technology (see 3.3, “35/70 GB DLT tape drive” on page 51). It combines one 35/70 GB DLT drive, with 8 cartridge slots. Two of those slots are fixed, while the six others are grouped in a removable magazine. The library functions according to the SCSI-2 single ended standard. It is equipped with 68-pin external connectors. Although the library is intended to be used as an external desktop device, it can be mounted in a Netfinity 9306 Model 300 rack using a fixed shelf. Figure 38. The IBM 280/560 DLT autoloader The shipment group contains the following: • 3502-108 library • User’s guide • SCSI jumper cable • SCSI 0.8 mm to 68-pin converter • Adaptec 2940U2B SCSI host adapter • SCSI terminator • 3 meter SCSI fast/wide cable • DLT IV data cartridge • Cleaning cartridge The library is supported on the following Netfinity systems: • Netfinity 5000 • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 5500 M20 • Netfinity 5600 • Netfinity 7000 M10 • Netfinity 8500R74 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 3.10.1 Operation The autoloader can be configured to operate fully automatically, under control of a software application, or can be used to access tapes in a sequential mode. The following modes can be used: • Random mode, where the host will request a specific tape to be mounted. The loader will locate the requested tape and load it in the DLT drive. • Sequential mode, where the loader will load all cartridges sequentially. It will start with the cartridge in the lowest available slot (an available slot is a slot in which a data cartridge is loaded), and end with the last one. After this, the sequential command must be issued to restart this cycle. Cartridges are automatically loaded when this function is enabled (see.3.10.3, “Configuration” on page 75). • Circular sequential mode, where the loader acts the same as in sequential mode, but automatically restarts the cycle after using the last available cartridge. • Autoclean mode, where the autoloader automatically loads the cleaning cartridge when a cleaning operation is necessary. When this mode is selected, one slot is reserved for a cleaning cartridge. This means that only seven slots are available for data cartridges, thus reducing the maximum capacity of the autoloader.3.10.2 Installation Since the ship group of the autoloader contains all needed equipment, installation is fairly easy. To start, install the SCSI host adapter in the Netfinity system. Next, attach the SCSI fast/wide cable to the adapter and to the first connector of the autoloader. This is the SCSI interface of the autoloader controller. Next, continue the SCSI chain to the tape drive, by connecting the SCSI jumper cable. Since one of the connectors has a 0.8 mm SCSI connector, you will need to add the 0.8 mm to 68-pin convertor to one side of the cable. Finally, terminate the SCSI chain by adding the provided terminator. To install the autoloader in a rack, use a fixed shelf. Refer to the IBM Netfinity Rack Planning and Installation Guide for details.3.10.3 Configuration After installation, the library will need to be configured. The configuration will consist of the following steps: 1. Set the SCSI ID. 2. Set the mode of operation. The setup of the library is done by using the operator control panel (OCP), shown in Figure 39: Chapter 3. Hardware 75
  • 1 Display 2 Previous 3 Select 4 Enter 5 Next Figure 39. 260/560 GB DLT autoloader operator control panel As a first step, it might be necessary to change the SCSI IDs of both the autoloader controller and the DLT 7000 tape drive. By default, the SCSI ID of the controller is set to 0, while the DLT 7000 tape drive is set to 1. To change the SCSI ID, follow the next steps: 1. Press the Select button on the operator control panel repeatedly until it displays the SCSI ID? selection prompt. 2. Press the Enter button. The View ID? selection for the library is shown. By pressing the Next button, you will get the Set ID? function. Use the Enter button to scroll through the different devices, until you reach the Library setting. After pressing Enter, the current ID of the controller is shown. Press the Down button until it reaches the required SCSI ID. Press the Enter button to confirm the change. 3. By pressing Enter again, you will arrive in the set ID section for the drive. Repeat the same procedure as for changing the ID of the controller. 4. Restart the autoloader for the new SCSI IDs to take affect. As explained in 3.10.1, “Operation” on page 75, the autoloader can function in different modes. As with setting the SCSI ID, the operational mode can be set by using the operator panel. To set the mode, Press the Select button on the OCP repeatedly until it displays the MODE? selection prompt. By pressing the Down button, you can circulate through the different modes. Press Enter to set one of the modes. In addition, you will encounter the following two modes of operation: 1. The autoload cartridge mode, which will only function when one of the sequential base modes is selected. This function enables the machine to automatically load tapes in the drive when they are needed. 2. The enable barcode function. This function will scan the barcodes when initializing the autoloader. This happens when the loader is turned on, or the door has been opened and then closed. This completes the setup and configuration part of the autoloader. If you need more information, please refer to the 280/560 GB DLT Autoloader User’s Guide.76 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 3.11 3447 DLT Tape Library Withdrawn from marketing The IBM 3447 DLT Tape Library was withdrawn from marketing at the end of 1999. This section was kept in this edition for reference. The 3447 digital linear tape (DLT) library is a robotic tape handling system containing one or two DLT 7000 tape drives. These provide a native data transfer rate up to 5 MBps and a data storage capacity 35 GB. If hardware compression is used, the transfer rate can go up to 10 MBps and 70 GB of storage capacity. The entire library provides up to 525 GB (or 1050 GB if hardware compression is used) of data storage capacity. Figure 40. The 3447 DLT tape library Note DLT tape drives will use the LZ-1 compression algorithm, a variant of the Lempel-Ziv compression algorithm. Actual compression ratios can differ from the published 2 to 1 ratio. Binary files will typically compress to a 1.5 to 1 ratio, and image files up to a 4 to 1 ratio. Files that have been previously compressed however, will typically increase 5% in size. That is why combining software and hardware compression is inadvisable. The total amount of data depends on the type of tape cartridges (see 3.1.1, “Digital Linear Tape (DLT)” on page 36) and the number of storage cells defined for data tape cartridges. The tape library can hold a maximum of 15 tape cartridges. Up to 10 cartridges can be held in a removable magazine and up to 5 cartridges in fixed cells located inside the library. Two models are available: • Model 105: desktop unit • Model 106: rack-mountable unit. This 5U model can be installed in an industry standard EIA-310-D 19-inch rack (such as the Netfinity rack). Chapter 3. Hardware 77
  • Figure 41. Major components The tape library is designed for unattended operation. However, an operator panel on the front enables an operator to monitor activity, suspend operations, load and unload tape devices and run diagnostics. Additionally, the library has a RS-232 connector enabling remote diagnostics. The remote diagnostics options enable you to send diagnostic and information retrieval commands to the library through an RS-232 interface. This can be done through a modem, or by using a null modem cable locally. For more information, see 3.11.3, “Configuration” on page 80. The tape library communicates with the host computer through a SCSI-2 single-ended interface. The tape library can be attached to the IBM Fast/Wide Ultra SCSI Adapter or to an onboard SCSI interface. For performance reasons, it is recommended to attach the library to a dedicated SCSI host adapter. • A barcode reader allowing tape cartridge configuration and inventory are included. Bar code labels can be attached to the tape cartridges, and can have up to eight characters. For more information about barcode specifications, see 3447 and 7337 Digital Linear Tape Library Setup and Operation Guide, GA32-0399.78 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The shipment group contains the following items: • 3447 DLT library • One power cord • One 4.5 meter SCSI cable • One SCSI terminator • One removable cartridge magazine • One DLT format data cartridge, a cleaning cartridge and a test cartridge • Setup and operator guide • Service guide In addition, an additional drive kit and a removable 10-cartridge magazine can be ordered.3.11.1 Operation The 3447 has three modes of operation: • Manual mode, which is controlled by the operator panel switches, allowing complete operator control. • Autoloader mode, where the library automatically loads the cartridges into the drives sequentially for reading and writing. The backup software has no control over the robotic shuttle. • Random mode, which allows tapes to be selected randomly by the backup software for reading or writing. The backup software has full control over the robotic shuttle. The tape library can be configured either in base library configuration or split library configuration 3.11.1.1 Base configuration In base configuration, the tape library is connected to a single SCSI adapter which is installed in a server. The server is in complete control of the entire library and all tape drives. The tape library may be installed with a one or two tape drives, both accessible from a single server. 3.11.1.2 Split configuration With this configuration, the 3447 can be split into two halves, each controlled by a separate server, connected by separate SCSI cables. However, the library does not contain firmware to support random mode in a split configuration. As a result, each half can only be used in autoloader mode unless the backup software on both servers provides the necessary management support to allow the two servers to access the cartridges in random mode without data corruption. If the backup software does not support this, random mode cannot be used in a split configuration.3.11.2 Installation The installation of the IBM 3447 library basically consists of connecting the correct cables. For the rack mounted device, IBM recommends that the procedure be performed by trained service personnel. Information about installation can be found in 3447 and 7337 Digital Linear Tape Library Service Guide, GA32-0400. The desktop model must be placed in such a way that the front door can be Chapter 3. Hardware 79
  • opened, and that there is enough clearance in the back so that cooling fans are not blocked and SCSI and power cables can be easily connected. 3.11.2.1 Installing cables and terminator Figure 42. 3447 SCSI cable attachment The main SCSI cable connects the SCSI host adapter with the library’s robotic SCSI interface. The cable must be a 68-pin SCSI-2 Fast/Wide cable. The SCSI bus then further continues to the first tape drive, and eventually to the second. All these connections are made using external short 68-pin cables (see Figure 42). Since no internal termination is installed, an external terminator must be installed at the end of the SCSI chain. Since the IBM 3447 is also available for our RS/6000 range of machines (as machine type 7337), two versions of this terminator exist. The reason for this is that the RS/6000 library uses differential SCSI, while the Netfinity library uses single-ended SCSI. To differentiate between the two, labels have been installed on both the terminator and the SCSI connectors of the library. Figure 43 shows these two labels. SCSI SE SCSI DIFF Figure 43. SCSI labels3.11.3 Configuration Once all the cables are installed, the configuration can start. The first step will be to set SCSI IDs in such a way that they don’t conflict. The IBM 3447 will use up to three SCSI IDs: one ID for each tape device installed, and one ID for the library’s robotics. The SCSI IDs of the tape devices can be set by using toggle switches on the back of the library (see Figure 44). The SCSI ID of the library can be set through the operator panel.80 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Some backup applications require the SCSI IDs to be sequential. The loadershould be assigned the highest ID, and the two tape devices the descending nexttwo (for example, loader: ID 6, tape 1: ID 5 and tape 2: ID 4).Figure 44. 3447 back panelTo access the setup information, press the three control keys (Menu, Cycle andSelect key) simultaneously, and keep them depressed for approximately 6seconds. This will begin the initialization of the SCSI library. When initializing,press any of the three keys to enter setup (this might take a while). After enteringsetup, the first parameter that can be set is the SCSI ID. To keep the setting,press the Menu key. To change to the value specified in the second line of thedisplay, press the Select key. To change the value in the second line of thedisplay, press the Cycle key. By using the Menu key, you can scroll through everysetting. It is advised not to change anything in here, since factory settings meetmost customers’ needs. The initial setup of the SCSI IDs is as follows:Tape Drive A: SCSI ID 4Tape Drive B: SCSI ID 5Robotics: SCSI ID 6 Chapter 3. Hardware 81
  • Figure 45. 3447 operator panel The operations that can be further performed using the operator panel (see Figure 45) are shown in Table 13 and Table 14. Table 13. Control key function Key Scrolling Presentation Menu/Cycle Presentation Menu Toggles between library status Pressing this key changes from the screen and diagnostic screen. current operational menu to the next. The current operational menu Moves arrow up. is shown on row 1 of the display. Cycle Moves arrow down. Pressing this key switches between alternate actions of the operational menus. Select Pressing this key causes the tape library to perform the operation chosen. Table 14. Menu operations Menu Operations Prerequisite Mode Description Change Mode None Changes the tape library operational mode. Operational modes are: ONLINE OFFLINE DIAGNOSTIC OFFLINE Move Cartridge Diagnostic Offline Moves a cartridge from one location to another. DLT Diagnostics Diagnostic Offline Performs basic DLT 7000 tests. Data on the tape cartridge will be destroyed. Confidence Tests Diagnostic Offline Moves cartridge randomly throughout storage locations.82 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Menu Operations Prerequisite Mode Description Remote Diagnostics Diagnostic Offline Enables communication through the RS-232 interface. DRVLDULD Diagnostic Offline DLT 7000 load and unload test. Also re-calibrates heads. COMM Test Diagnostic Offline Verifies SCSI communications between tape library and host. Maintenance Menu Diagnostic Offline Provides service information. Data on the tape cartridge will be destroyed. Additional diagnostics can be run using a remote diagnostics mode. This mode will enable an operator to run diagnostics and get information from the library through an RS-232 connection using a VT-100 terminal (available in the Windows NT hyperterminal utility). This can be done locally (using a null modem cable) or remotely by using a modem. When using the null modem solution, please be advised that the DB-9 connector on the library is a female connection. Because null modem cables typically have two female connectors, a DB-9 gender changer might be necessary. The following list shows a subset of information and commands that can be accessed using the remote diagnostics facility: • IPL the library • Upload new firmware • Temperature of controller card and both tape devices • Voltages • Shuttle movement • Diagnostics • Drive load and unload tests • Bar code scans • Inventory • Traces For more information, please refer to 3447 and 7337 Digital Linear Tape Library Service Guide, GA32-0400.3.12 3449 8 mm tape library This section describes the IBM 3449 8 mm Tape Library Models 355 and 356. The 3449 is an automated tape library using the latest 8 mm Mammoth tape drive technology. It uses the 170 meter Advanced Metal Evaporated (AME) tape cartridges from Exabyte, IBM and Sony, which provides a native storage capacity of 20 GB and up to 40 GB with 2:1 hardware-controlled data compression. A fully configured tape library with 22 data cartridges has a maximum storage capacity of up to 880 GB with compression. Chapter 3. Hardware 83
  • Figure 46. The 3449 8 mm tape library The tape library contains two removable 10-cartridge magazines and two fixed cartridge slots for a total capacity of 22 cartridges. The fixed slots (referred to as bonus slots in the product manuals) can be used for a cleaning cartridge, drive diagnostic cartridge, test tape, or data cartridges. The tape library can be configured with one or two cartridge magazines, and one or two 8 mm Mammoth tape drives. Full interchangeability of data is provided with the IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm Tape Drive and read compatibility with previous 8 mm media format. The IBM 3449 8 mm tape library is available in two models: • Model 355 — a stand-alone desk-side unit. • Model 356 — a rack-mountable unit which can be installed in an IBM Netfinity rack or any industry standard EIA-310-D 19-inch rack. Each model can have up to two drives installed, which provide additional enhanced features such as: faster transfer of data, simultaneous backup, concurrent read-write operations and fault tolerance. A bar code reader allows positive tape cartridge identification and inventory, and an operator display is also included. The 3449 has a sustainable data transfer rate of 3 MBps without compression. Using an implementation of IBM’s Improved Data Recording Capability (IRDC) up to 40 GB may be stored on a single cartridge with a data transfer rate of up to 6 MBps on a one-drive model. With a split-dual server two-drive model configuration, the backup capability of the IBM 3449 8 mm Tape Library increases up to 43.2 GB per hour with compression.84 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The 8 mm tape library has the following features: • Available as stand-alone tower or rack mountable. • One or two internally mounted tape drives. • A picker (transport mechanism) that moves tape cartridges between the magazine slots and the tape drive(s). • Two removable 10-cartridge magazines, located internally above the tape drives. • Two fixed slots (referred to as bonus slots in product manuals): • One cleaning cartridge slot. • One customer slot for either a second cleaning cartridge, drive diagnostic cartridge, drive test cartridge, data cartridge, or special user application cartridge. • A front door provides access to the tape magazines and tape drives. Two locks on the door, a key lock and a software controlled lock, provide security and safety. • A barcode reader for cartridge identification and inventory. • An operator control panel with an operator key pad and a graphical LCD.The tape library is primarily designed for unattended operation and has threemodes of operation: • Manual mode is controlled by the operator panel switches, allowing complete operator control. • Sequential mode automatically loads the cartridges into the drives sequentially for reading and writing. • Random mode allows tapes to be selected randomly by the host for reading or writing.Each mode will operate in each configuration. In split library configuration, eachhalf of the library can operate in random or sequential mode independently.The library has support for two different configurations:1. Base-Single Server Library Configuration (Single or Dual Drives) In this configuration the tape library is attached to a single SCSI adapter installed in a server as shown in Figure 47 on page 87, and is under complete control of the server which has access to all installed tape drives and all installed data cartridges.2. Split-Dual Server Library Configuration In this configuration the tape library is shared between two SCSI adapters connected to two servers as shown in Figure 48 on page 88. Each server has access to a specific tape drive, all data cartridges in a specific cartridge-magazine, and to cartridges in both fixed slots.A barcode reader allows positive tape cartridge identification and inventory.Barcode labels, having up to 8 characters, may be attached to the tape cartridge.For information on barcode specifications see IBM 3449 8 mm Tape LibraryOperator Guide, GA32-0376.The tape library is shipped with the following items: • IBM 3449 8 mm tape library, Model 355 or 356 • SCSI-2 F/W differential adapter (Adaptec AHA-2944) • One power cord (the rack-mounted model ships with two power cords) Chapter 3. Hardware 85
  • • One 4.5 meter SCSI cable • One SCSI terminator • Two removable cartridge magazines • One 20 GB 8 mm AME data cartridge • Cleaning cartridge • Test cartridge • Installation guide • Operator guide • Service guide In addition, the following parts may be ordered: • IBM 3449 20 GB Drive • IBM 3449 10-Cartridge Media Magazine • IBM 3449 SCSI F/W Differential Adapter and Cable Kit Note: The SCSI differential adapter kit includes a 4.5 meter SCSI-2 F/W cable and a 16-bit terminator for attachment of the second tape drive to a second server. This part should be ordered if the second tape drive is installed and you want to operate the library in a split library configuration.3.12.1 Operation 3.12.1.1 Base library configuration The tape library can be configured either in base library configuration or split library configuration (see 3.12.1.2, “Split library configuration” on page 88). In base configuration the tape library is connected to a single SCSI adapter which is installed in a server. The server is in complete control of the entire library and all tape drives. The tape library may be installed with a one or two tape drives, both accessible from a single server. Figure 47 shows how the SCSI cable is connected from the server to the tape library.86 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • System Unit System Adapter System-to-Device SCSI Cable A B Tape Library C Backpanel 1 2 SCSI Jumper 3 4 T T Terminator RSCSI02-00Figure 47. Base library configurationThis cabling is the same regardless of whether a single drive or two drives areinstalled in the tape library.Modes of operationThe 8 mm tape library base configuration supports the following three modes ofoperation that are selected using the operator control panel: • Manual mode (offline) • Sequential mode (selectable) • Random mode (selectable)When the library is not in random or sequential mode it is in manual mode andconsidered offline. In manual mode, the operator uses the control panel tomanually move cartridges, load drives, or perform maintenance and service.Sequential mode is selected on the tape library from the operator panel.Sequential mode is used with operating systems that do not support mediachangers but still want library automation. In this mode of operation, the servercontrols drive functions and the unloading of the tape cartridge from the tapedrive. The library rejects any motion commands issued by the server.When in sequential mode, the library picks the first tape cartridge (the cartridgethat is in the lowest slot of the magazine) and places it into tape drive 1. When thecartridge is ejected from the tape drive, it is returned to the same magazine slotfrom which it was removed. The library automatically picks the next cartridge (thecartridge above the returned tape cartridge), and places it into tape drive 1. Thiscycle continues until all cartridges from both magazines have been processed. Chapter 3. Hardware 87
  • After all cartridges have been processed (picked, loaded in a drive, unloaded, and returned to the magazine slot from which they were removed) the operator control panel displays a message indicating that all tape cartridges have been processed. Random mode allows the library to function as a self-contained library system composed of 20 cartridges and two bonus slots, controlled by a server. The server uses commands to select a cartridge in a given slot or drive and move it to a destination slot or drive. The source and destination are controlled by the server. Random mode is selected from the control panel or through the Mode Select command issued by the host system. Random mode continues until another mode is selected. 3.12.1.2 Split library configuration In split configuration the library has the ability to be shared between servers. Split library configuration allows for a single tape library to be used by multiple servers. This is accomplished by having the library appear as two separate libraries on the SCSI bus as shown in Figure 48. System Unit 1 System Adapter System-to-Device SCSI Cable A B RSCSI03-00 Ta pe Library C Backpanel System Unit 1 2 2 T 3 System 4 T Adapter T Te rminator Figure 48. Split library configuration Split configuration allows the library to function as two self-contained library systems composed of 10 cartridges each and two fixed slots, controlled by a server. The server uses commands to select a cartridge in a given slot or drive and moves it to a destination slot or drive. The source and destination are controlled by the server.88 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Server 1 has access to the following components through the primary port (port 1on the tape library backplane in Figure 48) • Tape cartridges in magazine 1 • Tape drive 1 • The bonus slotsServer 2 has access to the following components: • Tape cartridges in magazine 2 • Tape drive 2 • The bonus slotsNote: The bonus slots are available to both servers. Using the bonus slots Using the bonus slots in a split library configuration can result in a tape cartridge being moved to a slot in either half of the split library. Since each host has access to only half the library, the tape cartridge may become inaccessible to one of the hosts after the move.Modes of OperationThe 8 mm tape library in split configuration supports the same modes as in baselibrary configuration plus two additional ones: • Manual mode (offline) • Sequential mode (selectable) • Random mode (selectable) • Sequential/random mode (available only in split configuration) • Random/sequential mode (available only in split configuration)When the library is not in random mode or sequential mode it is in manual modeand considered offline. Manual mode operation in split configuration is identical tomanual mode in base configuration. See, “Modes of operation” on page 87 formore information.Sequential mode may be selected from the operator panel. Sequential mode isavailable for use with operating systems that do not support media changers butwhich must, nevertheless, support library automation. Sequential modecontinually feeds both tape drives 1 and 2 with tape cartridges from themagazines. During sequential mode operation, the server controls drive functionsand the unloading of the tape cartridge from the tape drive. The library rejectsany motion commands issued by the server. Bonus slots The bonus slots are not used in sequential mode except when required for cleaning.When in sequential mode, the library picks the first tape cartridge in the lowermagazine (the cartridge that is in the lowest slot of the magazine) and places itinto drive 1. The picker then picks the first tape cartridge in the upper magazine(the cartridge that is in the lowest slot of the magazine) and places it into drive 2. Chapter 3. Hardware 89
  • When a tape cartridge is ejected from either drive, it is returned to the magazine slot from which it was removed. The picker automatically gets the next cartridge above the returned tape cartridge, and places it into the appropriate drive. This cycle continues until the top most cartridge in each magazine is processed. After all cartridges have been processed (picked, loaded into a drive, unloaded, and returned to the magazine slot from which they were removed) the operator control panel displays a message indicating that all of the tape cartridges have been processed. Random mode is selected from the control panel or through the Mode Select command issued by the server. Random mode continues until another mode is selected. The sequential/random mode splits the tape library so that drive 1 and the lower magazine are operating in sequential mode while drive 2 and the upper magazine are operating in random mode. The random/sequential mode of operation splits the tape library so that drive 1 and the lower magazine are operating in random mode while drive 2 and the upper magazine are operating in sequential mode.3.12.2 Installation Installation of the IBM 3449 8 mm Tape Library is fairly straightforward. The rack mountable model must be installed in an IBM Netfinity Rack, or any industry standard EIA-310-D 19-inch EIA using the supplied support rails and base plate, and must be installed in a gap of no less than 15U (EIA units). The stand-alone model must be placed in such a way that the front door can be opened, and there is enough clearance behind the device to allow for cooling. For additional information on installing the tape library see IBM 7331 and 3449 8 mm Tape Library Installation, GA32-0375 . Once installed and after the picker lock has been released, the tape library should be cabled as a base configuration or a split configuration as described in 3.12.1.1, “Base library configuration” on page 86 and 3.12.1.2, “Split library configuration” on page 88.3.12.3 Configuration When all the cables and terminators have been installed, the configuration of the IBM 3449 8 mm Tape Library can start. The tape library has a control panel which is located behind the small access door on the front of the library as shown in Figure 49. The control panel will be used to perform most configuration actions.90 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Cancel Button Up Button Down Button Power Switch Power-On Indicator Door Lock Indicator Display Panel Key Lock Select Button Door Unlock Button ASOPISX-00Figure 49. Control panelWhen the tape library is operating in manual mode, that is, offline, and the frontdoor is open, the tape picker mechanism may be operated by using the movepicker buttons located on the inside of the front door as shown in Figure 50. Up Button Down Button ASMVPKR-00Figure 50. Move picker buttons inside library front doorPower switch and power-on indicatorThe power switch located on the control panel controls power to the tape library.The switch does not provide a visual indication of its On or Off state. When theswitch is On the library cooling fan operates and DC power is distributed to thecomponents in the library and the power-on indicator illuminates.The power-on indicator is a green LED located on the front panel and is softwarecontrolled. During initial power-on the power-on indicator is illuminated, indicatingthe start of Power-On Self Test (POST). If no errors are detected during POST,the power-on indicator remains lit continuously. If an error is detected during Chapter 3. Hardware 91
  • POST, the power-on indicator blinks a sequence that signifies a specific error. See IBM 3449 8 mm Tape Library Operator Guide, GA32-0376, for details on specific errors and how to correct them. The only other time the power-on indicator blinks, other than POST, is following an unsuccessful microcode download command. Door unlock button The library provides a software controlled door lock and door lock indicator. When initially powering on the library and during POST, the door remains unlocked. Pressing the Door Unlock button on the control panel signals to the library that the operator wishes to open the library front door. If the server has not issued a command (prevent/allow media removal) when the button is pressed, the library completes any move operation in progress and then parks the picker, and the door may then be opened. Whenever the library is opened, the library software assumes the contents of the library have been altered and clears the current inventory. If the Door Unlock button is inadvertently pressed, pressing the Cancel button without opening the library door re-locks the library and retains the current library inventory. If library access is prevented with a software controlled lock from the server or by the operator manually locking the door with the key lock, and the Door Unlock button is pressed, the library displays the message: UNLOCK NOT ALLOWED BY HOST When the door is open, the library will not accept any commands from either the server or the library control panel. However, any manually inserted tape cartridge, such as a diagnostic tape, in the tape drives, can be accessed directly by the server. The picker can be moved using the move picker buttons located on the inside of the front door, as shown in Figure 50 on page 91. Key lock The key lock is a mechanical lock, and can be used to prevent unauthorized access to the library. Both the key lock and the software controlled lock must be unlocked to gain access to the library. The first step is to check that the SCSI IDs are acceptable, that they match the ID set for the device, and do not conflict with existing SCSI hardware devices in the host system(s). It is recommended that the tape library be connected separately to the supplied SCSI Fast/Wide Differential adapter installed in the host computer to avoid conflicts with other installed/connected SCSI devices. If the split library configuration is to be used, order a second SCSI adapter and cable kit (part 59H3900). The SCSI ID menu can be accessed from the Set-up menu using the buttons on the front panel. The SCSI IDs for the 3449 tape library in split configuration have the following default values: • Primary library, SCSI ID 3 • Secondary library, SCSI ID 4 • Drive 1, SCSI ID 0 • Drive 2, SCSI ID 292 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • To access the Set-up menu use the Select button on the control panel to display the main menu on the display panel (see Figure 51). Figure 51. Main menu display Figure 49 on page 91 shows the layout of the control panel buttons. Use the four control buttons, Up, Down, Select , and Cancel to the right of the display panel to assist with moving around the menu. These buttons are functional after the completion of POST. Cancel button Cancelling an operation in progress may cause an error that displays a UEC (Unit Error Code). Also, a tape cartridge may be left in a tape drive or the picker mechanism. Service and diagnostic utilities are accessed by selecting Service from the Main Menu. Refer to IBM 7331 and 3449 8 mm Tape Library Service Guide, GA32-0377 for a detailed flow of the Service menu structure. From the Service menu, the following functions are available: Logs Access logs containing errors logged during operation of the library. Self test Exercise the library by randomly moving tape cartridges from slot to slot. Calibrate Perform library calibration.3.13 3570 Magstar MP tape library The Magstar MP 3570 Tape Subsystem models are compact, high-capacity, integrated storage devices that are available as stand-alone or rack-mounted units. The subsystems are well-suited for a variety of applications and are therefore referred to as Magstar MP (Multi-Purpose) units. The Magstar MP 3570 Tape Subsystem is attached to host processors that use the differential (high voltage differential, or HVD) SCSI-2 interface. The current versions of the Magstar 370 library that are optimized for Netfinity systems, are Models C21 and C22. Both are designed to fit in a Netfinity rack or the NETBAY22 rack. The C21 model has a single 3570 C drive, while the C22 has two tape drives. The included tape drives have a capacity of 7 GB per cartridge (native), 21 GB compressed. Both libraries can hold up to 20 cartridges, combined into two 10-cartridge magazines, which give them a total capacity of Chapter 3. Hardware 93
  • 140 GB in native mode. When using hardware compression, 420 GB of data can be stored. The sustained data transfer rate equals 7 MBps, 15 MBps when using compression. Figure 52. Magstar 3570 desktop model All of the Magstar MP units use the Magstar MP Fast Access Linear Tape cartridges with longitudinal serpentine recording. These cartridges use a unique design that is approximately one half the size of IBM 3480, 3490, or 3590 tape cartridges. This cartridge style provides two tape spools with mid-point load for fast access to the metal particle media. There are three formats of 3570 tape cartridges: • B-Format (original) • C-Format • C-Format XL (eXtended Length) The 3570-C drive provides backwards compatibility with all these formats. The published capacity however is obtained by using the C-Format XL cartridge. The B-Format and C-Format cartridges have a native capacity of 5 GB. The data transfer rates are the same for both C-formats, while the B-Format has a transfer rate of 3.5 MBps. The standard barcode reader can improve application performance. When the host re-inventories the cartridges, it can take several minutes for the host to mount each cartridge in a drive and read the volume serial number identification from the tape. A barcode reader eliminates the need to load each cartridge in a drive.94 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 53 shows the library front assembly.Figure 53. 3570 Magstar MP front assemblyBoth models have a priority cell that can be used to load or unload cartridgesfrom the subsystem without removing the cartridge magazine. Becausecartridges can be inserted without opening the door, the integrity of the tapeinventory is not violated. This adds to the ease of use of this library.For more information about the IBM Magstar 3570 MP tape library, please refer tothe Magstar MP 3570 Tape Subsystems Installation and Planning Guide,GA32-0392. This document can be viewed online at:http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/tape/pubs/prodpubs.htmlThe 3570 library has the following physical specifications: • Library requires 6 EIA rack units. • Rack install height: maximum 28 EIA units. • Height: 217 mm (8.5 inches) • Width: 444 mm (17.5 inches) Chapter 3. Hardware 95
  • • Depth: 714 mm (28.1 inches) • Weight: Model C21 24 kg (52.8 lb), Model C22 29 kg (63.9 lb)3.13.1 Configuration The library can be configured to provide one of three modes of operation. These modes of operation define how tapes are handled. In the following section, we explain the different modes, and their uses. • Random mode Random mode allows the Magstar MP to act as a self-contained library of up to 19 cartridges, controlled entirely by SCSI hosts. In addition, access is provided to a 20th cartridge through the priority cell. The host uses SCSI commands to a Medium Changer device to select a cartridge from a source element and move it to its destination element. Control of the source and destination elements is left entirely to the host. A request for an external cartridge to be mounted can be satisfied by inserting the cartridge into the priority cell in the import position. The Magstar MP notifies hosts of the presence of a cartridge in the priority cell, but the host must specifically address that cell to access the cartridge. When the destination of a move is a magazine cell, the transport mechanism places the cartridge in the cell in the import position for possible later re-use. However, if the destination is the priority cell, the transport mechanism places the cartridge in the cell in the export position. Because the library door must be closed while in random mode, the priority cell is used as an import/export station to add or remove cartridges from the library without violating the integrity of the magazine inventory. A host can cause cartridges from the priority cell to be moved to any empty magazine cell or to a device. It can also cause cartridges from a magazine or a device to be moved to the priority cell. Requests for external cartridges to be mounted can only be satisfied when magazine 1 (the right-most magazine) is present. Library inventory and control is entirely the responsibility of the hosts. If the library door is opened while in random mode, the drive responds to the next command with a Unit Attention condition. Random mode is suited when using backup/restore applications that are capable of managing libraries. • Automatic (sequential) mode Automatic mode provides the customer the ability to operate the library as a sequential autoloader, keeping the tape drive continually fed with cartridges. The initiator controls only the unloading of a cartridge from the tape drive. The library will automatically load the next available cartridge into the drive after the ejected cartridge is put back into the magazine. All media changer operations are effectively hidden from the system. When automatic mode is selected, the cartridges are automatically processed according to their positions in the magazines. The library processes all cartridges that are in import positions sequentially, beginning at the right-most cell position and then proceeding from right to left as viewed from the front of the library. After processing a cartridge, the library returns it to its original magazine cell and places it in the export position. The operator can supply external cartridges to an application by inserting a cartridge in the priority cell in the import position.96 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Any cartridge inserted in the priority cell will automatically be the next cartridge that is loaded into the drive. When that specific cartridge is unloaded, the library returns the cartridge to the priority cell in the export position and resumes processing cartridges from the magazine. The library continues to search for cartridges until it has searched all cells without finding a cartridge in the import position. The operator can remove cartridges that are in the export position from magazines and add cartridges in the import position to the magazine while the library is in automatic mode. The library stops when the door is opened and resumes operation when the door is closed. If a cartridge is in a drive when the door is opened, processing continues until complete. When the door is closed, the cartridge is returned to the cell from which it was removed. An operator may also insert full magazines into the library when it is in automatic mode. If the operator unloads a cartridge from the tape drive by using the operator panel on the Magstar MP 3570 Tape Subsystem, the operator must select START on the operator panel to load the next cartridge. If the cartridge is unloaded from the tape drive by the host, the next cartridge is automatically loaded in the tape drive. There is no need for the operator to select START on the operator panel. • Manual (sequential) mode In manual mode, the library functions the same as in the automatic mode, except the operator initiates each load operation. Each time the operator selects START from the Options Menu, the library selects the cartridge from the next unprocessed magazine cell and mounts it in the drive. Manual mode operation is also activated by placing a cartridge in the import position of the priority cell and selecting START. Only one cartridge is processed for each operator action. After being unloaded, each cartridge is returned to the magazine location from which it was taken and placed in the export position. The library starts processing cartridges beginning at the right-most cell in the library. The search for unprocessed cartridges is from right to left across the magazine(s) as viewed from the front of the library.Besides the above three basic modes of operation, the C22 can also beconfigured to operate in split mode.It is advantageous to be able to share a single library between host systems.Unfortunately, some applications (and some systems) do not allow for sharingdevices between systems. Split configuration allows for a single library to be usedby multiple systems by having the library manage this “sharing”. This isaccomplished by having the library appear as two separate half-size libraries onone or two SCSI busses. Two SCSI busses are created when the SCSI busjumper is removed between the drive 1 and drive 2 SCSI ports.Split configuration is created by logically dividing one physical library into twological libraries.Logical library 1 consists of: • Drive 1 • Magazine 1 (including the priority cell) • The transport mechanism Chapter 3. Hardware 97
  • Logical library 2 consists of: • Drive 2 • Magazine 2 • The transport mechanism Logical library 1 is available to host systems via the drive 1 SCSI port, and logical library 2 is available to host systems via the drive 2 SCSI port. Cartridges not in the logical library associated with a port are not accessible to commands received on that port. In a split configuration, the library mode of operation is selected separately for drive 1 (logical library 1) and drive 2 (logical library 2). All possible combinations of modes of operation are allowed in split configuration.3.13.2 SCSI configuration A differential SCSI adapter (Adaptec AHA2944UW SCSI F/W differential adapter) is included with Models C21 and C22. The 3570 adapter card kit supplies an additional SCSI differential adapter, 2944/UW for Models C21 and C22. The adapter is designed for a 32-bit PCI bus in an Intel-based computer using the Microsoft Windows NT operating system and is equipped with a 68-pin high-density connector. Included with the adapter card is a 4.5 meter SCSI cable and a terminator.3.14 3575 Magstar MP tape library The Magstar MP 3575 tape library models are compact, high-capacity, integrated storage devices that are available as stand-alone units (see Figure 54) and are well suited for a variety of applications. For more information on this library, refer to Magstar MP 3575 Tape Library Dataserver: Multiplatform Implementation, SG24-4983. The Magstar MP 3575 tape library attaches to host processors that have SCSI-2 Differential Fast/Wide Adapters. They are intended for use on mid-range or high-end Netfinity systems that require reliable tape storage support for operations such as backup, restore, archive, and data interchange, as well as for applications that require rapid data access or high data capacity.98 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 54. 3575 tape library You can attach the Magstar MP 3575 tape library to the RS/6000, RS/6000 SP, and AS/400 systems, systems from Hewlett-Packard and Sun, and Intel-based Windows NT servers. Sustained data rates of up to 15 MBps (with maximum compression) make the Magstar MP 3575 tape library ideal for: • Automatic tape handling applications • Time-sensitive applications requiring fast access to data • Applications requiring highly intensive I/O operations by multiple users • Traditional save and restore operations3.14.1 Design highlights The key Magstar MP 3575 tape library design features and benefits are listed below. • Supports the C-format XL cartridge. • Proven library design, coupled with proven library technology, provides fast move times, high reliability, and high mean swap between failure (MSBF) rates. • Wide-ranging modularity with sizes from 420 GB to 2.2 TB (or 1.2 TB to 6.8 TB with 3:1 compression). Capacity can be customized and performance tuned for each system. Models can be upgraded to allow for expansion as required. • Multi-path architecture allows multiple SCSI control paths and up to three logical libraries, depending on model. • Multi-bus design provides multihost attachment, high data throughput, and high availability through component redundancy. • Bulk loading enables 14 storage slots to be allocated as user-selectable bulk I/O slots. Access is through the bulk load door. Intelligent library reinventory using column sensors improves library efficiency. • Drive auto-cleaning function provides automatic detection and cleaning of drives, improved operator productivity and increased reliability. Chapter 3. Hardware 99
  • • Input/output station enables cartridge import and export without requiring a reinventory of the library. • Barcode reader improves inventory times and inventory management. • Dual-gripper picker enables two cartridges to be handled simultaneously, resulting in faster moves, transactions, and subsystem performance. Appropriate software support is needed for this function. • Self-contained diagnostics can be run from the operator panel without host interaction. An advanced error-detection system reports errors accurately for high reliability and less subsystem downtime. • Operator interaction with the library is through a key touch panel and a liquid crystal display (LCD). I/O Station Operator Panel Library Viewing Window Bulk Load Door Figure 55. 3575 I/O components3.14.2 The multi-path feature It is advantageous to be able to share a single library between host systems. Unfortunately, most applications and operating systems do not provide methods or functions for sharing devices between systems. With the multi-path architecture, a single library can be used by multiple systems; the library manages the sharing. Multi-path permits the logical partitioning of one physical library into two or three logical libraries. Each logical library consists of: • Tape drives • Cartridge slots • Cartridges • The I/O station • The transport mechanism • The library controller Tape drives, cartridge slots, and cartridges are unique to each logical library. The I/O station and the transport mechanism are shared between logical libraries on a first-come-first-served basis.100 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 3.14.3 Bulk I/O slots For some applications, it is normal to import and export a significant number of cartridges on a regular basis. An example of such an application is the ADSM Disaster Recovery Manager (DRM). For this type of application, the bulk I/O slots option enables you to configure the library with 14 bulk I/O slots in place of 14 storage slots. The slots that can be configured in this way are the first 14 addressable fixed slots in the physical library. They are colored in white (if the library was manufactured after April 1998) to ease retrieval of cartridges and to properly distinguish them from storage slots. When the bulk I/O slots and the logical library options are selected, only logical library 1 sacrifices 14 storage slots. The number of storage slots for logical libraries 2 and 3 remain unchanged. However, all logical libraries gain access to the 14 bulk I/O slots on a first-come-first-served basis.3.14.4 High performance The overall performance of tape libraries is attributable to a combination of multiple factors such as cartridge move and load time, time needed for internal housekeeping tasks (for example inventory and calibration), and, most importantly, data rates for read and write operations. Cartridge move time within any Magstar MP 3575 tape library is typically less than 4 seconds. The dual-gripper picker can perform one cartridge remove and exchange operation, further improving overall library performance and offering increased redundancy and high reliability. When loaded in the drive, the Magstar MP tape cartridge typically is ready for operation in less than 8 seconds. The move time is the time to pick a cartridge from a cell, move the cartridge to a drive, pivot if necessary, and insert the cartridge into a cell. Library performance data does not include the drive portion of load or unload time. Typically, application and control unit overhead masks these mechanical timings at the user level. A cartridge inventory operation includes calibrating the autochanger, checking to see whether each cartridge slot in the library is empty or full, and reading the barcode labels. Inventory times range from 1 minute on the L06 model (see 3.14.6, “3575 models” on page 102) to 5 minutes on the L32 models. Sustained data rates during reads and writes using the new Magstar MP Model C tape drive are: • B-Format media • 3.5 MBps in native mode • 10.5 MBps using Lempel-Ziv (3:1) compression • C-Format and C-Format XL media • 7 MBps in native mode • 15 MBps using Lempel-Ziv maximum compression The Magstar MP Model C tape drives have been designed for high performance in both streaming and start/stop modes of operation. Automatic data caching and read/write buffering enhance performance even further. Chapter 3. Hardware 101
  • 3.14.5 High reliability An exclusive thin-film write module designed by IBM with read after write data verification provides highly accurate recording. IBMs industry-leading magneto-resistive (MR) heads are designed for accuracy, high reliability, and durability. High-availability redundant servo readers also ensure consistent data integrity. The design of the Magstar MP 3575 tape library minimizes the amount of travel for robotic pickers within the library. When drive cleaning is required by one of the Magstar MP Model C tape drives, it is automatically performed by the library without requiring operator intervention.3.14.6 3575 models Three different frame sizes and five models of the Magstar MP 3575 tape library are available. They offer data capacities ranging from 300 GB to 1.6 TB for uncompressed data, with up to three times that capacity for compressed data. Table 15 lists the characteristics of the available models. Figure 56 shows the various models of the Magstar MP 3575 tape library. Note: The 3575 libraries required a SCSI-2 F/W Differential adapter which is not supplied with the library. Table 15. Magstar MP 3575 model characteristics Model L06 L12 L18 L24 L32 Number of drives 2 2 to 4 2 to 6 2 to 6 2 to 6 Number of cartridge slots 60 120 180 240 324 Capacity (native) GB 420 840 1200 1600 2200 Capacity (compressed) GB1 1200 2500 3700 5000 6800 Number of logical libraries 1 1 to 2 1 to 3 1 to 3 1 to 3 1. With 3:1 LZ1 compression 3575-L06 3575-L12 3575-L18 3575-L24 3575-L32 Figure 56. 3575 library models102 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 3.14.7 Magstar MP tape drives All Magstar MP 3575 tape library units use the Magstar MP tape cartridge which is approximately one-half the size of IBM 3480, 3490, or 3590 cartridges. The new, uniquely designed cartridge provides two tape spools with mid-point load for fast access to the metal particle media. Data is read and written using a serpentine longitudinal recording format. Eight tracks at a time are read or written with the C-format cartridge, and four tracks at a time are read or written with the B-format cartridge. Tape capacity is 5 GB per cartridge in native format. With Lempel-Ziv compression, tape capacity can be 15 GB or more, depending on how well the data can be compressed. For the Magstar MP Model C tape drive, data transfer is 3.5 MBps for B-format media in native format and 7.0 MBps for C-format media in native format. Maximum burst rate is 20 MBps and maximum sustained data rate is 15 MBps with maximum compression. 3.14.7.1 Magstar MP Model C tape drive The Magstar MP Model C tape drive reads and writes data on 128 tracks per cartridge and uses an interleaved serpentine longitudinal recording format. Using the C-format cartridge, the Magstar MP Model C tape drive writes and reads eight tracks at a time. When B-format cartridges are used, only four tracks at a time are written or read. The first set of tracks is written from the mid-point along the length of the tape to near the end of the tape, where the head is indexed to the next set of tracks for return to the tape mid-point. This process continues until all 128 tracks are written and is repeated for the other half of the medium until the tape is full. When read and write operations are completed, the tape is positioned to its center or mid-point for fast data access the next time the tape is mounted. The tape motion speed has been increased by about 50% on the Magstar MP Model C tape drive compared to the 3570-B1A tape drive. The C-format cartridge and the tape motion speed increase provide a significant performance improvement over the 3570-B1A tape drive. In addition to very fast access to data, the Magstar MP Model C tape drive provides a higher level of performance for the applications that demand high throughput. 3.14.7.2 Magstar MP 3570 Model B1A tape drive The 3570-B1A tape drive reads and writes data on 128 tracks per cartridge, four tracks at a time. The 3570-B1A tape drive uses an interleaved serpentine longitudinal recording format. The first set of four tracks is written from the mid-point along the length of the tape to near the end of the tape, where the head is indexed to the next set of four tracks for return to the tape mid-point. This process continues until all 128 tracks are written and is repeated for the other half of the medium until the tape is full. When read and write operations are completed, the tape is positioned to its center or mid-point for fast data access the next time the tape is mounted. Chapter 3. Hardware 103
  • 3.14.7.3 Tape drive performance The following table provides some basic performance information for the two Magstar 3570 models: Table 16. Models B1A and C1A performance comparision Parameter 3570 Model B1A 3570 Model C1A Average load time (sec) <8 <8 Average search time (sec) 8 8 Average unload time (sec) 5 5 Tape motion (m/s) 2 3.2 Native sustained data rate 2.2 MBps 3.5 MBps B-format cartridge Native sustained data rate N/A 7.0 MBps C-format cartridge Compressed sustained data rate 6.6 MBps 10.5 MBps B-format cartridge (3:1) Compressed sustained data rate N/A 15 MBps C-format cartridge (3:1) Burst data rate 20 MBps 20 MBps104 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Chapter 4. SAN equipment This chapter gives an overview of hardware components used in storage area network (SAN) environments. Only the components relevant to a tape-oriented storage area network will be included. This includes the following components: • The Netfinity Fibre Channel PCI adapter (see page 105) • The IBM SAN Fibre Channel Switch (see page 105) • The IBM SAN Data Gateway Router (see page 107) • The Netfinity Fibre Channel hub (see page 109) • Cabling (see page 111) Additionally, the IBM SAN management software, StorWatch, will be discussed. Finally, we will give an overview and example of currently supported SAN configurations using these components in a tape environment. For more general information on IBM SAN solutions, visit the SAN Web site, at: http://www.storage.ibm.com/ibmsan4.1 Netfinity Fibre Channel PCI adapter The Netfinity Fibre Channel PCI Adapter is a half-length 64-bit PCI busmaster adapter that is installed in the Netfinity server for connectivity to the external storage enclosure. The adapter connects to either a Netfinity Fibre Channel Hub, an IBM Fibre Channel switch, an IBM Fibre Channel router or a Netfinity Fibre Channel RAID Controller. The adapter supports short-wave optical cables which may be connected to a short-wave optical GBIC installed in any other supported component. The cable may be a 5 meter or 25 meter short-wave 50 micron multi-mode fiber cable (the IBM Netfinity Fibre Channel cables, see 4.5, “Cabling” on page 111) or a customer-supplied cable of the same specification up to 500 m. The adapter is often simply referred to as the host adapter. In a SAN environment, this adapter is also referred to as the host node. The maximum number of host adapters supported in Netfinity systems is limited only by the number of available PCI slots.4.2 IBM SAN Fibre Channel switch The IBM SAN Fibre Channel Switch is an 8- or 16-port switch used to interconnect multiple host servers with storage servers and devices, creating a storage area network (SAN). The switch allows you to build a wide range of scalable SAN solutions. By creating an intelligent connectivity infrastructure, or fabric , that supports connections across a wide range of host and storage types, the IBM SAN Fibre Channel Switch enables storage resources to be shared.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 105
  • Note Fabric is a term used to define a scheme of interconnected Fibre Channel servers and nodes. The IBM Fibre Channel Switch is available in two versions: • 2109 Model 08 The Model 08 can hold up to eight fiber optic connections. These connections are established by using gigabyte interface converters, or GBICs (see 4.4.0.1, “Netfinity Fibre Channel hub GBICs” on page 110). Both short wavelength and long wavelength fiber-optic GBIC versions are supported. There are four short wavelength GBIC modules installed by default. • 2109 Model 16 The Model 16 is an enterprise version of the Model 08. It holds up to 16 GBICs, with four short wavelength ones installed by default. Both models can be equipped with a redundant power supply. Intelligence is built into the switch architecture: self-learning allows the fabric to automatically discover and register host and storage devices, and self-healing enables the fabric to isolate a problem port and reroute traffic onto alternate paths. In addition, internal to the switch is a processor that provides fabric services such as name serving, zoning, routing, and dynamic microcode upgrades. The IBM SAN Fibre Channel Switch comes with the StorWatch SAN Fibre Channel Switch Specialist, which can be used to manage the switch. To do this, the switch needs to be connected to a network, using the integrated Ethernet adapter. You can then assign an IP address to the switch, and manage it through a Java-enabled Web browser. Figure 57. StorWatch SAN Switch Specialist Figure 57 shows the Web-based interface of the switch management application. From here, you can monitor the switch, get port statistics and performance information and manage the switch. Management can be done through an administrative interface, which allows you to perform basic functions. A second106 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • way of managing the switch is through a telnet session. This command based interface lets you perform more complex management operations (like setup zoning). For more information, refer to the product manuals, at: http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/products/fcswitch/refinfo.htm The IBM SAN Fibre Channel Switch can be used to attach the following SAN and storage products: • IBM SAN Data Gateway with the IBM Enterprise Storage Server, the IBM Versatile Storage Server, or the IBM Magstar and Magstar MP tape libraries • IBM SAN Data Gateway Router with supported IBM tape products • IBM Fibre Channel RAID Storage Server • IBM Netfinity Fibre Channel RAID Controller Unit • IBM Netfinity Fibre Channel Hub4.3 IBM SAN Data Gateway Router The SAN Data Gateway Router provides SCSI connectivity and interfaces between SCSI storage devices and the SAN. Its main use is to provide integration of tape libraries, both DLT and Magstar, to a SAN. The router can be used as a desktop model, or as a rack-mounted unit. In this case, it can be mounted in a Netfinity 9306 rack. The SAN interface is made using a Fibre Channel PCI Mezzanine Card or PMC. The factory installed PMC functions according to the short wavelength standards. Therefore, the maximum distance between this component and its peer in the SAN fabric can be up to 500 meters. For information on future long-wave PMCs, consult the SAN Data Gateway Router Web pages, at URL: http://www.ibm.com/storage/SANGateway The router holds two SCSI channels. These can be either Ultra SCSI-2 Wide single ended, or differential (HVD). The channels have internal termination enabled, which can be disabled using either jumpers or the StorWatch utility. Each channel supports up to 15 SCSI target IDs, with 32 LUNs per ID. This sums up to a total of 128 devices supported, minus 1 LUN for command and control operations. The external 68-pin connectors support cable lengths up to 3 meters for SE SCSI, and 25 meters for differential. For management purposes, the router is equipped with both an Ethernet and a serial service port. The Ethernet port is a 10baseT port, using an RJ-45 connector. It provides TCP/IP support to communicate with the StorWatch Data Gateway Specialist software. The service port is an RS-232 9-pin D-shell connection, which can be addressed using a standard PC equipped with a null modem cable. The port is configured at a speed of 19200 baud, using 8 data bits without parity and XON/XOFF data flow control. As mentioned before, the management and monitoring of the router can be done using the StorWatch Data Gateway Specialist software. This product is included with the router, and will communicate with the router using SNMP and SCSI over TCP protocols. SCSI over TCP technology encapsulates SCSI commands into TCP packets, and allows remote configuration of SCSI devices. Chapter 4. SAN equipment 107
  • The StorWatch Data Gateway Specialist software is a client/server application, which includes the following components (see Figure 58): • Agent • Server • Client Gateway SNMP/SCSI Agent over TCP JAVA RMI Workstation Client Gateway Agent Server Workstation Client Router Agent Figure 58. Storwatch SAN Data Gateway Specialist client/server model The agent, which is integrated in the router and gateways, will communicate with the server component. The main communication protocol is SNMP, used to configure and query the router information. It is also used to generate traps or alerts. The SCSI/TCP protocol will be used to manipulate SCSI device and channel parameters on the router. The server component is a Java application, which coordinates communication between different clients and routers. It also maintains security information, client views and configuration settings. Communications between client and server are done using Remote Method Invocation or RMI. RMI is included in the Java enterprise API extensions, and defines an interface allowing invocation of object methods in a distributed environment (object methods are one of the base components of the Java language, defining the behavior of objects, and their interaction with other objects). As such, RMI can be compared to remote procedure calls in distributed computing environments. The client, also a Java application, will use the RMI calls to communicate with the server software. In order to do this, it requires a TCP/IP connection with the server component (it can also be installed on the same machine as the server). For some operations, SCSI over TCP will be used to communicate directly with the routers. The client component also includes a graphical user interface (see Figure 59).108 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 59. StorWatch SAN Data Gateway Specialist Client and server components have the following system requirements: • Windows NT 4.0 server or workstation, Service Pack 5 or higher • SunSoft JRE 1.1.8 Java Virtual Machine (included with the router) The StorWatch Data Gateway Specialist software has the following features: • SNMP and SNMP community support • Security • Saved views • Network discovery of routers • Router configuration and operation • Remote router firmware updates • Event logging • Router health checks or diagnostics • SCSI device configuration • Router monitoring More information on both the router and the StorWatch software can be found in the user’s guide, located at: http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/products/sangateway/refinfo.htm4.4 Netfinity Fibre Channel hub The Netfinity Fibre Channel Hub is a seven-port device. Much like in a traditional network, the hub relays data signals from one port to another. Although not needed for simple configurations, it is required for cluster and redundancy configurations and for those requiring cable lengths greater than 500 meters. If necessary, two hubs can be cascaded together for more complex configurations. Chapter 4. SAN equipment 109
  • Figure 60. Netfinity Fibre Channel Hub The hub supports both short-wave and long-wave fiber optic cabling. Short-wave connections are used for connectivity to the host adapter and to other SAN components (switches and routers) and can be up to 500 meters long. Long-wave cables are used for connections between hubs and can be up to 10 kilometers long. Since each hub has seven ports, to build large configurations, the hubs can be connected together as shown in Figure 61, such that up to a total of 37 ports can be made available for attachments. 1 2 3 4 5 1 6 2098-02 Each of the level 2 The level 1 hub hubs have six has one port ports available for available for connection to six connection to RAID controller the host adapter units Figure 61. Cascading multiple hubs such that 37 ports are available 4.4.0.1 Netfinity Fibre Channel hub GBICs The device used to connect the fiber optic cables to the electrical interface within the hub is known as a GBIC (gigabit interface converter). Four short-wave GBICs are supplied with the hub. In the Netfinity Fibre Channel solution there are two GBICs available: • Netfinity Fibre Channel short-wave GBIC • Netfinity Fibre Channel long-wave GBIC Any combination of short and long-wave GBICs is supported. The hub can be used for distance as well as expansion of your configuration.110 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The short-wave GBIC has a black casing as shown in Figure 62 and supports multi-mode 50 micron fiber cable. The long-wave GBIC has a blue casing and supports single-mode 9 micron fiber cables. Figure 62. IBM Netfinity Fibre Channel short-wave GBICs The GBIC packaging is designed to prevent improper insertion. The operational loop performance is not affected when you install or remove a GBIC. GBICs are hot pluggable. If you insert a GBIC without cables attached, it will remain in the bypassed state which means the GBIC is active but there are no active or valid return signals. When you attach a cable and a valid signal is detected, the hub will allow the GBIC and attached devices to join the loop.4.5 Cabling The Netfinity Fibre Channel PCI adapter and the router both support short-wave cables, but the Netfinity Fibre Channel Hub and switch support both short-wave and long-wave cables. The short-wave connections can be up to 500 meters long, and the long-wave cables can be up to 10 kilometers long. There are two short-wave cables available from IBM, a 5 meter cable and a 25 meter cable. These cables are 50 microns in diameter. The 62.5 micron short-wave cables are not supported. All Netfinity Fibre Channel devices use cables with SC connectors (SC stands for standardized connector). These connectors are keyed and can only be plugged in one way. Chapter 4. SAN equipment 111
  • Figure 63. Fiber optic cables with SC connectors4.6 Supported configurations This section explains currently supported SAN configurations using the above components and tape libraries. The support information can be found on the ServerProven Web site, at: http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/clustering/sanmatrix.shtml Currently, only two configurations have been tested: the Fibre Channel attached tape storage configuration and the server consolidation with tape pooling solution. The configuration using the Microsoft Cluster Server is planned, but not yet tested.112 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 4.6.1 Fibre Channel attached tape storage Netfinity Disk Enclosure Software Netfinity FC RAID Controller Netfinity FC Hub IBM FC SAN NetfinityTape Data Gateway Library Netfinity Server Figure 64. Fibre Channel attached tape storage Figure 64 shows the setup for Fibre Channel attached storage. The following components are supported: Netfinity servers • Netfinity 5000 • Netfinity 5500 • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 5500 M20 • Netfinity 5600 (Planned) • Netfinity 7000 M10 • Netfinity 8500 R Tape libraries • 490/980 GB DLT tape library (3502-x14) • Magstar 3570-Cxx • Magstar 3575-Lxx (planned) SAN equipment • Netfinity Fibre Channel hub • IBM SAN data gateway router • Netfinity Fibre Channel PCI adapter Chapter 4. SAN equipment 113
  • 4.6.2 Netfinity server consolidation with tape pooling Software IBM FC Switch IBM FC SAN NetfinityTape Data Gateway Library Netfinity Server Figure 65. Netfinity server consolidation with tape pooling Figure 65 shows the setup for Fibre Channel attached storage, providing server consolidation with tape pooling. The following components are supported: Netfinity servers • Netfinity 5000 • Netfinity 5500 • Netfinity 5500 M10 • Netfinity 5500 M20 • Netfinity 5600 (Planned) • Netfinity 7000 M10 • Netfinity 8500 R Tape libraries • 490/980 GB DLT tape library (3502-x14) • Magstar 3570-Cxx • Magstar 3575-Lxx (planned) SAN equipment • IBM SAN data switch (both 8 and 16 port models) • IBM SAN data gateway router • Netfinity Fibre Channel PCI adapter4.6.3 Sample SAN configuration This section will provide you with a detailed example of how to implement the above technologies. The setup that will be made uses Tivoli Storage Manager (see 5.1, “Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 124) as tape management and backup/restore software.114 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Netfinity 7000 SWL FC Interface Tivoli Storage Manager Library Client FC PCI adapter SCSI Interface StorWatch 2 Ethernet Interface 2109-S16 Switch 2108-R03 Router Server-to-Server communication drives/volume handling drive/volume requests TCP/IP DLT 3502-R14 FC PCI adapter Netfinity 7000 Tivoli Storage Manager Library Server 1 Magstar 3570Figure 66. SAN test setup Figure 66 shows the setup of the test environment. A first server, 1 , will be the main Tivoli Storage Manager server. This machine will be responsible for making backups of clients attached to the network. In order to do this, the machine has storage pools consisting of both disk, and a locally attached tape library (Magstar 3570). The second server, 2 , represents a large file or application server. The problem faced is that network bandwidth is not enough to be able to make a backup of this machine to the main server. The solution using SAN fabric, is to attach the server to a shared 490/980 GB DLT tape library (IBM 3502-R14). The shared library is also used by the main Tivoli Storage Manager server to make copies of its local tapes. The purpose of that operation is disaster recovery. When a local disaster occurs, remote copies of all the local tapes are available. The setup consists of two major steps: hardware installation and configuration and software installation and configuration. 4.6.3.1 Hardware installation and configuration Installation of the hardware components is limited to connecting Fibre Channel cables, and installing the PCI Fibre Channel adapter in both Netfinity systems. When starting your Netfinity system, check if the BIOS of the adapter equals the supported one, which is 1.35. The operating system requirement is Windows NT 4.0, Service Pack 5. After booting the operating system, install the required device driver, QL2100.SYS Version 6.16 or later. To do this, open the Windows NT control panel, and start the SCSI Adapters application. Go to the Drivers tab, Chapter 4. SAN equipment 115
  • and add the driver. You will need to reboot after that. After the reboot, you can go back to the application, and check if all devices are recognized. Figure 67. Fibre Channel adapter driver The SAN Data Gateway Router (2108-R03) should only be configured if you will manage it remotely. In order to do this, you must set an IP address that can be used in your environment. To set this IP address, connect to the router using a serial connection through the service port (see 4.3, “IBM SAN Data Gateway Router” on page 107). The connection should be made using a standard null-modem cable. To configure the session, use the following settings: • 19200 Baud • 8 data bits • 1 stop bit • No parity • Xon/Xoff flow control Use any terminal program to connect. After connecting through the serial interface, log on using the default user ID and password, which both are equal to StorWatch. Next, you can use the ethAddrSet and ethEnable commands to set the TCP/IP address of the box and enable the Ethernet connection. The exact syntax for the address setting command is: ethAddrSet “a.b.c.d” Once this is done, you can use the StorWatch SAN Data Gateway Specialist to monitor and configure the router. The setup of the switch is almost the same as the router: configure an IP address and manage it using the StorWatch SAN Switch Specialist. For the 2109-S16 switch in our configuration, this is done using the front panel on the box. For the S08 switch, you can again use the provided RS-232 service port to connect. To set the IP address using the operator panel, press the down arrow until the configuration menu selection appears. Next, use the left arrow button to select the IPaddress option, and then use the left arrow again to set the IP address. Once this is done, you can connect to the switch using a Java-enabled browser. Just116 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • enter the IP address that you just set, and the StorWatch SAN Switch Specialistwill load.This completes the hardware setup of the configuration. For information aboutmore advanced configurations, such as zoning, refer to the manuals of the switchand the router.4.6.3.2 Software installation and configurationOnce the hardware is installed and configured, as explained in 4.6.3.1, “Hardwareinstallation and configuration” on page 115, you can start the installation of TivoliStorage Manager V3.7 for Windows NT. Both servers will need to be installed.However, the installation will differ for each machine. The reason for this is thatboth will have different functions. In the Tivoli Storage Manager SANimplementation, one server will be called the library manager, while the othersystem will be the library client .The library manager will control physical access to the library. This means thatthis machine will be responsible for serializing access to the tape devices, andcontrolling the physical volumes inside the library. To be able to do this, thefollowing operations will be done by the library manager: • Library initialization • Volume mounts and dismounts • Check in and check out of library volumes • Library auditsThe library client will send requests to mount volumes to the library manager. Theclient, in other words, has no direct access to the library robotics or the physicalvolumes inside the library. There is however direct access and control over thetape drives in the library.To install the two Tivoli Storage Manager servers, please refer to 6.1, “TivoliStorage Manager for Windows NT” on page 159. Follow the procedure explainedfor installation. When doing the configuration however, do not define anySAN-connected tape devices or libraries using the wizard for the library manager.The local 3570 Magstar library can be defined using the wizards. In this example,we didn’t use the wizards at all to configure the library client. The reason for thatis that the wizard configures a typical TSM server. Our case however is ratherspecial. That is why we used the command line and Web administration interfaceto configure the machine.After installation has finished, and initial configuration is done as explained aboveand in 6.1, “Tivoli Storage Manager for Windows NT” on page 159, the followingsteps will need to be performed:1. Server-to-server communication setup between library client and library manager2. Physical definition of library on library manager3. Logical definition of library on library client4. Setting up the storage hierarchy on the library clientThe first step is setting up the server-to-server communication on both machines.Server-to-server communication is used by Tivoli Storage Manager tocommunicate between two servers. Besides the library sharing, it can also beused to define remote storage pools located on a different server. To do this, you Chapter 4. SAN equipment 117
  • must first set a number of TSM environment variables. Open the Tivoli Storage Manager admin command line interface, and log on using your TSM administrator user ID and password. On the library manager, issue the following commands: SET SERVERNAME SANSRV SET SERVERPASSWORD SAN SET CROSSDEFINE ON SET SERVERHLADDRESS 1.1.1.100 SET SERVERLLADDRESS 1500 On the library client, issue similar commands, but with different values: SET SERVERNAME FILESERVER SET SERVERPASSWORD SAN SET CROSSDEFINE ON SET SERVERHLADDRESS 1.1.1.101 SET SERVERLLADDRESS 1500 The definitions above define a name for the server, a password, the TCP/IP address and port number (respectively high-level address and low-level address). These definitions should be made on the machine where they are valid. Their use is to import system parameters inside the Tivoli Storage Manager server application. Finally, the CROSSDEFINE parameter is used, so that you only need to define the remote server on one machine instead of on both. The server definition command, issued on the library manager is as follows: DEFINE SERVER FILESERVER SERVERPASSWORD=SAN CROSSDEFINE=YES HLADDRESS=1.1.1.101 LLADDRESS=1500 The above command defines the library client to the library manager, and through the cross define setup, also the library manager to the library client. Now that server-to-server communication has been set up successfully, you will need to setup the physical library on the library manager. The following commands will define a library and the tape drive installed. DEFINE LIBRARY 3502R14 LIBTYPE=SCSI DEVICE=LB0.1.0.4 SHARED=YES DEFINE DRIVE 3502R14 DLT7000DRV DEVICE=MT0.2.0.4 ELEMENT=16 DEFINE DEVCLASS DLT7000 DEVTYPE=DLT FORMAT=35C LIBRARY=3502R14 Using the above commands, we defined a tape library, named 3502R14, containing one tape device, DLT7000DRV, which functions according to the DLT 7000 standard (DEVCLASS definition). The SHARED=YES parameter on the library definition command will enable the library manager to share this library between servers. In order to use the library, you still need to label the volumes inserted, and assign them to the library. This can be done through the media labeling wizard, or by using the following two commands:118 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • LABEL LIBVOL 3502R14 SEARCH=YES SOURCE=BARCODE CHECKIN LIBVOL 3502R14 SEARCH=YES STATUS=SCRATCHThe above commands look for all cartridges inserted in the tape library, and labelthem using the barcode reader (matching the volume label to the barcode labelon each cartridge). If you do not have a barcode reader available, you can use theSOURCE=PROMPT parameter, which will prompt you for a label.This completes the library definition on the library manager. The next step will beto define the library to the library client. This is done using the followingcommands: DEFINE LIBRARY 3502R14 LIBTYPE=SHARED PRIMARYLIBMANAGER=SANSRV DEFINE DRIVE 3502R14 DLT7000DRV DEVICE=MT0.2.0.4 ELEMENT=16 DEFINE DEVCLASS DLT7000 DEVTYPE=DLT FORMAT=35C LIBRARY=3502R14As you can see, the drive and device class definitions are exactly the same as onthe library manager. The difference is the library definition. We define the3502R14 library as being of a shared type, and managed by the primary librarymanager, SANSRV.Next, we will need to set up a storage hierarchy and policy on the library client.The purpose of this setup is to be able to move data from the library client directlyto the tape device. The reason for this is that we have too much local data to go tothe main TSM server. With this as the goal, the local backup client should back upits data immediately to the tape device. When setting up a storage hierarchy, thefirst step is to set up a storage pool, which reflects volumes in the 3502R14library, and update the policy definition, so that the copy group definition movesits data to the define storage pool.The storage pool definition can be done using the Web administration interface(see Figure 68 on page 120). Start the interface, go to the Sequential AccessStorage Pools folder in Server Storage, and select Define Storage Pool from theOperations menu. Chapter 4. SAN equipment 119
  • Figure 68. Defining a storage pool using the Web administration interface One thing that is useful is to set the maximum scratch volumes allowed to a value other than 0. This will allow you to use tape volumes from the scratch pool, instead of volumes specifically defined to the above storage pool. Next, update the policy so that it uses the newly defined storage pool. To do this, go to the Copy Group page in the Policy Domain view. Select the defined backup copy group, and select the Update Copy Group command from the Operations menu. This will bring up Figure 69. Update the copy destination file with the newly defined storage pool.120 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 69. Update copy group using the Web administration interface Next, go to the Management Classes folder, and activate the configuration using the Operations menu. Once the above is done, you can start taking backups with the local client on the library client. When the tape is used, you will see a mount request handled by the library manager. This is the only time communication between client and manager will take place. During the backup, all data moves directly over the SAN fabric from the library client to the library. Chapter 4. SAN equipment 121
  • 122 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Chapter 5. Software This chapter describes some of the major backup software packages available today on the market. Products covered are: • Tivoli Storage Manager for Windows NT and OS/2 • Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups • VERITAS NetBackup • Legato NetWorker • ARCserveIT for Windows NT and NetWare • VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows NT and NetWare Installation of the software and how to configure it to work with IBM tape drives is covered in Chapter 6, “Installation and configuration” on page 159. The following tables show the IBM tape drives supported by various backup packages.Table 17. Supported software 40/80 GB 35/70 GB 20/40 GB 20/40 GB 20/40 GB 12/24 GB IBM NS20 DLT DLT DLT 8 mm 4 mm 4 mm DDS-4 DDS-3 TSM NT V3.7.1 S S S S S S TSM OS/2 S S S S V2R1L15 TDP for S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 Workgroups VERITAS NetBackup NetWorker NT S1,3 S1 S1 S1 S V5.5.1 NetWorker S2 S1 S1 NetWare ARCserveIT S1 S S S S1 S1 S1 V6.6x ARCServeIT S1 S S S S1 S1 NetWare V6.6 Backup Exec NT I I I I I I I Backup Exec I I I I I I I NetWare Sytos Premium S S S V2.2a for OS/2 I: Supported by IBM S: Supported by software manufacturer Blank: Not supported Notes: 1.Support for generic Quantum, Exabyte and HP devices. 2.Only supported on NetWare 4.12 3.Currently supported as DLT 7000 type© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 123
  • Table 18. Software support for libraries IBM 3502 IBM 3502 IBM 3447 IBM 3449 IBM 3570 IBM 3575 Library Loader C2x TSM NT V3.7.1 S S S S S S TSM OS/2 V2R1L15 S S S S TDP for Workgroups S S S VERITAS NetBackup S S S S NetWorker NT V5.5.1 S S S S NetWorker NetWare ARCserveIT NT V6.6x S S S S ARCserveIT NetWare S S S V6.6 Backup Exec NT S S S Backup Exec NetWare S S S S Sytos Premium V2.2a for OS/2 I: Supported by IBM S: Supported by software manufacturer Blank: Not supported5.1 Tivoli Storage Manager Note IBM’s ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager, or ADSM, has been rebranded to Tivoli ADSM, and then changed to be the base of the new Tivoli Storage Management product set. This rebranding also led to new naming and product version numbers. The current version for what was known as ADSM is now Tivoli Storage Manager Version 3.7. IBM’s Tivoli Storage Manager integrates backup, archive and space management functions. Tivoli Storage Manager manages your storage media based on a set of policies, which you can customize for different types of data and groups of users. You can also automate some operations, such as client backups and server database backups. Tivoli Storage Manager provides a wide range of versions for different platforms. Server platforms include OS/2 (Version 2.1 server), Windows NT, AIX, HP UNIX, Sun Solaris, AS/400 (Version 3.1), MVS. and VM (Version 3.1). Client platforms include Windows NT (Intel and Alpha processor versions), Windows 2000, Novell NetWare (Versions 3.12 through 5.0), Windows 98, Windows 95, AIX, HP UNIX and Sun Solaris. There is also a Linux client available.124 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 70. Tivoli Storage Manager sample client/server environment5.1.1 Products and base components Terminology Tivoli Storage Manager uses a terminology where machines that are backed up are called client nodes, and the backup server is called the server. In this context, file servers and application servers that require backup, are called clients or nodes. The Tivoli Storage Management product set includes the following products: • Tivoli Storage Manager base product This is the storage server, including a backup archive client and administration tools. This collection of functions is also referred to as the first level of data protection. • Tivoli Disaster Recovery Manager This product enables you to create a disaster recovery plan. Also referred to as the second level of data protection. • Tivoli Space Manager Used for automated space management. This function incorporates the old Hierarchical Storage Management, or HSM, functions of ADSM. • Tivoli Data Protection for application clients These products enable you to back up and restore specific applications. Currently, the following applications can be backed up through these application clients: • Lotus Notes • Lotus Domino • Lotus Domino, S/390 edition Chapter 5. Software 125
  • • Microsoft Exchange • Microsoft SQL server • Oracle • Informix (UNIX) • Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups This disaster recovery tool, described in detail in 5.2, “Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups” on page 135, is a Windows NT stand- alone backup/recovery tool. Due to the multitude of products currently in the Tivoli Storage Management product set, we will limit ourselves to the base product for now. This base product can again be split into the following components: Server Provides storage management for clients and maintains a database of Tivoli Storage Manager information. Server Storage Contains files that are backed up, archived, and migrated from workstations. Server storage consists of pools of random and sequential access media. Server Database The Tivoli Storage Manager database will hold all information used by Tivoli Storage Manager. From Version 3.0 on, there is an ODBC driver available, which allows you to retrieve information from this database using ODBC compliant applications (like Lotus 123, Lotus Approach, etc.). Enterprise Administration Provides an interface to the Tivoli Storage Manager server. Important for people that used to work with ADSM, is that the administrative interfaces have been reduced. Currently, only the command line interface and the Web-based interface are available. Backup-Archive Client Provides backup and archive services to workstations. Besides the standard interface, a Java-based Web client is available that enables you to do restores to all clients in your environment, and this from one central place. API Client Provides an application programming interface. Note The DB2 solution for OS/2 and Windows NT is included in the base API client. The above components will give us the possibility to perform the following functions: • Backup and restore Backup enables you to save copies of files on the Tivoli Storage Manager server. From a client, you can restore files that have been backed up to the Tivoli Storage Manager server. During a restore, Tivoli Storage Manager126 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • copies the backup version from the Tivoli Storage Manager server to your client. Restore enables you to recover a single file or an entire file system. Starting from Version 3, you can do a so-called Point In Time restore, which enables you to do a restore of an entire system as it was at a certain point in time. • Archive and retrieve Archive enables you to save copies of files for some period of time on the Tivoli Storage Manager server. Archive copies are never replaced with more current versions (as is the case with backups). They are preserved exactly as you store them. The process of restoring the archive packages is called retrieve. In this new release, enhancements have been made to make disaster recovery easier. This is implemented by the backup set solution. This backup set has two features: • Instant archive Instant archive is used to create a self-contained copy of a client’s files. This copy is placed, for example, on sequential media, and is entirely managed by the server’s archive policy and sequential volume management. An additional feature is that this archive can be created from backup copies of files already residing on the server, meaning that no or little network traffic is necessary. • Rapid recovery Rapid recovery, as the name suggests, can be used to improve performance of restores when a client disaster recovery is necessary. This can be accomplished in two ways. The first is a LAN based method that uses the archive set for restores. This is faster than just using the incremental backup objects, because the entire backup set is one entity for the server. Also, all the backup objects are located on one media set. The second possibility, usable for constrained network environments (WAN connections, mobile users), is a LAN free method. Here, portable media is created. This portable media can be moved to the client, and be restored locally, without using the Tivoli Storage Management server. This implies that the created media can be read at the client. So, unless you have compatible tape hardware at the client side, you should use the FILE device class capability of ADSM. This device class definition simulates sequential media on direct access media. You could create sequential files on a read-write CD, or ZIP drive, either of which is more portable than high-end tapes.5.1.2 Server data management This section describes the different concepts used by the Tivoli Storage Manager to manage the data stored on the server. It includes how data will be arranged logically, using policy management, and physically using hierarchical storage. 5.1.2.1 Tivoli Storage Manager Policy Tivoli Storage Manager allows clients to do the following: • Back up files to server storage to prevent loss of data. • Store copies of multiple versions of a file. • Archive files to server storage for long-term storage. Chapter 5. Software 127
  • • Utilize hierarchical storage management to free storage space by moving data to server storage. The original file is replaced with a pointer to the location of the original in server storage. This is also called space management or migration. This function is available through Tivoli Space Manager. See 5.1.1, “Products and base components” on page 125. Policy is defined by administrators in policy objects: policy domains, policy sets, management classes, and backup and archive copy groups. Figure 71 shows how Tivoli Storage Manager organizes client data. Figure 71. How Tivoli Storage Manager controls backup, archive and space management 1 A Tivoli Storage Manager client backs up, archives, or migrates a file. The file is bound to a management class. 2 If, according to the management class, the file is eligible for backup, archive, or space management, the client sends the file and file information to the server. 3 The server checks the management class or copy group to determine where in server storage to store the file initially. 4 The server stores the file in the appropriate storage pool and stores information about the file in the database. When files in server storage are migrated from one pool to another, the server updates the file information in the database.128 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Each level of data management has a specific function in organizing data. Thesefunctions are the following:Policy domain The policy domain is the largest entity, that groups a certain number of policy sets. Nodes that are defined will be assigned to a policy domain.Policy set The policy set will group management classes and copy groups. You can define several policy sets for each domain, but there can be only one active policy set at a time. This active policy set will be the policy set that will be used.Management class Management classes are the level to which data objects are assigned. Each object that is backed up is bound to a management class. For each policy set, one default management class exists. You can have several management classes at a time. Files that are backed up will be bound to the default management class, unless you specifically send them to another class. Directories however, will be assigned to the management class which contains the copy group with the longest retention period. There is a possibility to define one management class, DIRMC, which will only be used for directories.Copy group The lowest level of the storage policy setup are the copy groups. For each management class, you can have a backup, archive and space management copy group. The copy group will define which storage pool will be used, the number of versions to keep, how long to keep them, and the serialization. Serialization is used to determine if a file that changes during backup will be kept as such, or if the program should retry to get a consistent copy of the file.5.1.2.2 ExpirationFiles remain in server storage until they expire and expiration processing occurs.A file expires based on criteria set in Tivoli Storage Manager policy. For example,backup policy may specify that up to two backup versions of a file can be kept inserver storage. If a third backup version of a file is created, the oldest version inserver storage expires.Backup policy may also specify that if a file is deleted from a client file system, itexpires after 60 days. During expiration processing, Tivoli Storage Managerdeletes from the database those files that have expired. Physical deletion of thebackup file only happens on random access media (like a hard disk). Onsequential media (tape), a process has to be started to enable deletion of thisspace. This is called reclamation . When designing a backup solution, keep inmind that tape reclamation needs two tape drives. You can use a mechanism thatis called single drive reclamation (available in Version 3 servers), but then youmust have sufficient disk space.5.1.2.3 Storage devices and mediaTivoli Storage Manager represents physical storage devices and media with thefollowing objects: Chapter 5. Software 129
  • Library A Tivoli Storage Manager library is one or more drives (and possibly robotic devices) with similar media mounting requirements. Drive Each Tivoli Storage Manager-defined drive represents a drive mechanism in a tape or optical device. Device Class Each device is associated with a device class that specifies the device type and how the device manages its media. Tivoli Storage Manager has a predefined device class (DISK) for random access devices. Storage pools and volumes A storage pool is a named collection of storage volumes, of the same media type. A storage pool is associated with a device class. For example, an 8 mm tape storage pool contains only 8 mm tape volumes. A storage pool volume is associated with a specific storage pool. Figure 72 summarizes the relationships among the physical devices, Tivoli Storage Manager storage objects, and Tivoli Storage Manager clients:130 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 72. Putting it all together1 When clients or nodes are registered, they are associated with a policy domain.The other Tivoli Storage Manager policy objects are within the policy domain.2 , 3 When a file is backed up, archived, or migrated from a client, it is bound to amanagement class. A management class and the backup and archive copygroups within it specify where files are stored and how they are managed whenthey are backed up or archived.4 , 5 Storage pools are the destinations for backed up, archived, orspace-managed files. Copy groups specify storage pools for backed up orarchived files. Storage pools are mapped to device classes, which representdevices. The storage pool contains volumes as indicated in the device typeassociated with the device class. For example, a storage pool that is mapped to adevice class with a device type of 8MM contains only 8 mm tapes. All devicesrequire a device class that specifies a device type. Tape devices also require alibrary and drive for management of media, including the mounting of that media. Chapter 5. Software 131
  • 6 Files that are initially stored on disk storage pools can migrate to tape storage pools if the pools are set up in a storage hierarchy. To use your storage resources efficiently, you can arrange server storage into a hierarchy. You can then define when data is migrated from faster, more expensive storage pools (disk, for example) to slower, less expensive storage pools (tape, for example). You can also store data on another Tivoli Storage Manager system, and create a two-tier or multi-tier environment (this is called server-to-server communication, and is only available with Version 3 servers). Terminology Some of the terminology used in the space management function, tends to get confused with terminology used in the entire ADSM setup. The first term is hierarchical storage management (HSM). When talking about the storage management of the ADSM server, we talk about HSM for ADSM server storage pools. When discussing the file migration and retrieve processes, we are talking about HSM for ADSM clients. The same confusion can exist for migration. Migration in the sense of storage management means moving data from one storage pool to another. When discussing migration in an HSM client environment, it means moving files from the client’s file system to storage on the ADSM server.5.1.3 Automating client operations You can automate client operations, such as backup and archive. Figure 73 shows the Tivoli Storage Manager objects that may be involved in automated client operations.132 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Association ADSM ADSM Schedules ADSM Server ADSM Backup-Archive Clients Storage Pools Daily dsm.opt Weekly exclude D:*.obj include C:dev*.bak mccrit include C:res*.* mcengr Policy Domain Policy Set Management Management Class Class (MCENGR) (MCCRIT) Backup Copy Backup Copy Group Group Archive Copy Archive Copy Group GroupFigure 73. Automating client operationsThey are: • Include-exclude criteria on each Tivoli Storage Manager client Determines which files are backed up, archived, or space managed, and binds files to management classes. • Management class Determines where client files are stored and how they are managed. • Schedule Determines when client operations such as backup occur. • Association defined between client and schedule Determines which schedules are run for a client.The client can specify a management class for a file or set of files, or can use thedefault management class for the policy domain. The client specifies amanagement class by using an INCLUDE option in the client’s include-excludelist or file (see A in Figure 73). The management class contains information thatdetermines how Tivoli Storage Manager handles files that clients back up,archive, or migrate. For example, the management class contains the backupcopy group and the archive copy group. Chapter 5. Software 133
  • Each copy group points to a destination, which is a storage pool where files are stored when they are backed up or archived (see E in Figure 73). Clients are assigned to a policy domain when they are registered. Schedules that can automate client operations are also associated with a policy domain (see C in Figure 73). To automate client operations, you define schedules for a domain. Then you define associations between schedules and clients in the same domain (see B in Figure 73). For a schedule to work on a particular client, the client machine must be turned on and must be running the client scheduler. The scheduled client operations are called events, and information about events are stored in the Tivoli Storage Manager database (see D in Figure 73). For example, you can query the server to determine which scheduled events completed successfully and which failed.5.1.4 Supported devices The following tape devices are supported by the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Windows NT Version 3 Release 7 device driver: • 8 mm 20/40 GB tape drive • DLT 20/40 GB tape drive • DLT 35/70 GB tape drive • DLT 40/80 GB tape drive • DLT 3502 autoloader and library • DLT 3447 Library • 8 mm 3449 Library • Magstar 3570 • Magstar 3575 If the device is not supported by the Tivoli Storage Manager device driver, but is supported by a Windows NT device driver, you can use the Windows NT device driver to control the device. You must define a device class with device type GENERICTAPE for devices used in this way. When you use a Windows NT device driver, you must use a device type of GENERICTAPE when you define the device class for the device. For devices associated with such a device class, Tivoli Storage Manager does not know the actual device type or recording format. For example, if you use a Windows NT device driver for a 4 mm drive, Tivoli Storage Manager does not know that the drive is a 4 mm drive, and does not know that the drive is using the DDS2 recording format. Tivoli Storage Manager knows only that the device is a tape drive, and uses the drives default recording format. As a result, you must be careful when setting up GENERICTAPE devices. Because Tivoli Storage Manager does not know the device type, Tivoli Storage Manager cannot prevent you from making some mistakes that can cause problems. For example, you could define a 4 mm drive and an 8 mm drive to the same manual library, then define one GENERICTAPE device class that points to that library. Tivoli Storage Manager does not know that the drives do not use compatible tapes and may end up requesting that you do the impossible: mount a 4 mm cartridge into an 8 mm drive.134 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The following tape devices are supported by IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for OS/2 Version 2 (V2R1 level 0.15, fix level IP21355): • 4 mm 12/24 GB DDS-3 tape drive • 8 mm 20/40 GB tape drive • DLT 20/40 GB tape drive • DLT 35/70 GB tape drive • DLT 3447 Library • 8 mm 3449 Library • Magstar 3570 • Magstar 3575 For more information and updates, please refer to Tivoli Storage Manager’s supported devices Web page: http://www.tivoli.com/support/storage_mgr/adsercli.htm5.2 Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups, or TDPfW, is a new product, which is part of the Tivoli Storage Management product set (see 5.1.1, “Products and base components” on page 125). It is a disaster recovery tool, usable on Windows NT machines. Using Object Replication Technology, it is able to create an exact image of an entire hard disk. This includes partition information, boot records and FAT and NTFS partitions. The copy is created on locally attached tape devices. When a disaster occurs, a restore can be done using these tapes. In order to do this, you can create diskettes based on the Windows NT setup diskettes. Since the object replication technology works at a level lower than the operating system, all information can be copied and restored. This includes security information and open files. One thing to keep in mind is that hardware must be equal in order to create a bootable system after recovery. This is because all hardware and software configurations are in the disk copy that is created on tape.5.2.1 Concepts The following describes the terminology used within a Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups environment. 5.2.1.1 Replicate Due to the way data is moved to tape, the traditional backup terminology is not accurate. Since the data is moved by doing a block-by-block capture of the disk, replication of the data is a better description. This also explains how data is replicated: all disk blocks are moved to tape, and during recovery, these disk blocks are placed in the exact same location on a new hard disk. You can however also restore individual files or disk volumes. 5.2.1.2 Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups host This part of the Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups software is the one that is doing the actual replication of data from disk to tape. The other major component performs administrative tasks. Chapter 5. Software 135
  • 5.2.1.3 The mount object The object holding the replicated data is referred to as the mount. The mount can be accessed as a normal file system, using for example Windows Explorer. This method is used to restore single files, instead of using the disaster recovery procedure. 5.2.1.4 The partition data object The partition data object stores information on partition tables from the replicated hard disk. It is necessary information when doing a disaster recovery to a new hard disk.5.2.2 Components Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups consists of two components: an administrative part and the host replication part. The administrative part is used to start and schedule replications, monitor activity and tape management. It can be installed on any Windows NT, Windows 98 or Windows 95 system and can manage a host locally, or several hosts remotely. This is done using TCP/IP communication. Note The administrative part of TDPfW always communicates with the host using TCP/IP, even when installed locally. That is why you must always have TCP/IP installed and functioning. If you have a stand-alone system, without network connection, the Windows NT internal loopback TCP/IP address, 127.0.0.1, can be used. The host part will communicate with the attached SCSI tape device. This host part is responsible for copying data to tape. The above components enable TDPfW to be used in small workgroup-like environments. However, it is possible to integrate Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups into larger, enterprise storage management setups. This is done by linking the hosts to the Tivoli Storage Manager (see 5.1, “Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 124). By doing this, you can use the Tivoli Storage Manager to schedule replications done by TDPfW, and store events centrally in the Tivoli Storage Manager server activity log.136 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 74. Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups host configuration5.2.3 Supported devices Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups supports the following devices: • IBM 35/70 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm • IBM 20/40 GB DDS-4 • IBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 • IBM 3447 DLT library • IBM 3449 8 mm library • IBM 3570 Magstar library5.3 VERITAS NetBackup VERITAS NetBackup is a client/server backup product, available on Windows NT and UNIX platforms. The NetBackup client software provides backup and disaster recovery services. Besides standard file backup, you can also perform online backups of Microsoft SQL server, Microsoft Exchange, Oracle DB2 and Lotus Notes databases. The NetBackup server holds the storage devices and the databases, called catalogs, that contain information about backups, storage devices and media, configuration settings and errors. The clients connect to this server using TCP/IP. Chapter 5. Software 137
  • In order to simplify large configurations, NetBackup uses centralized management for different servers, and has the ability to group servers into so called clusters . In this cluster environment, one server functions as the master, while others are designated to be slaves. The master backup server is the administrative control server, and is responsible for controlling operations on slave servers. These control operations include scheduling and backup operations. The master server also holds the catalog of all backup objects stored on the different slave servers. This provides a transparent approach to backing up data, where users do not need to know where their data is actually stored. Supported server platforms include Windows NT and several UNIX brands. Supported client platforms include: • Windows NT • Windows 95, 98 and 2000 • Novell NetWare • OS/2 • OS/400 (Using LXI Media Management System) • UNIX brands (including Linux)5.3.1 Concepts This section explains the different concepts and terminology used by NetBackup. 5.3.1.1 Storage units In order to simplify the use of multiple storage devices, NetBackup groups these devices and media in storage units. When grouping devices of the same type and media of the same density, backup images are redirected to these storage unit objects, rather than the physical devices. This enables you to assign backups to a storage medium with certain attributes, without having to worry about physical devices. Storage devices can be either disks or external storage, such as tape or optical devices. There are three categories of storage units: • Directly attached external storage devices, under control of the Media Manager (see 5.3.1.5, “Media Manager” on page 140). • Remote storage units, managed by the media manager, through a mechanism called the Network Data Management Protocol. • Disk file system storage units, consisting of a specific directory. 5.3.1.2 Backup classes Backup classes are used to group clients with specific backup needs. A client must belong to one of these classes, but can be part of more than one. Backup classes define which files need to be backed up, the storage unit that must be used, together with the volumes, and the assigned schedules. Besides these assignments, specific attributes, like compression, encryption and priority are also defined in the backup class. 5.3.1.3 Scheduling Schedules are defined to a backup class, and apply to all clients and files contained in that class. You can control backup and archive processes using the schedules. Attributes that can be set for a schedule include the type of backup, the start time and duration, the frequency and the retention level. You can also override class settings, including the storage unit to be used and the volume pool.138 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 5.3.1.4 Backup and restore processesClient backup can occur in three ways: • Scheduled backup Scheduled backups are used to automatically start the backup process at a certain time. They are defined by the administrator. • Manual backup started by the administrator • Manual backup started by the clientFor all three types of backup, the files are moved from the client to the server. Todo this, the client creates a backup image, which is sent to the server. The serverthen moves this image to the appropriate storage unit. Information about filesresiding in the backup image, is also sent by the client to the server. Thisinformation is stored in the backup image catalog. NetBackup Client Server NetBackup Backup Image Agent Media Catalog info Manager Storage Units Backup Manager Initiate Backup Database Data Manager Backup CatalogFigure 75. Data flow for backup operationsRestores are initiated by the client. A request is made to the server to restore oneor more files. The server then identifies the device and tape volumes (when thebackup resides on a tape volume) necessary to complete the restore. This isdone by looking at the backup catalog. Using the True Image Recovery restoretechnique, deleted files are not restored. Chapter 5. Software 139
  • NetBackup Client Server client User request Restore interface Deamon Restore data Storage client Media Units software Manager Restore Initiate restore Manager Data Database Backup Manager Catalog Figure 76. Data flow for restore operations 5.3.1.5 Media Manager The NetBackup Media Manager is the part of NetBackup that controls tape devices, and all media associated with them. It consists of three parts: • Robotic management, used for managing the robotic part of tape libraries and autoloaders. • Device management, used for tape device management. This includes queries to the volume database part of the catalog in order to locate volumes and issuing mount requests. • Media management, which handles everything that concerns tape media. This includes statistic information. The Media Manager can also be used to share tape libraries between servers. In this scenario, the NetBackup servers requiring access to the library send requests to the NetBackup server acting as robot master. This robot master sends the robot requests to the library. For performance, each server can have a separate data path to the library.5.3.2 Supported devices VERITAS NetBackup supports the following IBM tape libraries: • IBM 3447 DLT tape library • IBM 3449 8 mm tape library • IBM 3570 Magstar library • IBM 3575 Magstar library For more and updated information, please consult the VERITAS support Web pages, at: http://support.veritas.com140 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 5.4 Legato NetWorker Legato NetWorker is a backup/restore application, which functions according to a client/server model. The NetWorker product set is made up of different components. The base product set consists of the server and client software. The server can be installed on Windows NT, NetWare and several UNIX platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, Dynix/PTX,Tru64 UNIX, SGI IRIX and Sun Solaris). The client software is supported on current Windows versions (NT Server and Workstation, 98 and 95), Novel NetWare, Macintosh and UNIX platforms (including Linux). Besides this base product, available in three editions (workgroup edition, network edition and power edition), the following add-on components can be installed: • Autochanger module, providing support for tape libraries and autochangers. • NetWorker Archive, extending the backup capabilities of the product, and providing archival functionality. • NetWorker HSM (only for the Solaris platform). • NetWorker SNMP, providing an SNMP agent. • The BusinesSuite, which combines backup agents for the following database products: DB2, Lotus Notes, Oracle, Sybase, Informix and Microsoft Exchange and SQL server. The client/server setup of this product is comparable to the previous products already discussed. The server functions as the primary resource, and deals with keeping backup databases, policies and device and media management. These databases consist of the client file index, which stores what client backups, or save sets are stored on the server, and the media database. The client provides a user interface that sends the save sets to the server. The client can be any system in the network, or locally installed on the server.5.4.1 Concepts The NetWorker product is logically split into separate components, called resources. These resources are the building blocks of the product, and the entities to which the administration product interfaces. The following list provides an overview of these resources, and their definitions: Server Identifies the local NetWorker server definitions. These include multiplexing of client backup and restore sessions, security and notification settings. Also, storage nodes are defined in this resource. A storage node can be seen as a remote storage device. The indexes are kept on the local server. Storage nodes cannot be used with the workgroup edition. Client In the client resource, you define which objects you will backup. These objects can be entire file systems, specific volumes or individual files. Besides this, the retention policy will be defined. This enables you to keep a certain number of versions of a file for a certain amount of time. Directive Being a subpart of the client resource, directive resources will define how certain client data is backed up. Directives are small programs, using Application Specific Modules (ASM). Using file filters, you can define an ASM action for a specific file or sets of files. You can for example assign Aims that Chapter 5. Software 141
  • always back up a file (whether it has changed or not since the last backup), compress a file, don’t back up a file, password protect and encrypt certain files. Device Describes a device that is connected to the NetWorker server. It can also be a device connected to a remote storage node. NetWorker supports more than one device per server. The maximum number of devices depends on the type of server you have installed. The workgroup edition supports up to 2 devices, the network edition 16, and the power edition 32. Besides tape storage devices, you can also define a disk file device. This device resource will use the server’s hard disk to store save sets. Autochanger Used to describe a tape library or autoloader. You can define the physical attributes of the library (number of slots and device names), as well as certain functions like autoclean and use of the barcode readers. Pool Pools are used to group a number of volumes, defining which data they can receive. You can define pools for specific groups of clients, save sets and backup levels. Staging Save set staging allows NetWorker to move data from one device to another. It can be used for example to move data from a file device to a tape device. Label template Provides instructions for NetWorker to follow whenever the storage management application needs to create a label for a volume. Each pool is associated with a specific label template. Group Groups clients in order to define timing for schedules. Notification Using this resource you can define actions to take when certain events occur. Policy Sets the period that save sets will be kept on server storage and in the save set index. Schedule Schedules are used together with the group resource. While the group definition gives the start time of the backup operation, the schedule resource itself defines which level of backup (for example full or incremental) needs to be done on which day. Backup levels define which data will be backed up during the scheduled backup operation. Four self-explaining levels can be used, including Full, Incremental, Consolidated (differential) and Skip, which is used to skip a certain schedule (for example on a holiday). Besides these four, you can use 9 other levels, Level 1 through Level 9. When doing a backup of a certain level, only data changed since a prior backup with a lower level will be backed up. For example, if you back up using level 1, data changed since the last full backup (considered level 0) will be taken into account. If later a level 2 backup is launched, only data changed since the last level 1 backup will be moved. Using these levels, you can achieve high granularity of which data is backed up.142 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 5.4.2 Supported devices Legato NetWorker for Windows NT supports the following IBM tape drives and libraries: • IBM 40/80 GB DLT • IBM 35/70 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm • IBM 20/40 GB DDS-4 • IBM 3447 DLT library • IBM 3449 8 mm library • IBM Magstar 3570 library • IBM Magstar 3575 library The NetWorker for Novell NetWare supports these devices: • IBM 35/50 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm For more information about supported devices, consult the Legato Compatibility Guide, which is accessible at: http://www.legato.com/product_literature_library.html5.5 Computer Associates ARCserveIT for Windows NT ARCserveIT is the rebranding of the well known ARCserve product family. The ARCserveIT servers are available on Windows NT, Novel NetWare and UNIX platforms. This section is written with a focus on the Windows NT platform. ARCserveIT is available in 3 editions for the Windows NT platform. The different editions are designed to provide the appropriate amount of capability when installed on different classes of machines. The three editions are: • Workgroup Edition • Advanced Edition • Enterprise Edition The workgroup edition is used for small environments, supporting one Windows NT server and the attached clients. The client agents are available for Windows operating systems, OS/2, NetWare, Macintosh and UNIX systems. The advanced edition is suited for medium size businesses. The difference between the advanced and workgroup edition is the support for multiple servers, and a centralized management tool. Finally, the enterprise edition adds support for SAP R/3, advanced library systems and cross-platform management. Additionally, the above editions can be expanded using the following options: Disaster recovery option This option allows you to completely reinstall a Windows NT server or workstation after file system loss. Replication option The replication options performs a real-time replication of data from one server to another. Chapter 5. Software 143
  • When the first server suffers a failure, ARCserveIT redirects users to the secondary server. RAID option The RAID option allows you to arrange tape devices into a “hard disk like” RAID configuration. It provides data striping across multiple drives and can also be used for drive mirroring. The advantages of this system are availability and performance. Image option The image option performs a block-level hard disk snapshot to tape. The advantage of this is performance. Backup agent for open files This agent provides a way to back up files that are in use (opened or locked) during the backup processing. Tape library options The tape library option provides support for tape libraries. This module is primarily intended for larger libraries, while basic autoloader support is included within the base product. Client agent support Provides backup and restore capabilities for networked machines, running any of the following operating systems: • Windows 3.x, 95/98 • Macintosh • OS/2 • Windows NT server and workstation • NetWare • SUN OS • Solaris SPARC • Solaris Intel • AIX • HP/UX 9.x and 10.x • Silicon Graphics IRIX • Digital UNIX • SCO Open Server • SCO Unixware • AS/400 Networked library option NLO is used to share libraries across multiple ARCserveIT servers. Data migration support Adds Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) capabilities to the product. Optical library support This module enables ARCserveIT to use optical libraries or jukeboxes for HSM use. Database backup agents Provide online backup capabilities for the following database or messaging products: •Lotus Notes •SAP R/3 •Microsoft Exchange •Microsoft SQL server •Oracle144 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • •Informix •NonStop SQL/MX Some of the above options are only available on the advanced or enterprise editions. Examples include the HSM options. For additional and updated information on CA’s ARCserveIT products, please consult their Web site, at: http://www.cai.com5.5.1 Concepts ARCserveIT is made up of two main components, which interact to provide backup and restore functions. The ARCserveIT Manager submits backup and restore jobs to the server, and is used to manage the server’s database and generate reports. The ARCserveIT Server Admin is used to control ARCserveIT services. These services include the Job Engine, Tape Engine and Database Engine. The job engine is the scheduling system of the ARCserveIT server, and is used to start jobs at a certain time. The job engine interacts with the Job Queue, which holds all jobs that need to be run. When a job in the job queue is eligible to run, the job engine will send it to the appropriate handler. The tape engine is the part that is used to interface with the attached storage devices. It will select and communicate with a device required to run a certain job. Finally, the database engine records all activity, maintains a history of backed up objects (files, directories, drives and machines), as well as job results, statistics, and the media used. Figure 77 shows the server administration GUI, which can be used to control and configure these three engines: Chapter 5. Software 145
  • Figure 77. ARCserveIT server admin The main functions of the product include: • Backup • Restore • Media management • Device management • Database management • Reporting Additionally, some utilities are available, including server database recovery, tape scan functions, purge and copy.5.5.2 Supported devices The following IBM drives are supported by ARCserveIT for Windows NT Version 6.6x: • IBM NS20 tape drive • IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm • IBM 40/80 GB DLT • IBM 35/70 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB DLT • IBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 • IBM 24/48 GB DDS-4 • IBM 3447 DLT tape library • IBM 3449 8 mm tape library • IBM 3570 Magstar library • IBM 3575 Magstar library146 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The current list of supported devices can be found using the Certified Device List, located at: http://support.cai.com/techbases/asnt/arcnt66.html The DDS-4 and 40/80 GB DLT drives require a product patch, available at: http://support.cai.com/Download/patches/asitnt/LO57168.html http://support.cai.com/Download/patches/asitnt/LO63384.html http://support.cai.com/Download/patches/asitnt/LO63156.html5.6 Computer Associates ARCserveIT for NetWare ARCserveIT for NetWare is a modular client/server data management application that allows you to back up and restore data o n NetWare servers and workstations. It is made up of the following components: ARCserve Server : This component runs on a NetWare server, to which a tape device is attached. It consists of a scheduler module, job processing modules, a tape server and a database. ARCserve Manager : This component will run on a Windows 3.x or Windows 95/NT workstation. It is the main interface to manage all operations on the server. Client Agents : Agents allow workstations to be backed up to the server. ARCserve provides agents for DOS, Windows 3.x, Windows 95 and OS/2. Optionally, Windows NT, UNIX and Macintosh agents can be purchased from Cheyenne. Alert : The alert modules give you the possibility to send system and error messages. Possible alert mechanisms are SNMP, fax, e-mail, printers and pagers. The ARCserve manager and agents use your Novell network to communicate with your ARCserve server. The editions and options that are available, are equivalent to those for the ARCserveIT for Windows NT product (see 5.5, “Computer Associates ARCserveIT for Windows NT” on page 143). Features of ARCserveIT for NetWare include integrated virus scanning, that will pass files through a virus checker before writing to tape. ARCserveIT is also equipped with a loader program, which gives you an overview of all actions happening and checks versions of NLMs when starting ARCserveIT. This is especially useful in a Novell NetWare environment, where version management of modules is rather difficult. Finally, management can be centralized using a Windows-based administration program, called the ARCserveIT Manager, that is able to manage all ARCserveIT servers that are installed from one central site. Chapter 5. Software 147
  • 5.6.1 Concepts The ARCserveIT server is made up of three modules: • Job processing • Database module • Tape server The job processing module will scan the ARCserveIT queue for submitted jobs. This queue is based on NetWare’s native queue management services (QMS). Job are submitted to this queue by the ARCserveIT manager. Once a job is ready to run (based on the requested start date and time), the job scheduler will get the job from the queue and pass it on to the next two modules. The database module, using BTRIEVE, keeps track of the following information: • Backed up objects (files, directories, NDS objects, etc.) • Job information • Tape media information • Workstation information • Media pool information • Media locations (for tape cartridges stored off-site) Finally, the tape server is used to communicate with your tape device. It stores configuration settings, and is responsible for all operations (write, read, error handling) where tape hardware is involved. The following diagram, Figure 78, gives an overview of these components, and their associated NetWare loadable modules (NLMs). Job Processing Module SPX ARCserve ARCSERV.NLM INTREAVE.NLM NetWare agent APROCESS.NLM TCPIP Manager (Backup, Restore) ARCOPY.NLM WSTAPE.NLM OS2, Windows 3.x, NT , 95, DOS IPX (Copy) ARCserve USERVE6.NLM TCPIP UNIX agents Queue MACSERV6.NLM MacIntosh agents Appletalk FSTAPE.NLM NetWare Push agents NCP Database Module MACDB.NLM CLIENTS.NLM ASDB.NLM Tape Server Module TAPESRV.NLM STANDARD.NLM TAPEDB.NLM CHANGER.NLM BOARDSRV.NLM Figure 78. ARCserveIT for NetWare design148 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 5.6.2 Supported Devices ARCserveIT for NetWare Version 6.1 supports the following IBM tape devices: • IBM 40/80 GB DLT • IBM 35/70 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm • IBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 • IBM 3447 DLT library • IBM Magstar 3570 library • IBM Magstar 3575 library For more information and updates, please refer to CA’s supported devices Web page: http://support.cai.com/techbases/as61/asitnwcdl.html5.7 VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows NT VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows NT Version 7.3 is a data management solution for Windows NT networks, providing backup and restore capabilities for workstations and servers across the network. Backup Exec is available in four configurations which should be sufficient for most multi-platform networks of varying sizes: • Multi Server Edition Provides backup protection for Windows NT workstations and servers, and contains agent software for workstations running Windows 98, Windows 95, UNIX, and Macintosh. This edition also includes the Windows NT agent accelerator, which increases backup performance of remote Windows NT systems. • Single Server Edition Protects a single Windows NT server and any number of Windows NT workstations, Windows 98 and Windows 95 clients. • QuickStart Edition Provides backup protection for one Windows NT server. • Small Business Server Suite This configuration allows you to administer Backup Exec through the Microsoft BackOffice Small Business Server Console. Besides the server protection, agents are included to back up and restore SQL and Exchange servers. Backup Exec provides a number of add-on products that enhance the capabilities of the Multi Server and Single Server products. The following components are available: • Seagate Backup Exec Intelligent Disaster Recovery Option Provides a solution to help protect and recover a failed Windows NT server. A disaster preparation wizard guides you through the steps of creating a set of recovery diskettes to recover the Windows NT backup server. The information on the recovery diskettes includes the Windows NT system files necessary to make a failed Windows NT system operational following a disaster, together Chapter 5. Software 149
  • with information about the hardware profile, and information on the most recent backups which are used to recover the system to the point of the last backup. A disaster recovery wizard guides you through the steps necessary to get the computer to an operational state, and restore the computer’s data from the last backup set. • Seagate Backup Exec Autoloader Module The Autoloader Module provides Backup Exec with support for single-drive and multi-drive tape libraries. • IBM ADSM option Allows access to the ADSM data storage resources as though it were a backup device. Output from backup jobs can be automatically routed to the ADSM system just as if it were a large tape library or autoloader. Multiple servers and workstations can all be protected using the ADSM option, and any number of Backup Exec systems can simultaneously connect to one ADSM system. • Agent for Lotus Notes server • Agent for Oracle database servers • Agent for SAP R/3 servers (with Oracle database) This agent provides support to back up Oracle databases in an SAP R/3 environment, using the Backint interface. • Agent for Microsoft SQL Server V6.x and V7 • Agent for Microsoft Exchange Server • Agent for NetWare Server Provides Backup Exec with support for NetWare servers, and allows Windows NT network administrators to perform backup and restore operations on NetWare servers that are connected to the network. • Agent Accelerator for Windows NT Accelerator agents help speed up processing of data by performing tasks locally on the server before data is transferred to the backup server. Instead of sending data in short bursts, data to be backed up is collected and sent to the backup server as a continuous stream. • Open File option Provides support to take snapshot images of files that are in use at time of the backup. • RAID director option Gives you the possibility to build RAID-like tape configurations, using single SCSI tape devices. • Shared storage option This option lets servers share storage devices. This can be used to build FC-AL tape configurations, or SANs.150 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 5.7.1 Concepts VERITAS Backup Exec for NT lets you back up data directly to storage devices without using any intermediate stages. Device and media management functions help to track usage of media. The built-in scheduler, media overwrite protection rules, and media rotation all help with the implementation of backup strategies. Backup Exec for NT is built from the following modules: • Backup server The Backup Exec engine runs on the backup server. It handles all jobs submitted to it, such as backup and restore, and manages all backup devices and media. • Client interface This component can run either on the backup server or a remote server and is the primary interface for interacting with the Backup Exec system. It is used to submit jobs, view results, hardware utility functions, and so on. • Client agents These are installed on servers and workstations and allow drives and directories on the local system to be protected by Backup Exec. • Device and media management Device management functions help to organize and allocate the storage devices attached to the backup server. Backup Exec can organize drives into pools known as Drive pools and Cascaded drive pools. In the following section, we will look at these in more detail. 5.7.1.1 Server The Backup Exec server is a job-based backup engine. Jobs define backup, restore, file grooming, catalog, verify and backup scan operations. These jobs are then submitted to the server. Besides manual submission of these jobs, you can schedule jobs to run automatically at a certain time. A job history log is maintained, together with a catalog, which records what data has been backed up. Backup Exec uses the file attribute known as the “archive bit” to show that the file has or has not been backed up. When a file is created or updated the archive bit is switched “on” to indicate the file requires backing up. The backup methods that can be used, are as follows: • Normal All selected files are backed up. The archive bit is switched off indicating the files have been backed up. • Copy All selected files are backed up. The archive bit is not modified indicating the files have not been backed up. This method allows you to back up files without affecting the current backup strategy. • Differential All selected files that were modified or created since the last normal backup are backed up. This method switches the archive bit on, indicating the files have not been backed up. Chapter 5. Software 151
  • • Incremental All selected files that were modified or created since the last Normal or incremental backup are backed up. This method switches the archive bit off, indicating the files have been backed up. • Daily Files that were changed or created today are backed up. This method leaves the archive bit intact. • Working set Includes all files that where created since the last normal or incremental backup. You can also specify to back up files that were accessed within the last number of days. This method leaves the archive bit on. Besides backing up data, you can also do file grooming, which can free disk space on the server volume by migrating directories and files from the server to storage media. The file grooming operation performs a verify operation after the data is backed up. If the verify operation fails the file grooming operation is stopped; otherwise the original data is deleted. There is no automatic retrieval of deleted files; they must be restored. File grooming operations do not delete data from Backup Exec agent workstations, only from the server volume. Another function of the Backup Exec server is event notification. In case of an event that requires administrator attention, notifications can be sent using different methods. These include e-mail, pager, printer, SNMP and the Windows NT event log. 5.7.1.2 Workstation agents VERITAS Backup Exec provides backup agent software for backing up data from Windows 98, Windows 95, Windows NT, Macintosh, and UNIX workstations. The workstations interact with the backup server through Backup Exec agents. Once installed, the agent software is configured with the protocol to be used, if more than one is available, and drives and directories are selected which must be backed up by the server. It is also possible to password protect drives and directories thus requiring the administrator to provide the password before the directory or drive can be backed up. When configuration is complete, the agents generally advertise their presence to the backup server. These workstation agents may be seen in the backup and restore windows, together with local and network drives. 5.7.1.3 Device and media management Backup Exec automates device management and media management functions. Device management helps to organize and allocate the storage devices attached to the backup server, while media management helps to categorize and track usage of media. Device management Backup Exec uses the concept of pools: Drive pools and Cascaded drive pools, with the pools containing the actual physical tape devices. • Drive pools These are groups of two or more drives to which jobs may be assigned and run on the first available drive. Offers fault tolerance by moving jobs from a152 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • failed drive to the next available drive in the drive pool; concurrency by running different jobs on drives in the drive pool at the same time; and load balancing by distributing jobs more evenly across all drives in the drive pool. • Cascaded drives These are groups of two or more drives of the same type and capacity, appearing logically as one device. Large backup jobs that exceed the capacity of the media in one drive automatically continue on media in the next drive in the pool.When Backup Exec is installed, all storage devices connected to the server areautomatically recolonized as either changers (autoloaders) or stand-alone drives.At installation time, all storage devices are assigned to a default drive pool, DrivePool 1. Devices may be moved between Drive and Cascaded drive pools.The device management capabilities in Backup Exec allow you to: • Monitor device usage statistics and track hardware errors. • Generate reports containing details of when a drive was last cleaned, the number of errors it is generating, hours of use, bytes processed, etc.Device operationsDevice management functions allow you to manage the physical drives andperform operations on them such as: • Delete drives • Pause and resume drives • Inventory drives • Rename drives • Erase media in drives • Catalog media in drives • Retension tape media • Eject media • Label media • Format media • View drive statistics and properties • Enable and disable drives • Enable and disable hardware compressionMedia managementThe media management capabilities in Backup Exec help to recognize andcategorize media in the storage device. Media management falls into threecategories: • All media All media that has been introduced into the Backup Exec system • System media Media that has not been allocated to a media set, such as Reusable, Retired, and Imported media. Reusable media is media that does not yet belong to a media set. It includes new media, erased media, and media moved from another media set or group, such as Imported media. Chapter 5. Software 153
  • Retired media is media that has been discarded because it is prone to an excessive number of errors and will not be reused. Retired media should be removed from Backup Exec. Imported media is media created by another version of Backup Exec or another product. Data on imported media can be restored until the media is overwritten. • User media sets This is all media that has been assigned to media sets. Media sets contain actual media which contain the data. Media sets are defined by a retention period and append period. Until the retention period expires, the media is considered allocated, after which the media becomes recyclable and available for reuse. Backup Exec automatically creates a default media set, Media Set 1, and sets the default retention and append periods to Infinite. New media sets may be created with retention and append periods appropriate for the length of time that data is to be retained. When a backup job is defined it should be assigned to a media set in the User Media Sets category which has the retention and append periods you want to use for the job. Recyclable media is a media set whose data retention period has expired. When a backup job runs, Backup Exec will use reusable media before selecting media from recyclable media for the job. Media overwrite protection Backup Exec has three levels for protecting media and it is necessary to understand these to ensure data is not accidentally overwritten. The general protection level is first set when Backup Exec is installed, but can be modified later and set on individual media. • Full Media that belongs to an allocated media set and imported media category cannot be overwritten. This is the safest option. Backup Exec selects media for overwriting in the following order: • Reusable • Recyclable • Partial Media belonging to an active media set cannot be overwritten. Backup Exec selects media for overwriting in the following order: • Reusable • Recyclable • Imported • None Disables the overwrite protection feature. You are responsible for making sure media is not accidentally overwritten. Backup Exec selects media for overwriting in the following order: • Reusable • Recyclable • Imported • Allocated media154 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Media operations Backup Exec provides a number of functions to help with media operations: • Catalog Media containing data that was stored during a backup or file grooming operation must be cataloged before that data can be restored or verified. • Erase • Format • Inventory • Label media • Rename • Retension • Properties Properties provides a way of gathering usage totals and errors about a particular media which can help in deciding when to retire the media.5.7.2 Supported devices The following tape devices are supported with Backup Exec Version 7.x for Windows NT: • IBM 40/80 GB DLT • IBM 35/70 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm • IBM 20/40 GB DDS-4 • IBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 • IBM NS20 tape • IBM 3502 DLT library and autoloader • IBM 3447 DLT library For more and updated information, please consult the VERITAS support Web pages, at: http://support.veritas.com5.8 VERITAS Backup Exec for Novell NetWare Backup Exec Version 8.0 is a storage solution for Novell NetWare networks. Backup Exec is available in four editions: • Multi-Server edition Provides a backup solution for any number of servers or workstations, running Novell NetWare, OS/2, DOS, Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows NT, UNIX or Macintosh operating systems. • Single server unlimited edition Provides a backup solution for one Novell NetWare file server and clients running DOS, Windows 3.x or Windows 95. • Single server 25 user edition Provides a backup solution for one Novell NetWare file server with a maximum of 25 licensed users and clients running DOS, Windows 3.x or Windows 95. Chapter 5. Software 155
  • • QuickStart edition This edition protects one NetWare file server, with one tape device attached. No support is provided for attached client workstations. In addition, the following add-on products, that enhance the possibilities of their base Backup Exec product, are available: • Intelligent Disaster Recovery Option Provides recovery for your server after hardware or system failure. This option will enable you to restore a disk or entire system, with a minimum of input. • Advanced Autoloader Option for NetWare The Advanced Autoloader Module enables you to establish groups of tapes within the device magazine - thus enabling you to direct data to user-defined groups. • Open File Manager Option Open File Manager provides protection for active e-mail, database, and other data files even while information is being entered or changed by users. • ADSM Option Allows network administrators to access the ADSM software (see 5.1, “Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 124) through Seagate Backup Exec for NetWare. Seagate Backup Exec uses the ADSM system as a large data storage device, and allows backups to be automatically routed to the ADSM system just as if it were a large tape library or autoloader. Multiple servers and workstations can all be protected using the ADSM option, and any number of Backup Exec systems can simultaneously connect to one ADSM system.5.8.1 Concepts Backup Exec consists of the following components: • Job manager The job manager is the main component and resides on the server that has the tape device attached. It consists of the job server, which processes all storage jobs and the job console, which is used as the user interface. • Workstation clients Available for Novell NetWare, Windows 3.X, Windows 95 and OS/2 clients (depending on the edition you are using), this component serves as an interface to submit jobs to the server. It is also used as an administrative interface. • Backup Exec agents The agents allow the backup server to back up the data residing on their file systems. Agents cannot operate on their own, since they cannot submit jobs. They will have to rely on jobs planned by workstation clients. The job manager uses NetWare’s Queue Management Services (QMS) to queue jobs before they are processed. This means that multiple jobs can be submitted simultaneously. The job manager will use a job history file for logging the processes, and a catalog file to store information about processed objects. It can also be used to perform operations on the tape devices, like rewinding, retensioning, erasing, ejecting, verifying and cleaning.156 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • To differentiate storage options, Backup Exec uses a mechanism called Partition Management. A partition is actually a collection of one or more tape devices, and each job will be routed to a partition. The definition of a partition consists of its name, the tape drives attached, supported operations (backup, restore, tape rotation, file grooming), the users that are able to access the partition, the compression method (hardware, software or none) and advanced settings which include performance definition and job rerouting options. Different jobs can run concurrently on different partitions. However, the limitation exists that at least one tape device be attached to a partition, and that a tape device can only be defined to one partition. This means that the maximum number of partitions equals the number of tape devices. The advantage of working with different partitions, is that you can specify a set of definitions for one type of operation, or specify them for a set of users. All actions that are started against the job manager, are called jobs. A job is defined on a workstation client, and is routed to a partition. When defining a job, the first thing to do is define the agents that will be included. You will also have to define the action to be taken, and specific parameters. For more information, see 5.8.2, “Job types” on page 157. Job manager also holds a tape inventory catalog, which provides information on the tapes that have been used. This simplifies tape management. Besides this database, there is also a possibility to define tape rotation schemes (see 5.8.2, “Job types” on page 157).5.8.2 Job types Backup Exec can be used to perform the following jobs: • Backup • Restore • File grooming • Tape rotation For each operation, a job will have to be created. These jobs can be created on a workstation client. A job definition will include the type of job, the agents for which this job is defined, and the partition that will be used. 5.8.2.1 Backup job The first type of job is a backup job. The backup job will create a process on the job manager that will back up a certain list of agents (referred to as devices by Backup Exec) and include a list of data objects that are included in the backup. The definition of a backup job will include the type of backup to run (normal or full, incremental or differential). There is also a copy function included, which transfers selected data objects to the backup server, without setting the backup status flag. Initially, you will need to start with a full backup (referred to as a normal backup in Backup Exec). When defining a backup job, you can also define a start date and time and frequency. This way, you can define a job to run at certain intervals, and schedule your backups. Chapter 5. Software 157
  • 5.8.2.2 Restore job A restore job will restore files from the backup media to a client or agent. The definition of objects that need to be restored can be done either on a file name basis, or by selecting an agent (or device). When started, the job manager will retrieve the needed tape volumes from its catalog, and request that they be mounted. 5.8.2.3 File grooming File grooming is a mechanism that enables you to migrate files that have not been accessed for a while. You can set up a file grooming job that will back up files that comply with the specifications you made. After backup, a verification will run, and if this completes successfully, files will be deleted from the client. There is no automatic retrieval process. If files are needed after they have been moved to tape, you will need to restore them. 5.8.2.4 Tape rotation Tape rotation jobs are a compound of backup jobs. Using the tape rotation job, you will be able to define a tape rotation scheme, and Backup Exec will define the needed backup jobs to perform this tape rotation job.5.8.3 Supported devices The following tape devices are supported by Backup Exec Version 8.5 for NetWare: • IBM 40/80 GB DLT • IBM 35/70 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB DLT • IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm • IBM 20/40 GB DDS-4 • IBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 • IBM 3502 DLT library and autoloader • IBM 3447 DLT library For more and updated information, please consult the VERITAS support Web pages, at: http://support.veritas.com158 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Chapter 6. Installation and configuration This chapter discusses the installation and configuration process for the hardware and software discussed in Chapter 3, “Hardware” on page 33 and Chapter 5, “Software” on page 123.6.1 Tivoli Storage Manager for Windows NT This topic will go through the installation and configuration of the Tivoli Storage Manager for Windows NT Version 3.7 Server. For more information, refer to the Tivoli Storage Manager product manuals. The Tivoli Storage Manager product manuals are available on the Internet at the following location: http://www.tivoli.com/support/storage_mgr/pubs/admanual.htm#ntV376.1.1 Software installation Note In this section, we sometimes refer to the Tivoli Storage Manager server as simply the server, and to the Tivoli Storage Manager client as the client. Tivoli Storage Manager for Windows NT has the following system requirements: • Windows NT 4.0 with service pack 4 or higher • 130 MB disk storage • 64 MB memory (128 MB recommended) These requirements are only for product code, and do not include space needed for database, log or storage volumes. The installation program is automatically started when you insert the product CD, or, if autorun is disabled, by starting setup.exe in the root directory of the CD. When the installation starts, one of the first steps is to choose a destination directory where the product files will be placed.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 159
  • Figure 79. Installation path Next, the installation process lets you choose between three different types of installation, namely: • Typical • Compact • Custom Since you are going to install server software that will need configuration afterwards, we suggest that you take the custom route. This way, you will know exactly what you are going to install. Figure 80. Choosing between typical, compact or custom160 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • When choosing the custom route, the following choices are available:Server Files Which includes server utility files, server executable files and license files.Client Files This includes the Backup Archive client, Web Backup Archive client, administrative client, API runtime files and the ODBC driver. Note The Tivoli Storage Manager ODBC driver lets you export database information using the ODBC format. This way, you can query the database using several applications, such as Lotus 1-2-3. However, currently this driver is only available for US-English installed Windows NT systems.Online Help Installs Tivoli Storage Manager help files in HTML format.Language Files Installs Tivoli Storage Manager in a specific language. Note The installation program detects the country setting defined in Windows NT, and will install Tivoli Storage Manager clients in this language (if available). If you want the install to run in a language other than the NT language, add the following line to the [Startup] section of SETUP.INI (located in the same directory as SETUP.EXE): EnableLangDlg=Y This will bring up a dialog in which you can choose the installation language.The components you will install depend on the use and type of installation. As ageneral rule, the server files, license files and the administrative client files arethe basics for any installation. Unless you know Tivoli Storage Manager by heart,installing the online help files can prove to be very useful.The Backup/Archive and web shell files are only necessary if you are going to usethe server for local backups. This is the same for the API files. Unless you reallyneed them locally (for use by a Tivoli Storage Manager Data Protection agent forexample), don’t install them. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 161
  • Figure 81. Tivoli Storage Manager components The next step will be to define where initial volumes will be placed for the database, log file and disk storage volumes. You can change these locations. Before proceeding, ensure that you have enough space to accommodate these volumes. The initial storage pool volume will need 4 MB, the database volume 13 MB and the log volume 9 MB. This is also a good time to think about the placement of these volumes. Since they all have specific attributes, placement factors differ. The storage pool volumes, for example, will tend to take a lot of space. However, they will typically be copied to the tape storage pools. So, the main concern should be space and speed, rather than availability. A RAID-5 configuration would be good. The database and log volumes tend to be a little smaller (however, in big installations they can get very large; mainframe customers, for example, deal with databases that can be 60 GB or more in size), but are very important for the functionality of the server. You do not want to lose them. Therefore, a combination of high performance, capacity and availability is the best choice. RAID-1 solutions are suggested. Also, when using the log file in roll-forward mode, it can be used to recover a database to its most current state after failure. To give maximum protection, you should place the log on a different volume than the database. If you do not have the capability to do hardware RAID-1, Tivoli Storage Manager gives you the possibility to create mirrors of the database and log files (up to two mirrors of the original) via the software.162 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 82. Server initial volume placementFinally, Tivoli Storage Manager lets you choose the program folder where youwant to place the program icons, and gives you an overview of the componentsand configurations you selected.Figure 83. Tivoli Storage Manager installation settingsThe installation will copy necessary files, and start the default definition of theTivoli Storage Manager software. This includes a default policy (STANDARD), adefault disk storage pool and default database and recovery log volumes.After the installation finishes, you will have to reboot Windows NT to activate thechanges made. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 163
  • 6.1.2 Configuration The first difference you will notice if you have ever installed ADSM, is that after restarting the server, Tivoli Storage Manager will give you the possibility to do the entire server configuration using wizards. However, for more experienced users, the powerful command interface is still available for doing the configuration manually. We will now go through the initial configuration wizards. These include: • Initial configuration environment wizard • License wizard • Services wizard • Device configuration wizard • Client node configuration wizard • Scheduler wizard • Performance wizard • Storage pool wizard • Database wizard • Recovery log wizard • Network client options file wizard • Media labeling wizard Figure 84. Initial configuration start screen The configuration starts by setting up the environment in which this server will run. The information requested in this section of the initial configuration includes the following: • Tivoli Storage Manager administrator name and password • Information level given during the configuration • Whether the subject of this installation will be a stand-alone machine (one server with one local client), or a server connected to the network. Next, you will need to define which licenses you bought for your server. This is done through the license wizard.164 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 85. License wizardThe server uses license files, which are registered in the server’s database.These files are copied to the hard disk during installation. The following licensefiles exist: • 1CLIENT.LIC Provides a one-client license. • 5CLIENT.LIC Provides a five-client license. • 10CLIENT.LIC Provides a 10-client license. • 50CLIENT.LIC Provides a 50-client license. • ADVDEV.LIC Provides a license for using tape devices not included in the base device list. All devices discussed here are included in the base device list, except for the IBM Magstar 3575 tapes (except Model L06 with one tape drive, which is in the base device list), which require the extended device support. • DRM.LIC Provides a license for disaster recovery management operations (see the Tivoli Storage Manager manuals for more information). This also includes the server-to-server virtual volume support. • NETWORK.LIC Provides a license for network connections. This is needed when remote clients are going to connect to your server. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 165
  • • OPENSYS.LIC License for Open System environment support. • SPACEMAN.LIC Needed for Tivoli Space Management clients. Figure 86. Tivoli Storage Manager license options Next, the Windows NT services used by the server need to be configured. Figure 87. Service configuration wizard166 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Tivoli Storage Manager can use up to three Windows NT services. Two of them,the server and the SCSI device driver, are server related. The third, the schedulerservice, will be used by the local client.The server service allows you to run the entire Tivoli Storage Manager as aWindows NT service. The console output of the server can be redirected to a file,the console log, or seen through the console monitor, which is part of the TivoliStorage Manager utilities. The configuration options of the server are the basicones that you have for every Windows NT service: automatic or manual start andthe account running the service. You can also specify the file and path for theconsole log file.The TSM Device Driver service will be used to access all tape devices. TivoliStorage Manager does not use the standard Windows NT device drivers. Again,options you can set are the type of startup and the account information. If youwant, you can also exclude devices that will not be used by the server. Thisprevents conflicts between the TSM device driver and the one provided byWindows NT. The device driver is called ADSMSCSI.SYS.The scheduler service is used by the Tivoli Storage Manager client node. Thisservice will be responsible for executing scheduled commands (like backups orarchives) on the client. Here, the options you can set are more detailed. Figure 88shows the available options. These include: • Node name by which the client is known to the server • The location of the Options file for the client • File names for log files • Password settingsFigure 88. Scheduler service optionsAfter configuring the services, you will be able to start the device configuration.This is done through the Device Configuration Wizard . Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 167
  • Figure 89. Device configuration wizard Tivoli Storage Manager uses three definitions to specify the storage media. These are the device class definition, the library definition and the drive definition. The device class definition specifies the physical attributes of the library used. The library is a collection of tape devices, or drives. When only one tape device is present, it is also represented as a library, of type manual. Tape libraries will be libraries of type SCSI. The type of drives and the number will be defined in the device class definition. Besides these two, the capacity and the mount parameters will also be set in the device class definition. The drive definition assigns specific drives to a defined library. To identify SCSI libraries and tape devices, two parameters are used. The first one, the devicename is based on the type of device and the SCSI address. This name has the form mtx.y.z.n or lbx.y.z.n. The mt indicates a tape device, and the lb indicates that the device is the controller for a tape autoloader or an automated library. The x equals the SCSI ID, y the LUN, z the bus and n the port number. Figure 90 shows an example of device names. The attached device is a Magstar 3570 library with two tape drives.168 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 90. Device selection windowTo create the above definitions through the wizard, simply drag and drop thelibrary device from the left-hand pane of the window to the TSM Devices icon inthe right-hand pane. Next, drag and drop the tape devices on top of the libraryicon you just added. Figure 91 shows the result of this operation.Figure 91. Device selection window - setting up devicesYou can also add devices of type File. A file device is a sequential device, usingfiles on disk to represent the volumes.Once you have completed this, the device configuration wizard exits. The nextstep is the configuration of the client nodes. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 169
  • Figure 92. Client node configuration wizard This wizard will allow you to do two things: first, define the storage hierarchy. By default, Tivoli Storage Manager installs two disk storage pools, BACKUPPOOL and DISKPOOL. It constructs these pools in such a way that the backup pool redirects its content to the diskpool. In order to make the diskpool migrate its content to the tape devices, you must drag and drop the diskpool icon on top of the tape pool (see the left-hand panes in Figure 93 and Figure 94). Figure 93. Client node configuration170 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 94. Client node configuration - storage hierarchyNext, you must add client nodes. Clicking on the Add Node button brings up thewindow displayed in Figure 95 and Figure 96. The first information that is neededis the name you want to give to the node. Additionally, you must specify whichstorage pool the node will use. As you can see, the initial storage pool is selected(BACKUPPOOL). The entire process of moving data from this storage pool to thediskpool storage pool, and then to the tape storage pool is done by the server.This storage hierarchy is transparent to the node.Figure 95. Adding a client nodeNext, you must specify the policy that will be used for this client. Using the wizard,you can specify specific information for this client. For the server, this means thatit will assign the client to a certain storage policy. If a policy does not exist, onewill be created. Again, using this wizard this setup is totally transparent. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 171
  • Figure 96. Adding policy information to a client node (window 2/2) Next, schedule information will be added using the Scheduler Configuration Wizard. Figure 97. Scheduler configuration wizard Using this wizard, you can define schedules and add client nodes to this schedule. Figure 98 shows the screen of the wizard where you can associate a client with a schedule by dragging the node from the right-hand pane to the appropriate schedule.172 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 98. Define schedules and associate nodesBy clicking the Add button, you will add schedules (see Figure 99 and Figure100).Figure 99. Schedule identification and operationYou can define the schedule name, the operation and the policy domain it willuse. Also, you can define the time and frequency the scheduled operation will Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 173
  • run. For more information about these values, please refer to the Tivoli Storage Manager for Windows NT Administration Guide. Figure 100. Schedule timing Next, the configuration process will try to adjust some parameters that affect performance using the Performance Configuration Wizard. Figure 101. Performance configuration wizard174 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The Performance Configuration Wizard will ask some questions concerning thenumber of clients and the average file size of files that will be backed up (seeFigure 102).Figure 102. Performance optionsThe wizard will also try to allocate storage volume space on the volume that hasthe best performance and has the most space available. Please keep in mind thatbesides performance and space considerations, availability may also beimportant.Figure 103. Volume allocation Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 175
  • Finally, the performance wizard leaves you the choice of actually updating the server option file, or just printing a report with recommended changes. Figure 104. Updating server options The next three wizards will guide you in determining optimum size of the needed disk volumes (storage pool, database and recovery log volumes), and allocating the space. The initial installation allocated a certain amount of space. This wizard however will add space to the initial volumes to provide you with a configuration that has enough volume space to function in your environment. Figure 105. Disk storage pool volume wizard176 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • To determine the size of the volume, the wizard requires an estimate of theamount of data that will be sent to the server each day. This is based on theassumption that we are going to set up a storage hierarchy (see 5.1.2, “Serverdata management” on page 127). The wizard will create a volume equal to thissize, since all data can then be moved to our next storage pool (which will be atape device).Figure 106. Disk storage pool size inputBased on the amount given above, and the size of the initial volume (4 MB), thewizard will propose that you create a storage pool of a certain size. Someconsiderations that you will need to take into account when estimating the sizeare the following: • The amount that will be sent daily is equal to the amount of data that changes each day. • If you turn on software compression, the actual amount of space necessary will be less. • You should keep a safety margin when estimating. Even if the disk storage pool initially has a low utilization rate, the amount of data that is backed up daily is likely to grow. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 177
  • Figure 107. Recommended storage pool size When completed, the disk volume wizard will create a volume (which is a pre-formatted file) on the server’s disk. Next, the database size will be estimated by the Database Volume Wizard. Figure 108. Database volume wizard The size of the database is estimated using the amount of data that you think the Tivoli Storage Manager server will store (see figure Figure 109).178 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 109. Database volume wizard input windowThe next screen (figure Figure 110) will give you the proposed size for thedatabase. By continuing here, the volume will be allocated on the server’s disk.You can always add space to the database later.Figure 110. Recommended database sizeFinally, the recovery log space will be set. This is done through the Recovery LogVolume Wizard. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 179
  • Figure 111. Recovery log volume wizard In contrast to the previous two wizards, the recovery log wizard will not propose a size. To help you determine the size of the log, you need to know what it does. The recovery log is mainly used to roll back transactions to the database. This means that when a transaction is done against the database, all changes are recorded in the recovery log. If for some reason, the transaction cannot complete, this change information is used to undo all changes in the database. If the transaction completes, and the changes are committed, the log information is cleared. This means that normally the size of the log file is not very big. There is one exception however, and that is the case of a roll-forward recovery log. Using the administrative interface, you can put your log in roll-forward mode. By doing this, all database transactions will be logged, until a database backup is performed. The advantage of this is that whenever a problem occurs, the database can be restored using the last backup, and then rolled forward to reflect the most recent changes. This means however that log space needed is much greateer.180 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 112. Recovery log sizeThe next wizard, the Network Client Options File Wizard (see Figure 113) willhelp you set up an option file that can be used for the clients. The wizardarranges this file in such a way that you can access clients from the network.Figure 113. Network Client Option File WizardThe first input (see Figure 114 on page 182) will be the communications protocolthat you are going to use between client and server. Tivoli Storage Managerallows you to use TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBIOS or named pipes (for local clients). Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 181
  • Figure 114. Client communication protocol setting Depending on the choice you make, the next screen will ask you for communication parameters. If you choose TCP/IP for example, the server’s IP address and port number will be requested. You can also specify the e-mail address of the Tivoli Storage Manager administrator, and even append an existing option file (see Figure 115). Figure 115. Additional options Next, you will be asked the file name of this configuration package, and where it should be placed (Figure 116).182 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 116. Package name and locationThe wizard will create a batch file in the directory you used, which can beaccessed by clients over the network to configure their Tivoli Storage Managerclient.A final step in the configuration is labeling the media residing in your tape library.This is done through the Autochanger Device Labeling Wizard (see Figure 117).Figure 117. Autochanger Device Labeling Wizard Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 183
  • Labeling the tapes is made easy with two functions: searching the library for volumes and barcode readers. Using the barcode reader (if your library has one), Tivoli Storage Manager will use the tape’s barcode label as volume name. Figure 118 shows the parameters that can be used when labeling volumes in a library. One parameter that needs a little attention is the element number. As said before, Tivoli Storage Manager uses an alias name to specify a tape library device (mtx.y.z.n or lbx.y.z.n). To represent a library with all its components, including cartridge slots, Tivoli Storage Manager uses element addresses. Each component of a tape library (or single tape device) has a unique element number. For example, the library robotics in the Magstar 3570 use element number 16. If you need these element numbers, please refer to Appendix D., “TSM element addresses and worksheets” on page 283. Figure 118. Media labeling parameters After completing the media labeling, you will have successfully completed the Tivoli Storage Manager configuration. When the configuration is complete, you can start using the server. To administer the server, you have three options: • Tivoli Storage Manager utilities (see Figure 119) This interface, which runs locally on the server, enables you to do most of the administrative actions through wizards, as described above. It is probably the most easy to use for beginners.184 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 119. Tivoli Storage Manager utilities • Administrative Web interface (Figure 120) Using a Web browser, you can perform all administrative operations on the server without having local software installed on your client.Figure 120. Administrative Web interface • Command line administrative interface This is the most basic interface. It provides a simple command line interface to the server (local or remote). The advantage is that this is a very quick way to Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 185
  • do small operations for people who are familiar with Tivoli Storage Manager commands.6.1.3 Configuring the IBM tapes and libraries Adding devices to Tivoli Storage Manager is made easy using the wizards in the server utilities. First, connect all the hardware, start the system, and use the utilities to ensure that Tivoli Storage Manager recognizes the tape. Then check that the SCSI driver is running (and make sure you are not using the NT tape driver), and go to the Device Information window in the server utilities (see Figure 121). Here you can see if a tape device has been recognized by Tivoli Storage Manager. Figure 121. Device information Next, click on the Device Configuration tab, which will bring up the device configuration wizard (see Figure 122). Start this wizard, and follow and perform the same operations as you did during the initial installation. After you have configured the device, do not forget to add media to the library (SCSI or manual) using the media labeling section in the server utilities.186 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 122. Device configuration windowFor reference, the next section explains how to install specific tape devices usingcommands rather than the wizards described earlier. Tivoli Storage Manager hasa feature that allows you to combine a series of commands inside a batch file.This is called a macro. To execute a macro, start a command prompt, and go tothe Tivoli Storage Manager administrative client installation directory. Then, enterthe following command:DSMADMC MACRO <macro name>Where <macro name> is the full path and name of the macro file.The following macros are used to set up the device. To add media and assign thedevices to a storage pool, refer to the Tivoli Storage Manager manuals.6.1.3.1 Configuring the IBM 40/80 GB DLT tape driveThe name of the device will be something like mt4.0.0.0 (see Appendix D, “TSMelement addresses and worksheets” on page 283 for more information). To definethe 40/80 DLT tape device, we will need to define a library, a device class and adrive object inside the Tivoli Storage Manager database. This can be done usingthe following Tivoli Storage Manager command macro:/* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* Use this macro to define a 40/80 GB DLT tape drive *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* parameters used : *//* ----------------- *//* %1 device name for the tape drive (for example mt4.0.0.0) *//* %2 mountretention (in minutes) *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//**/define library MANUALLIB libtype=manual device=%1/**/define devclass DLTClass devtype=DLT format=DLT40 library=manuallib -mountretention=%2 estcapacity=40G/**/define drive manuallib device=%1 Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 187
  • The above macro file will define a library named MANUALLIB, a device class named DLTClass and a drive named DLTTape. To prevent double compression, we define the tape device to work without hardware compression. If hardware compression is necessary, the format=DLT40 in the devclass definition can be changed to format=DLT40C. For more information on these commands, see ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference, GC35-0293-01. 6.1.3.2 Configuring the IBM 35/70 GB DLT tape drive The name of the device will be something like mt4.0.0.0 (see Appendix D, “TSM element addresses and worksheets” on page 283 for more information). To define the 35/70 DLT tape device, we will need to define a library, a device class and a drive object inside the Tivoli Storage Manager database. This can be done using the following Tivoli Storage Manager command macro: /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* Use this macro to define a 35/70 GB DLT tape drive */ /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* parameters used : */ /* ----------------- */ /* %1 device name for the tape drive (for example mt4.0.0.0) */ /* %2 mountretention (in minutes) */ /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /**/ define library MANUALLIB libtype=manual device=%1 /**/ define devclass DLTClass devtype=DLT format=DLT35 library=manuallib - mountretention=%2 estcapacity=35G /**/ define drive manuallib device=%1 The above macro file will define a library named MANUALLIB, a device class named DLTClass and a drive named DLTTape. To prevent double compression, we define the tape device to work without hardware compression. If hardware compression is necessary, the format=DLT35 in the devclass definition can be changed to format=DLT35C. For more information on these commands, see ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference, GC35-0293-01. 6.1.3.3 Configuring the IBM 20/40 GB DLT tape drive To define the 20/40 DLT tape device, we will need to define a library, a device class and a drive object inside the Tivoli Storage Manager database. This must be done using Tivoli Storage Manager commands. For the IBM 20/40 GB DLT tape drive, the following macro can be used: /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* Use this macro to define a 20/40 GB DLT tape drive */ /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* parameters used : */ /* ----------------- */ /* %1 device name for the tape drive (for example mt4.0.0.0) */ /* %2 mountretention (in minutes) */ /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /**/188 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • define library MANUALLIB libtype=manual device=%1/**/define devclass DLTClass devtype=DLT format=DLT20 library=manuallib -mountretention=%2 estcapacity=20G/**/define drive manuallib device=%1The above macro file will define a library named MANUALLIB, a device classnamed DLTClass and a drive named DLTTape. To prevent double compression,we define the tape device to work without hardware compression. If hardwarecompression is necessary, the format=DLT20 in the devclass definition can bechanged to format=DLT20C. For more information on these commands, see ADSTARDistributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference,GC35-0293-01.6.1.3.4 Configuring the IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm tape driveTo define the 8 mm tape device, we will need to define a library, a device classand a drive object inside the Tivoli Storage Manager database. This can be doneusing the following Tivoli Storage Manager commands.For the IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive, the following macro can be used:/* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* Use this macro to define a Mammoth 8 mm tape drive *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* parameters used : *//* ----------------- *//* %1 device name for the tape drive (for example mt4.0.0.0) *//* %2 mountretention (in minutes) *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//**/define library MANUALLIB libtype=manual device=%1/**/define devclass 8MMClass devtype=8MM format=8900 library=manuallib -mountretention=%2 estcapacity=20G/**/define drive manuallib device=%1The above macro file will define a library named MANUALLIB, a device classnamed 8MMClass and a drive named 8MMTape. To prevent double compression,we define the tape device to work without hardware compression. If hardwarecompression is necessary, the format=8900 in the devclass definition can bechanged to format=8900C. For more information on these commands, see ADSTARDistributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference,GC35-0293-01.6.1.3.5 Configuring the IBM 20/40 GB 4 mm tape driveFor the IBM 20/40 GB 4 mm tape drive, the following macro can be used:/* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* Use this macro to define a DDS4 20/40 GB 4 mm tape drive *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* parameters used : *//* ----------------- *//* %1 device name for the tape drive (for example mt4.0.0.0) *//* %2 mountretention (in minutes) */ Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 189
  • /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /**/ define library MANUALLIB libtype=manual device=%1 /**/ define devclass 4MMClass devtype=4MM format=DDS4 library=manuallib - mountretention=%2 estcapacity=20G /**/ define drive manuallib device=%1 The above macro file will define a library named MANUALLIB, a device class named 4MMClass and a drive named 4MMTape. To prevent double compression, we define the tape device to work without hardware compression. If hardware compression is necessary, the format=DDS4 in the devclass definition can be changed to format=DDS4C. For more information on these commands, see ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference, GC35-0293-01. 6.1.3.6 Configuring the IBM 12/24 GB 4 mm tape drive For the IBM 12/24 GB 4 mm tape drive, the following macro can be used: /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* Use this macro to define a DDS3 12/24 GB 4 mm tape drive */ /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* parameters used : */ /* ----------------- */ /* %1 device name for the tape drive (for example mt4.0.0.0) */ /* %2 mountretention (in minutes) */ /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /**/ define library MANUALLIB libtype=manual device=%1 /**/ define devclass 4MMClass devtype=4MM format=DDS3 library=manuallib - mountretention=%2 estcapacity=12G /**/ define drive manuallib device=%1 The above macro file will define a library named MANUALLIB, a device class named 4MMClass and a drive named 4MMTape. To prevent double compression, we define the tape device to work without hardware compression. If hardware compression is necessary, the format=DDS3 in the devclass definition can be changed to format=DDS3C. For more information on these commands, see ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference, GC35-0293-01. 6.1.3.7 Configuring the IBM 3502 autoloader The first thing to do is check the device detector in the Tivoli Storage Manager server utilities, to determine the device name of the IBM 3502. The following macro will define the device: /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* Use this macro to define an IBM 3502 autoloader with one tape drive */ /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* parameters used : */ /* ----------------- */ /* %1 devicename for library (for example lb6.0.0.0) */190 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • /* %2 mountretention (in minutes) *//* %3 device name for the tape drive (for example mt4.0.0.0) *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//**//**/define library IBM3502 libtype=SCSI device=%1/**/define devclass DLTclass devtype=DLT format=DLT35 library=IBM3502 -mountlimit=1 mountretention=%2 estcapacity=35G/**/define drive IBM3502 DLTtape device=%3 Element=16The above macro file will define a library named IBM3502, a device class namedDLTClass and a drive named DLTTape. To prevent double compression, wedefine the tape device to work without hardware compression. If hardwarecompression is necessary, the format=DLT35 in the devclass definition can bechanged to format=DLT35C. For more information on these commands, see ADSTARDistributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference,GC35-0293-01.See Appendix D, “TSM element addresses and worksheets” on page 283 formore information about the element number in the define drive command.6.1.3.8 Configuring the IBM 3447 libraryThe first thing to do is check the device detector in the Tivoli Storage Managerserver utilities, to determine the device name of the IBM 3447.The following macro will define the device:/* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* Use this macro to define an IBM 3447 library with one tape drive *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* parameters used : *//* ----------------- *//* %1 devicename for library (for example lb6.0.0.0) *//* %2 mountretention (in minutes) *//* %3 device name for the tape drive (for example mt4.0.0.0) *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//**//**/define library IBM3447 libtype=SCSI device=%1/**/define devclass DLTclass devtype=DLT format=DLT35 library=IBM3447 -mountlimit=1 mountretention=%2 estcapacity=35G/* Change mountlimit to the number of drives installed *//**/define drive IBM3447 DLTtape device=%3 Element=116/*use the following line if a second tape drive is installed in the library*//* define drive IBM3447 DLTtape device=%3 Element=117 */The above macro file will define a library named IBM3447, a device class namedDLTClass and a drive named DLTTape. To prevent double compression, wedefine the tape device to work without hardware compression. If hardwarecompression is necessary, the format=DLT35 in the devclass definition can bechanged to format=DLT35C. For more information on these commands, see ADSTAR Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 191
  • Distributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference, GC35-0293-01. See Appendix D, “TSM element addresses and worksheets” on page 283 for more information about the element number in the define drive command. 6.1.3.9 Configuring the IBM 3449 Library Check the device detector in the Tivoli Storage Manager server utilities to determine the device name of the IBM 3449. The following macro will define the device: /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* Use this macro to define an IBM 3449 library with one tape drive */ /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /* parameters used : */ /* ----------------- */ /* %1 devicename for library (for example lb6.0.0.0) */ /* %2 mountretention (in minutes) */ /* %3 device name for the tape drive (for example mt4.0.0.0) */ /* ---------------------------------------------------------------- */ /**/ /**/ define library IBM3449 libtype=SCSI device=%1 /**/ define devclass 8MMClass devtype=8MM format=8900 library=IBM3449 - mountlimit=1 mountretention=%2 estcapacity=20G /* Change mountlimit to the number of drives installed */ /**/ define drive IBM3449 8MMTape device=%3 Element=23 /* use the following line if you have two tape drives installed*/ /* define drive IBM3449 8MMTape device=%3 Element=24 */ The above macro file will define a library named IBM3449, a device class named 8MMClass and a drive named 8MMTape. To prevent double compression, we define the tape device to work without hardware compression. If hardware compression is necessary, the format=8900 in the devclass definition can be changed to format=8900C. For more information on these commands, see ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference, GC35-0293-01. See Appendix D, “TSM element addresses and worksheets” on page 283 for more information about the element number in the define drive command. 6.1.3.10 Configuring the IBM 3570 Magstar MP Library Check the device detector in the Tivoli Storage Manager server utilities to determine the device name. Let’s take an example of a 3570 model with two drives and the changer mechanism: • Tape Peripheral, mt4.0.0.0 • Tape Peripheral, mt5.0.0.0 • Medium Changer Peripheral, lb6.0.0.0192 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The following macro will define the device:/* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* Use this macro to define an IBM 3570 with two tape drives *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* parameters used : *//* ----------------- *//* %1 devicename for library (for example lb6.0.0.0) *//* %2 mountretention (in minutes) *//* %3 device name for the tape drive1(for example mt4.0.0.0) *//* %3 device name for the tape drive2(for example mt5.0.0.0) *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//**//**/define library IBM3570 libtype=SCSI device=%1/**/define devclass 3570 devtype=3570 format=drive library=IBM3570 -mountlimit=2 mountretention=%2/**/define drive IBM3570T1 3570 device=%3 Element=16define drive IBM3570T2 3570 device=%3 Element=17The above macro file will define a library named IBM3570, a device class named3570 and two drives named IBM3570T1 and IBM3570T2. For more informationon these commands, see ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager for Windows NT,Administrator’s Reference”, GC35-0293-01.See Appendix D, “TSM element addresses and worksheets” on page 283 formore information about the element number in the define drive command.6.1.3.11 Configuring the IBM 3575 Magstar MP LibraryCheck the Device Detector in the Tivoli Storage Manager server utilities todetermine the device name.Let’s take an example of a 3575 Model L06 with two drives and the changermechanism: • Tape Peripheral, mt4.0.0.0 • Tape Peripheral, mt5.0.0.0 • Medium Changer Peripheral, lb6.0.0.0The following macro will define the device:/* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* Use this macro to define an IBM 3575 l06 with two tape drives *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//* parameters used : *//* ----------------- *//* %1 devicename for library (for example lb6.0.0.0) *//* %2 mountretention (in minutes) *//* %3 device name for the tape drive1(for example mt4.0.0.0) *//* %3 device name for the tape drive2(for example mt5.0.0.0) *//* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *//**//**/define library IBM3575 libtype=SCSI device=%1 Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 193
  • /**/ define devclass 3570 devtype=3570 format=drive library=IBM3575 - mountlimit=2 mountretention=%2 /**/ define drive IBM3575T1 3570 device=%3 Element=16 define drive IBM3575T2 3570 device=%3 Element=17 The above macro file will define a library named IBM3575, a device class named 3570 and two drives named IBM3575T1 and IBM3575T2. For more information on these commands, see ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference”, GC35-0293-01. See Appendix D, “TSM element addresses and worksheets” on page 283 for more information about the element number in the define drive command.6.2 Tivoli Storage Manager Server V2.1 for OS/2 This section explains the installation and configuration of Tivoli Storage Manager Version 2 Release 1 for OS/2. For more information about Tivoli Storage Manager, please refer to 5.1, “Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 124. Versions The current version of TSM for OS/2 is Version 2 Release 1. This version has some differences with Version 3, but the general design is the same. The following list shows new features of Version 3 not available in this OS/2 version. Additionally, the program itself still refers to the old ADSM name. The new functions of TSM Version 3 are: • Event logging and monitoring • SQL queries of the TSM database • Storing data on another TSM server • Server file aggregation • Device support • Administrative client web interface • Point-in-time restoration of client files • Changing server options without stopping the server Tivoli Storage Manager for OS/2 has the following system requirements: • OS/2 Warp or higher with REXX • 70 MB of free disk space • 12 MB of memory To start installation of the server, perform the following procedure: 1. Start the installation program (SERVERINSTALL.EXE) from the ADSM CD-ROM. 2. Click Continue after reading this instruction screen. 3. On the next screen, Figure 123, you will be asked to update the CONFIG.SYS. Click OK .194 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 123. Update CONFIG.SYS If you decide to not automate the CONFIG.SYS update, the installation automatically places a file called CONFIG.ADD in the root directory on the drive from which OS/2 was booted.4. Mark your selections for installation from the following screen:Figure 124. Installation screen The example shown here shows selections for an initial ADSM server and ADSM client installation. Here is a brief description of the installation selections: • ADSM Server First Time Installation Use this selection if you do not have a Version 1 ADSM server installed. • Install/Update ADSM Server from Version 1 When you choose this component, the installation program attempts to perform an upgrade of your Version 1 server database. • ADSM Client This selection installs the ADSM administrative and backup-archive clients. • Lotus Notes Backup Agent The ADSM Client selection must be installed or selected to install the Lotus Notes Backup Agent. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 195
  • • ADSM Tape Device Driver This component installs the ADSM tape device drivers. Select this component when you have a SCSI card and a tape device that is supported by ADSM attached to your machine. • Autochanger Device Driver This component installs the autochanger device driver. This component requires that the tape device driver component is installed or selected for installation. 5. Click Disk space for the bytes available for drives and select the directory for installation. In this example, we are using C:ADSMV2 for the server files and C:ADSM for the client files. Note After installation, your directory choice cannot be changed if you return to add an additional component. Click OK . This returns you to the installation screen. 6. Click Install. After this, the installation progress screen appears. After the files have been copied, the installation utility will start command files that automatically create default definitions. 7. Exit from the installation screens when the installation completes. 8. Reboot your system to have your updated CONFIG.SYS file changes take effect. If you chose not to have the installation program update the CONFIG.SYS file for you, make the changes now and reboot your system. After rebooting the system, install the latest fix pack level of the ADSM for OS/2 server code. At the time of publication, the latest level was L0.16, which can be obtained by installing PTF IP21553 from the following Web page: http://www.tivoli.com/support/storage_mgr/adsercli.htm Two new folders (see Figure 125 and Figure 126) appear on your desktop for this example, one folder labeled ADSM for OS/2 Server V2R1, and another folder labeled ADSM Client. Double-click the icons to view the folders’ contents. Most of the icons are self-explanatory (for example, double-click ADSM Server to start the server). Starting ADSM The ADSM server for OS/2 can also be started by executing RUNSERV.CMD in the ADSM server directory. This opens a PM REXX interface with the server. The advantage of this is that you have a long screen buffer to see server messages. The disadvantage is that by pressing F3, you stop the ADSM server, without closing the database and log files. This could cause corruption problems.196 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 125. Server folder Figure 126. Client folder The installation program performed the following operations: • Installed the necessary files for server operation. • Registered one client node named CLIENT with a password of CLIENT. • Registered one administrative node named ADMIN with a password of ADMIN. • Created and defined a 15 MB backup storage pool called BACKUP1. • Created and defined a 6 MB archive storage pool called ARCHIVE1. • Created a 13 MB recovery log called LOG.DSM. • Created a 5 MB database called DB1.DSM. • Created a dsmserv.dsk file that contains database and recovery log information in your ADSMV2 directory.6.2.1 Server configuration At this point you will have installed, set up, and started the ADSM server, and one or more administrative clients and backup-archive clients. This section describes customizing ADSM by doing the following: • Registering your ADSM licenses • Adding tape drives to your ADSM system • Setting up storage pools The configuration described here still does not take advantage of all the options available to you as an ADSM administrator. For more information on this, please refer to the ADSM manuals. Manuals in PDF Format Note The Tivoli Storage Manager manuals can be found in downloadable PDF format at the following Web page: http://www.tivoli.com/support/storage_mgr/pubs/admanual.htm Here are some ADSM terms that you will find in this section: Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 197
  • Collocation: A process by which the server attempts to keep all files belonging to a client on a minimal number of tape volumes. Device class: A group of storage devices of the same type, for example, disk or cartridge. Expiration: The process by which files in server storage are marked for deletion because their retention period has passed. Library: A collection of one or more drives with similar mount mechanisms. For ADSM to use it, a device must be assigned to a library. There are two types of libraries: 1. Manual volumes that are loaded by a human operator. 2. Automated volumes that are loaded by a robotic autochanger device. Validation: The process of ensuring that the active policy set contains a default management class, and reporting on copy group definition errors. The ADSM server must be running to perform the tasks described here. Start the server if it is not running by typing DSMSERV in an OS/2 command window or by double clicking on the ADSM Server icon. The first step in configuring the ADSM server is registering your licenses. This can be done using the REGISTER LICENSE command, with the file name of the license file as parameter. The following license files exist: • 1CLIENT.LIC Provides a one-client license. • 5CLIENT.LIC Provides a five-client license. • 10CLIENT.LIC Provides a 10-client license. • 50CLIENT.LIC Provides a 50-client license. • DESKTOP.LIC Provides a license for using desktop clients (OS/2, Windows, Apple, Novell NetWare and DOS). • UNIX.LIC Provides a license for UNIX clients. • NETWORK.LIC Provides a license for network connections. This is needed when remote clients are going to connect to your server. • OEMVS.LIC License for OpenEdition MVS client.198 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • • SPACEMAN.LIC Needed for HSM clients. • DEVMOD1.LIC through DEVMOD2.LIC Device support modules.Initial setup in our environment requires ten clients and network connections. Todo this, execute the following commands:REGISTER LICENSE FILE(10CLIENT.LIC)REGISTER LICENSE FILE(DESKTOP.LIC)REGISTER LICENSE FILE(NETWORK.LIC)After registering the licenses, we will start by defining our tape device. Before youcan use tape with ADSM, you must do the following:1. Determine the device names.2. Define the following: a library for the drives, the drives, a device class, and a storage pool associated with the device class.3. Include the storage pool in your hierarchy.The ADSM utilities allow you to perform these tasks using the administrativecommand line or the administrative GUI.Here are some concepts that can help you set up your tape environment: • Storage pool migration To prevent disk storage pools from becoming filled with client data, you can specify that client data be automatically migrated to the tape storage pool. A disk’s high migration threshold (default value: 90%) determines when data is migrated. The low migration threshold (default value: 70%) determines when migration stops. Thus data migration from the default backup disk storage pool begins when the pool is 90% full and continues until it is at 70% full or less. Another default is to cache data (leave the data in the storage pool) even after the data has been migrated. Cached data stays on disk for quick access until the space is needed for new data. The current status for this cache parameter is to turn it off. • Mount limit Mount limit (the number of drives available in a device class) has a default value of 1. The mount limit should be equal to the number of drives of the same type in that library. • Scratch volumes A scratch volume is a volume that is available for ADSM use. The volume is labeled, is either blank or contains no valid data, and is not defined to ADSM. You can specify the number of scratch volumes that ADSM can request for this pool (MAXSCRATCH parameter in the command or the Maximum scratch volumes field in the GUI). If you do not specify a value, no scratch volumes can be requested, and you must define each volume to be used. • Collocation Collocation is turned off by default. Once clients begin storing data in a storage pool with collocation off, you cannot easily change the data in the storage pool so that it is collocated. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 199
  • To start the tape device installation, ensure that your devices are physically attached to your system according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Two ADSM device drivers are installed on your system as part of the server installation and must be used for all devices: ADSMTAPE.SYS: For tape devices ADSMAUTO.SYS: For automatic library devices The drivers are started when you start OS/2. The devices must be powered on for OS/2 to recognize them. Note To prevent conflicts, stop the ADSM server by issuing a HALT command. Determine the device names of your tape drives and autochangers. ADSM device names must be in the format TAPEyz$ (for tape drives) or AUTOyz$ (for automated libraries) where, y is the number of the SCSI adapter and z the number of the SCSI ID. For example, tape01$ represents the tape drive with SCSI adapter 0 at SCSI ID 1. To check the attached devices, start an OS/2 command window, and run ADSMSDI.EXE located in the ADSMV2 directory. For each powered-on device, you can see a number for the SCSI adapter and a number for the SCSI ID. ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager - SCSI Device Information (ADSMSDI) Version 2, Release 0, Level 0.2/2.3 Licensed Materials - Property of IBM 5622-112 (C) Copyright IBM Corporation 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997. All rights reserved. U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights - Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corporation. Building device list... ** 2 Fixed DASD devices Adap Id Lun VendorID Product ID Rev. ADSM support? ---- -- --- -------- ---------------- ---- ---------------- Device detected, but information unavailable. ?? Note 1 Device detected, but information unavailable. ?? Note 1 ** 1 Removable Sequential device Adap Id Lun VendorID Product ID Rev. ADSM support? ---- -- --- -------- ---------------- ---- ---------------- 1 5 0 EXABYTE EXB-89008E000112 V37f YES, as TAPE15$ Note 1: device is already reserved by another driver or application. To define the tape device to the ADSM database, the following commands are necessary: 1. DEFINE LIBRARY 2. DEFINE DRIVE200 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 3. DEFINE DEVCLASS4. DEFINE STGPOOLWe will define a manual library and associate a drive with it. In this example, wewill be making use of the IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm tape. For the other supporteddevices (see 5.1.4, “Supported devices” on page 134), you can follow the sameprocedure. The only difference will be the DEFINE DEVCLASS command. For the exactsyntax, refer to 6.1.3.6, “Configuring the IBM 12/24 GB 4 mm tape drive” on page190 through 6.1.3.5, “Configuring the IBM 20/40 GB 4 mm tape drive” on page189. We will name the library MANUALLIB. The drive, named 8mm_Tape, isattached to SCSI adapter 1 using SCSI ID 5 (Tape15$). After defining the library,we will add a deviceclass to the drives in this library. Finally, the deviceclass mustbe assigned to a logical storage pool. The following commands perform thesetasks:define library manuallib libtype=manualdefine drive manuallib 8mm_Tape device=tape15$define devclass tapeclass devtype=8mm format=8900 library=manuallibdefine stgpool tapepool tapeclassYou can also use the GUI administrator to achieve the same goal (see Figure127):Figure 127. ADSM for OS/2 GUI administrator1. Double click Storage Pools.2. Click Edit from the menu bar.3. Click Add Primary Storage Pool from the pull-down menu.4. In the Storage pool name field, enter TAPEPOOL (see Figure 128). Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 201
  • Figure 128. Defining a storage pool 5. Click the Device Class tab and enter the name of the device class you want to use for this storage pool. In our case, TAPECLASS (see Figure 129). Figure 129. Defining a storage pool - assignment of the device class 6. Click the Add push button. Before continuing, you can view the results of your definitions. If necessary, you can update these definitions by using update commands. • To query the libraries: QUERY LIBRARY • To query the drives: QUERY DRIVE • To query the device classes: QUERY DEVCLASS FORMAT=DETAILED • To query the storage pools: QUERY STGPOOL After the tape devices are defined, you can start defining tape volumes. All tape volumes must have standard labels before ADSM can use them. You can use202 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • tapes as scratch volumes, up to the number of scratch volumes specified for thestorage pool. Using scratch volumes allows ADSM to acquire volumes as needed.You can also use private volumes in a storage pool. You must define all privatevolumes to ADSM, assigning each to a specific storage pool. However, if astorage pool contains only private volumes and runs out of them, storageoperations for that pool stop until more volumes are defined.If you are using only one tape drive, consider labeling several tapes at this time.You cannot label tapes while the server is writing to or reading from the drive.If the tape volumes do not already have standard labels, label them. From anOS/2 command prompt, go to the ADSM server directory (for example,D:ADSMV2):1. Enter the following command: dsmlabel -drive=tape15$ -overwrite2. When prompted: • Insert the new volume into the tape drive. • Type a 1 to 6 character volume name (for example, T00001). • Press Enter.The above actions put a physical header on each tape, allowing it to berecognized. You still need to define the volume objects for these physical tapes inthe ADSM database. Define any volumes that are to be used as private volumes.To define the volume you just named T00001, you can issue the followingcommand:define volume tapepool T00001You can also do this using the GUI administrator (see Figure 127 on page 201):1. Expand the Storage Pools section by clicking the plus sign.2. Double click Storage Pool Volumes.3. Click Edit from the menu bar.4. Click Add from the pull-down menu.5. Enter the following: • Storage pool name TAPEPOOL (from the drop-down list) • Volume name DSM0016. Click the Add push button.Figure 130. Adding a volume Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 203
  • Now that ADSM can use your tape drives, you can update your disk storage pools so that client data can be migrated to tape. The following commands change BACKUPPOOL so that data migrates to AUTOPOOL, and change ARCHIVEPOOL so that data migrates to TAPEPOOL. update stgpool backuppool nextstgpool=autopool update stgpool archivepool nextstgpool=tapepool You can also do this using the GUI administrator (see Figure 127 on page 201): 1. Double click Storage Pools. 2. Click BACKUPPOOL. 3. Click Selected. 4. Click Open as properties from the pull-down menu. 5. Click the Migration tab, go to page 2, and for Next storagepool, do the following: • Deselect (by clicking) the None check box. • Click AUTOPOOL from the Next pool drop-down list. 6. Click the Apply push button. Figure 131. Defining storage pool migration This completes the setup of the ADSM Server for OS/2, so that it makes use of a tape device as storage media. Next, you will need to define your backup policy. This consists of defining clients and defining how they will use your storage devices. Refer to the ADSM manuals for information about this.6.3 Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups This section describes the installation, configuration and main features of Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups Version 1.1.0.1. To get this version, install the base product, and then apply the corrective service IP21830. This PTF is available at the following location: ftp://index.storsys.ibm.com/tivoli-storage-management/ maintenance/tivoli-data-protection/v1r1/NT/LATEST/IP21830.ZIP System requirements for this product are as follows:204 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • • Windows NT 4 service pack 4 (or higher) • TCP/IP or IPX/SPX installed (if you’re using a stand-alone system, use the internal loopback address 127.0.0.1 for TCP/IP) • A supported tape deviceTo install Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups, insert the product CD in yourCD-ROM drive. If the autorun option is not enabled, start Setup.exe in the rootdirectory of your CD. This will bring up the welcome screen and an informationwindow, where you will have the chance to read the Readme file of the product.Next, you will need to set the installation path. By default, Tivoli Data Protectionfor Workgroups installs in the C:Program FilesTivoliTDPW directory (see Figure132). However, if Tivoli Storage Manager server is already installed, it will installitself in that directory structure.Figure 132. Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups installation directoryWhen the installation continues, it will propose a program group, and an overviewof components that will be installed. Next, all necessary files will be copied. If youhave a single tape device, make sure that you have it configured using theWindows NT Tape Drive program before starting the installation. The deviceshould be running, with the correct driver loaded. If this is not the case, TivoliData Protection for Workgroups will detect this and propose to install the driverduring the installation.If you already have the Tivoli Data Protection server installed, Tivoli DataProtection for Workgroups will use the ADSMSCSI.SYS driver, which is thedevice driver Tivoli Storage Manager uses to access tape devices (see 6.1.2,“Configuration” on page 164). If you intend to use an autoloader or tape library,you must use this device driver instead of the Windows NT driver.After installation, reboot your system. This will allow the services and devicedrivers installed to be started. Two services will be installed: the Replica Agentservice and the Replica Server service. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 205
  • 6.3.1 Configuration and use After reboot, the TDP host, which is represented by the above service, is automatically started. To perform any operations, start the Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups program. In this case, the program is using the Windows NT device driver, and no additional device configuration is necessary. The user interface has four main windows: • Replicate • Utilities • Recover • Mount Tape There is also a status window which allows you to monitor activity. The first interface, Replicate, allows you to create replicas, or backups, of volumes. You can only create these at the volume level. The partition data volume allows you to back up necessary information to re-create the disk’s partitioning after a disaster. Figure 133. Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups replication interface However, before making a replica, you must label a tape volume, so that it can be used by Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups. In order to do this, open the Utilities window, and click the Device tab (see Figure 134). Using this interface, you can interact with your tape device, in order to perform operations on the tape volumes. Once you’ve labeled a tape, you can then create a replica.206 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 134. Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups utilitiesAfter a replica has been made, you can recover logical disk volumes (orpartitions) or files using this replica. This recovery can be done at three levels.The first level of recovery is disaster recovery. Here, you can recover the entiresystem using the replica, and the disaster recovery diskettes created by theproduct. To create these diskettes, use the Utilities window, and select theDisaster Recovery tab. You will also need a copy of the three Windows NT setupdiskettes, and an extra blank diskette. The product will modify the setup diskettes,so it is advisable to use copies of the originals.To proceed with the recovery, use the diskettes to boot your server. It will proposea list of recognized tape devices, and then check which tape volume is inserted inthe tape device you selected. You can either use that volume, or insert a new tapeand let the recovery program recheck the volume name.With the correct volume in the tape device, you can start the recovery. All filesfrom the tape will be copied to your hard disk. Note If you use an autoloader, the recovery program is not able to mount tapes automatically. Mount the tapes manually through the operator panel of your library. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 207
  • Figure 135. Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups create recovery disks The second level of recovery is at the volume level. To do this, go to the Recover window (see Figure 136), select the disk volume you wish to recover, and the tape volume on which the replica is located. Figure 136. Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups recovery208 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The third level of recovery is at the file level. This is implemented by mounting adisk partition from a tape volume. The advantage of this way of working is thatafter the mount, the data on tape is considered as direct access. This means youcan copy files from tape to disk using the Windows NT Explorer, or with a simplecopy command from the command prompt. To mount a tape, use the Mount Tapewindow (see Figure 137). You can assign a drive letter and a share name to thetape you are mounting. Click the Mount Tape button to perform the operation.The status window will show you the status of the process, and give you theability to dismount the tape.Figure 137. Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups tape mountFigure 138 shows the Windows NT Explorer with a tape mounted: Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 209
  • Figure 138. Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups interaction with Windows NT Explorer6.3.2 Configuring IBM tape devices Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups uses the Windows NT device driver to communicate with the tape hardware, but only for single tape devices. For autoloaders, the Tivoli Storage Manager device driver is used. When using autoloaders, first ensure that the autoloader support is active, by running the TDP device manager. When using Windows NT device drivers in conjunction with the ADSMSCSI.SYS driver, you will encounter conflicts. To solve this, disable all the Windows NT drivers for both the loaders and the tape drives. Next, check the library’s setup, and make sure that it is working in random mode. The use of an autoloader in this configuration might be beneficial if this is a remote machine, so that you can schedule backups regularly, without having to mount tapes manually. To use the autoloader, you must first label all tapes in the library. This needs to be done through the device utilities. If you are scheduling your replication jobs, however, the autoloader will mount tapes, and label them when necessary. One concern with autoloaders however is that they will not automatically mount tapes when going through a disaster recovery. In that case, you must manually mount tapes in the tape drives.6.4 Legato NetWorker This section describes the installation of Legato’s NetWorker server for Windows NT. The system requirements are as follows: • Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 3 or higher • TCP/IP installed and configured • 64 MB of memory • 44 MB disk storage for software • 13 MB of documentation210 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • In addition to the above resources, NetWorker will also require space to place itsindexes, which store information about data that has been backed up. As a rule ofthumb, Legato proposes 5% of total backup data. So, if your backup server isstoring 100 GB of data, 5 GB of index space should be available.The installation of NetWorker starts automatically after inserting the installationCD. The initial screen will be based on a Web page, with a link to start theinstallation program. If your standard Web browser is Netscape, you will not beable to launch this installation program, since Netscape does not allow therunning of executable files directly. To solve this, exit the browser, and start theSetup.exe program in the I386netwrkr directory of the CD.When the installation program starts, you will need to choose the operation youwant to perform (see Figure 139). If you are installing the server, select theServer and Client option.Figure 139. NetWorker setup optionsNext, you will need to specify the location where the product will be installed. Thedefault location is c:win32appnsr. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 211
  • Figure 140. NetWorker installation location The next window will allow you to define other NetWorker servers that are authorized to back up the server you are installing, and the names of hosts that can perform a remote recovery to the machine you are working on. Figure 141. Specifying authorized NetWorker servers Next, the installation program copies necessary files, installs and starts the services needed to run NetWorker. You do not need to restart your machine in order to use it.6.4.1 Configuration After the installation completes, you can start the NetWorker administrator using the program icon in the NetWorker program group. This administration program will connect to the server, which is started as a service.212 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • When the administrator starts, you can either go through the setup wizard, or godirectly to the administrative interface. If you go to the administrative interface(see Figure 142), you will be able to start configuring your backup devices.Figure 142. NetWorker administrator interfaceFor single tape drives, NetWorker can use devices that are recognized byWindows NT. By default, a 4 mm device is installed, defined as .Tape0. If you donot want to use that device, delete it or modify it. To delete a device, click theDevices button in the top right-hand screen. This will bring up the devicemanagement window, as shown in Figure 143.Figure 143. NetWorker tape device managementTo delete a device, right click the icon representing the tape, and select Deletefrom the pop-up menu. To add a device, right click the Devices icon, and selectCreate. This will bring up the panel shown in Figure 144: Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 213
  • Figure 144. Creating a device The device name used by NetWorker is the name by which the tape drive is defined in the Windows NT registry, and is of the form .Tapen. To find out the device name for the tape you are installing, go to the tape device application in the Windows NT control panel, select the tape device you want to install, and then select Properties. The device map value represents the name of the tape device. You can also use NetWorker commands, located in the /win32app/nsr/bin directory. The command that displays the tape devices, is tapes. The output of this command is shown below. scsidev@2.5.0:.Tape0 is <QUANTUM DLT7000 1837> Besides setting the device name, you can also specify the media type. After defining the tape device, right click on the device icon in the Administration interface, and select Operations. The Device Operations panel (Figure 145) allows you to label media. Figure 145. Device Operations dialog To configure autochangers, go through the above steps, defining each drive in the library. After you have done this, an autochanger device must be added to the NetWorker server. This cannot be done using the GUI, but only by using commands. The commands that will be used are changers and autoloader. The first command will show you the autochangers connected to your machine, while the second one will actually define the library to NetWorker.214 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • In the example below, we have two tape libraries: the IBM 3570 Magstar, with twodrivers, and the IBM 3502-R14 DLT tape library, with one device. First, ensurethat Windows NT recognizes the tape devices. For the Magstar and 3570 tapedrives, you will need to add a device driver. This driver can be found at thefollowing FTP address:ftp://index.storsys.ibm.com/devdrvr/WinNT/IBMmag.1.1.5.3.exebinWhen you install this driver, it will also install the Magstar changer device driver.This driver conflicts with the autoloader software of NetWorker, so you will needto go into the Devices application in the Windows NT control panel and disablethe above driver.The changers command shows the attached recognized libraries: scsidev@1.8.1:Vendor <IBM>, Product <03570B02>, Revision <4234> scsidev@4.0.1:Vendor <ATL>, Product <L500 6320000>, Revision <001E>Next, use the autochanger command to define the autoloaders. This command willgive you the following output and choices: 1) Install a SmartMedia Jukebox. 2) Install an Autodetected SCSI Jukebox. 3) Install an SJI Jukebox. 4) Install an STL Silo. What kind of Jukebox are you installing? [1] 2 These are the SCSI Jukeboxes currently attached to your system: 1) scsidev@1.8.1: IBM 3570 2) scsidev@4.0.1: Standard SCSI Jukebox, Vendor <ATL>, Product <L500 6320000> 3) scsidev@1.9.0: IBM 3570 Which one do you want to install? 1 Installing an IBM 3570 jukebox. Name you would like to assign to the jukebox device? Magstar Pathname of the control port for the jukebox device? [scsidev@1.8.1] Enter pathname of media drive 1: ? [.Tape2] Enter pathname of media drive 2: ? [.Tape3] Your jukebox does not report that it has a bar code reader, but it does report that it can handle volume tags. Some jukeboxes that have barcode readers report this way. If your jukebox has a barcode reader, do you want bar code reader support enabled? (yes/no) no Jukebox has been added successfullyThe values shown in brackets are the proposed defaults, and should be used assuch.You can now use and further configure your libraries, using the administrativeGUI (see Figure 142 on page 213). Select the Autochanger option, which willshow the installed autochangers, as in Figure 146: Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 215
  • Figure 146. Autochanger devices By right clicking on the Autochangers icon, you can select Operations from the pop-up menu. This window lets you perform most operations necessary for tape libraries. The Label function allows you to label volumes, giving a range of slots to check (see Figure 147). The Mount function lets you mount specific volumes. You can also mount volumes by dragging the tape icons in the lower left-hand window to the tape devices on the right. If your library has a dedicated input/output slot, you can use the Deposit and Withdraw functions to add tape volumes. Figure 147. Autochanger operations Whenever you remove and reinsert media, NetWorker will need the label of the tape volume you inserted. To do this, use the Inventory function, which will give you the ability to check labels of volumes in a certain slot or range of slots (see Figure 148).216 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 148. Autochanger media labeling6.5 Computer Associates ARCserveIT for Windows NT Installing Computer Associates ARCserveIT is simply a matter of following the prompts displayed by the installation program. This section describes the main steps required to install ARCserveIT Version 6.61 on an IBM server running Windows NT 4.0 Server.6.5.1 Preparing to install ARCserveIT Before beginning the installation of Computer Associates ARCserve Version 6.6x on a Windows NT server verify that your system meets the following minimum requirements: • Hardware • Processor type - Pentium or higher • SCSI adapter supported by ARCserve and Windows NT • RAM - 32 MB minimum • Disk space - 50 MB of free space • CD-ROM drive if installing from product CD • Software • Windows NT 3.51 or higher6.5.2 Installing ARCserveIT Begin the installation of Computer Associates ARCserveIT by inserting the product CD into the CD-ROM drive and running the Setup program. The Product Explorer screen (see Figure 149 on page 218) allows you to select the version of ARCServeIT that you will install. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 217
  • Figure 149. ARCserveIT Product Explorer After selecting the product and type of installation you want, a welcome screen and a license agreement are presented. Next, you can select the type of installation you want. The screen will display two installation options: Complete installation This installs all ARCserve components (Server, Manager, and options on a single machine). Custom setup This installs one or more components on a single machine. From the Welcome screen, follow the typical installation steps, entering the appropriate information until the completion message appears on your screen. Click Next . Enter the company and user information, then click Next to continue. Figure 150 appears.218 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 150. Select home directories for ARCserveIT and AlertIn Figure 150, there are two directories that contain ARCserveIT files. The homedirectory holds most of the main files and the Alert directory holds the specialinformation used for the Alert function of the product. The user can accept thedefault values or enter a different path as desired. Do not install the ARCserveITfiles or the Alert files on a network drive or in the root directory.Click Next to continue and Figure 151 appears.Figure 151. Select the database to be usedThe user can select the Standard Database supplied by ARCserve as a default orAlternate Database. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 219
  • The alternate database must be ODBC compliant and be currently installed on your system. Two reasons for choosing a database other than the ARCserve database are scalability and customized report writing. Click the Next button after selecting the database and Figure 153 appears. Figure 152. Installation options After copying the product files, ARCserveIT requires a system account, which will be used to run the Windows NT services related to the product. Figure 153. Enter an administrator ID and password Enter the user name and password that will be used to administer ARCserveIT. The user name and password will automatically be added to the NT User Account220 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • database. The user name is also added to the Administrators group and the Backup Operators group. The installation program will then display a completion screen to indicate the successful completion of this installation.6.5.3 Configuring ARCserveIT on Windows NT Server To configure ARCserveIT on Windows NT Server open the ARCserveIT Administrator window by double clicking ARCserveIT Server Admin. Figure 154 appears. Figure 154. ARCserve Server Admin panel From the Server Admin panel, click Admin → Configuration to display the configuration panel. Figure 155 appears. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 221
  • Figure 155. Job Engine configuration panel Enter the desired values for your installation. For more information on the options available from this window, see the ARCserveIT manual. Click the Tape Engine tab to continue the configuration. Figure 156 appears. Figure 156. Tape Engine configuration panel Enter the appropriate values for your installation on the Tape Engine configuration panel. For more information on the options available from this window, see the ARCserveIT manual.222 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Click the Database Engine tab to continue the configuration process. Figure 157appears.Figure 157. Database Engine configuration panelEnter the Database Engine configuration parameters and continue to the Alertconfiguration panel. Figure 158 appears.Figure 158. Alert Configuration PanelEnter any required alert event information. For more information on the optionsavailable from this window, see the ARCserveIT manual. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 223
  • Click OK to complete the installation.6.6 Computer Associates ARCserve Version 6.1 for NetWare This section will describe the steps involved when installing and configuring ARCserve Version 6.1 for NetWare. We go through the installation and then configure the backup server. For more information on ARCserveIT, refer to 5.6, “Computer Associates ARCserveIT for NetWare” on page 147.6.6.1 Installation ARCserve for NetWare has the following system requirements for the server: • Novell NetWare 3.1x or 4.x • 16 MB of RAM in addition to that required by the operating system and other application requirements • 24 MB of hard disk space The installation program for ARCserve must be run from a Windows workstation, connected to the NetWare server. Since the installation program will extend the NDS schemes, you must have supervisor rights to the root object of your NDS. In our setup, the workstation is running Windows NT 4.0 Workstation with NT Service Pack 3. Besides installing the backup server, it will also install the ARCserve manager. However, the files for the manager are not copied locally, but reside on the server. ARCserve Service Pack 2 After installation of the base product, you should install Service Pack 2 for ARCserve Version 6.1. The patch is available from Cheyenne’s technical support home page: http://www.cheyenne.com/CheyTech/Download/patches/techptch.html Besides fixing problems, it provides an ARCserve manager that is compatible with Windows NT. To start installation, run SETUP.EXE from the DISK1 subdirectory (on your CD-ROM or on the hard disk of your code server).224 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 159. ARCserve installation welcome screenTo advance, click the Next button. In the next dialog (Figure 160) you will have toselect the media you are using for the installation: CD-ROM, diskettes or harddisk (code server).Figure 160. ARCserve installation sourceClick Next and Figure 161 appears.This dialog allows you to choose between Complete or Custom installation. If thisis a first time install, you should select the Complete option. Selecting theCustom option lets you install separate components or upgrade your license. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 225
  • Figure 161. ARCserve installation type We selected Complete. Click Next and Figure 162 appears. Now you specify the server on which you are going to install ARCserve. The installation program prompts you with all available NetWare servers. Highlight the one you want to install by clicking on it and then click the Add button. Figure 162. ARCserve installation server selection Click Next to proceed and Figure 163 appears. Next you define the installation path. By default, ARCserve proposes SYS:ARCSERVE.6.226 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 163. ARCserve installation pathClick Next and Figure 164 appears.One of the features of ARCserve is the integration of Cheyenne’s InoculanAntiVirus product. You can install this feature (see Figure 164) that will scan filesfor viruses as they are backed up. If you do not have any other AntiVirus productrunning, this would be a good option to protect your backups from viruses.Figure 164. ARCserve installation antivirus installationClick Next and Figure 165 appears. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 227
  • Another component is the alert modules. These modules enable the backup server to send alerts, using SNMP, e-mail, fax, pager or printer output as alert method. By default, this is not installed. Figure 165. ARCserve installation alert modules installation Click Next . ARCserve will use the NetWare database system, Btrieve. ARCserve requires Btrieve Version 6.15 or higher. If it finds an older version, you will be prompted to install the 6.15 version, as shown in Figure 166. All the required modules to upgrade Btrieve are included with the ARCserve package. If you select Yes, you will be shown a list with NetWare modules that will be upgraded. Figure 166. ARCserve installation Btrieve version6.6.2 Configuration You now need to select and configure the SCSI host adapter to which your tape is connected. ARCserve uses two methods to address your SCSI tape: 1. Using the ASPI interface, through the SCSI driver delivered by the manufacturer of your SCSI controller. 2. Using a proprietary driver. You are prompted in Figure 167 to select one of these options.228 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • You can use the proprietary driver only when no other devices are attached toyour SCSI bus, as only the ARCserve tape manager will be able to communicatewith the devices on this SCSI bus. Also, only a limited number of SCSI controllersare supported by these drivers.In our case, we will use the standard ASPI interface, since the Adaptec AHA-2940is not supported to be used exclusively by ARCserve. To do this, select theShared and/or ASPI option then click Next.Figure 167. ARCserve adapter installation - driver typeNext, you will need to select the adapter you are using. We are using the AdaptecAHA-294X controller. Select this adapter from the list box in Figure 168, and clickNext . Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 229
  • Figure 168. ARCserve adapter installation - adapter selection Figure 169 appears. Once you have selected the adapter type, you will need to define the SCSI host adapter number. If only one SCSI controller is installed, select 0. Figure 169. ARCserve adapter installation - configuration Click Next and Figure 170 appears. The installation program gives you an overview of the SCSI controller you chose. At this point, you can modify settings, add a second controller or delete the existing controller.230 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 170. ARCserve adapter installation - overviewClick Next and Figure 171 appears.Now, you can select additional components to install. ARCserve gives you theability to install the following options: • Install Password Database This will enable ARCserve to store client passwords in a database. The advantage of this is that users will not be prompted for a password every time they connect to the server. • Automatically start the CLIENTS.NLM module. This module auto-discovers ARCserve agents on the network. Although this is a user friendly way to define agents, it will increase network traffic. If you are not using agents, you should not install this option. If you are using agents, it is possible to define them manually to the backup server. • Create Default Rotation Backup Job This will create a tape rotation backup job (see 2.2.2, “Backup patterns” on page 5) using 5 tapes. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 231
  • Figure 171. ARCserve installation options Click Next . As we selected Install Manager on Server in Figure 163 on page 227, Figure 172 appears where you set up the ARCserve manager. Figure 172. ARCserve manager installation The manager code resides on the NetWare server. This means that manager objects on the workstation must point to the server to access the software. ARCserve lets you choose between using a fixed drive letter, which represents the mapped drive on your server or using a UNC (Universal Naming Convention) path. Selecting this second option has the advantage that the drive mapping can change, without affecting the operation of the ARCserve manager installed on your workstation.232 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • When all this is finished, ARCserve will start installation of server and manager coding on the backup server.6.6.3 Managing ARCserve for NetWare Once ARCserve for NetWare is installed, you can start the ARCserve backup server by typing the following command at the server’s console: ASTART6 Be sure to load the device driver for your SCSI adapter before you run this command (in the case of an Adaptec 2940 UW or an onboard SCSI adapter, the driver is AIC7880.DSK). ASTART6.NCF will load the ARCserve loader, which will attempt to start the ARCserve server. You can look at the loading steps in the loader message screen. This screen will deactivate automatically if all ARCserve components have started successfully. When ARCserve is running, you will see the following three screens: • ARCserve Tape Server • ARCserve Scheduler • ARCserve Run-Time Message To manage ARCserve, you need to use a Windows 3.X, Windows 95 or Windows NT based administrator interface, called the ARCserve Manager. This workstation must be equipped with the Novell NetWare client. The Microsoft Client Service for NetWare is not supported. This manager is automatically installed on the workstation you used to install the ARCserve server on the NetWare server. You can install it individually by selecting the Custom option during installation (see Figure 161 on page 226). ARCserve Service Pack 2 After installation of the base product, you should install Service Pack 2 for ARCserve Version 6.1x. The patch is available from Cheyenne’s technical support home page: http://www.cheyenne.com/CheyTech/Download/patches/techptch.html Besides fixing problems, it provides an ARCserve Manager that is compatible with Windows NT. When you start ARCserve Manager, you will get the Quick Access menu shown in Figure 173, which allows you to start the subcomponents needed to perform specific jobs. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 233
  • Figure 173. ARCserve manager Quick Access menu If you close the Quick Access menu, you will return to the ARCserve main window, Figure 174. From there, you can perform all operations needed to manage your backup server, and launch data management operations. Network Connections Backup Copy Database Manager Media Pools Job Status Restore Job Queue Reports and Logs Merge Tapes Cue Cards Add New Job Change Job Status Monitor Job Compare Tape Cleaning Device Management Modify Job Delete Job Scan Tape Copy Tapes CountFigure 174. ARCserve manager — main window The following operations can be performed from the button bar in the main window (Figure 174): • Network Connections Using this function, you can look at and manage connections to NetWare servers. It will show all reachable servers, and display if ARCserve is running on them or not. • Job Status The job status function (see Figure 175) shows all jobs processed by the ARCserve server. The status of each job is displayed by a colored circle in font of the job description (green stands for successful, red for unsuccessful and234 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • yellow shows that a warning occurred). You can display the details of each job by double clicking on it.Figure 175. ARCserve manager Job Status • Backup, Restore and Copy These functions allow you to submit backup, restore or copy jobs to the server. You can define the objects included for the job, schedule jobs and modify job properties. The copy job will copy files to ARCserve server file systems. • Job Queue The Job Queue manager shows all jobs that are currently in the queue used by the NetWare server (see Figure 174). This includes all jobs that are in progress and all jobs that are scheduled. You can also delete jobs, change their status, modify settings or see real-time statistics using this function.Figure 176. ARCserve manager Job Monitor • Database manager The database manager can be used to look at the entries in the ARCserve database, and modify some values. The following database lists are available: • Summary (see Figure 177) • Job list Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 235
  • • Media list • Device list • Media pool list • Media location list • Client list • Password list Figure 177. ARCserve database manager • Report and Logs This function will enable you to look at the operation and error logs of the ARCserve server. It can also be used to print formatted reports based on predefined queries from the database. • Media Pools This function is used to manage media pools. Media pools are a collection of tapes defined as one entity. This simplifies media management. By default, all tapes will be assigned to the default media pool. • Merge Tapes ARCserve will store all information about its operations in the database. This means that you can only use tape media that is defined in the database. The merge function allows you to enter tapes that are not defined in the database. This could be tapes used in another ARCserve environment, or old tapes used in a previous setup. • Scan Tapes The scan tape operation will scan a tape to check for its contents. It will return information about sessions that used the scanned tape. It is also useful for checking files residing on the tape. • Compare The compare function compares tape content to actual files. • Copy Tapes236 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • This function allows you to copy data from one tape to another. • Tape Cleaning This function can be used to set up an automated cleaning schedule. It is only available when used with autochangers (see 6.6.4, “The ARCserve changer option” on page 238). • Count The count function is used to count the number of files or directories on servers or clients. This tool can be used to estimate the number of tapes that will be necessary to run the backup. • Device Management The device manager is the main interface to set up your backup devices and perform operations on them. During installation, you defined the SCSI host adapter to be used with ARCserve. This is the only definition necessary to make ARCserve recognize your tape device. During startup, it will scan the SCSI bus for tape devices. The devices found by ARCserve will be defined as device groups. The device group will be the object used by ARCserve as backup destination. By default, ARCserve will add all devices found in a group called ARCSERVE. You can add or remove groups, with the limitation that each group needs at least one device, and that each device can only belong to one group. This means that the maximum number of groups is equal to the number of devices.Figure 178. ARCserve manager NetWare device manager Using the device manager, you can see information on your tape devices, and turn compression on or off. Additionally, the device manager can be used to perform operations on tape media, like formatting (see Figure 179), erasing and ejecting tapes. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 237
  • Figure 179. ARCserve manager NetWare device manager — Format Media6.6.4 The ARCserve changer option To enable ARCserve for NetWare to use the IBM 3447 library, you need to install the changer option. This will enable the ARCserve tape server to send commands to the robotics of the library, and manage tapes that are in the library. Before starting the installation, connect the hardware, install and start ARCserve and log in to your NetWare server. Then, start the SETUP.EXE program on your Windows-based ARCserve manager workstation. After the welcome screen and some additional information, you will be asked to identify the NetWare server that you want to install, as shown in Figure 180. If you specify Connected as the List Type, only the servers that run ARCserve will be displayed. Select the required server, and click Next. Figure 180. Changer Option Setup — select server After server selection, you will need to enter the license number for the changer option. Next the installation program shows the attached changers (see Figure 181). Ensure your library’s changer is listed. If not, your SCSI host adapter driver might be incorrect (see 6.6.1, “Installation” on page 224) or a SCSI ID conflict could238 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • exist. Also ensure that your library is turned on and has passed initializationbefore starting the changer installation.Figure 181. Changer Option Setup — changer detectionClick Next to continue. Figure 182 appears where you configure your changer.This consists of adding or removing tape devices, assigning a group name to thedevices and specifying if a cleaning cartridge is available. You can also specifywhether a barcode reader is available. This will be used by ARCserve to assignserial numbers to your tape cartridges.Figure 182. Changer Option Setup — configure changerClick Next to continue. Figure 183 appears showing the tape drives installed. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 239
  • Figure 183. Changer Option Setup — tape overview If this is correct, disable the ARCserve server by typing ASTOP6 at the server’s console. Then, click Next and restart your ARCserve server by typing ASTART6 at the console. This will re-initialize the server and load CHANGER.NLM. The changer’s configuration will be stored in CHANGER.CFG, an ASCII file that can be edited. For more information, refer to the online help. After starting the ARCserve tape server, it will initialize the library. It checks all available cartridges for the barcode and tape header. This can take several minutes to complete. During this period, the library will not accept any commands. Initialization The initialization can be turned off by modifying the CHANGER.CFG file. This makes the startup faster. However, you will need to run the initialization afterwards if you need to access the tape cartridges in the library. Once the initialization has completed, you can open the device manager (click the Device Management icon in the main window as shown in Figure 174 on page 234) and look at the configuration. Figure 184 appears.240 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 184. ARCserve device manager with changer installedYou can see the devices (changer and tape), and look at the tape media. Fromhere, it is possible to perform bulk media operations, such as formatting. <<UNKNOWN TAPE>> If your tape media is recognized as <<UNKNOWN TAPE>>, ARCserve will set a software write protection on the tape. This situation happens when tapes are used that were previously used by another application. The only way to get around this protection is by using the tape server console on the ARCserve server. From the tape server console, first, select Changer Management and do a Change Loaded Tape operation. This will mount the tape in the drive. Once this is completed, exit the changer management submenu, and go to Tape Device Management . Here, select Format or Erase Tape. Wait for the operation to complete. This procedure has to be repeated for every unrecognized tape cartridge in the library.One of the advantages of using this changer option is creating a backup job thatwill run without user intervention. This can be done by specifying a backup job touse the Auto Pilot options (see Figure 185). Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 241
  • Figure 185. ARCserve backup job using Auto Pilot You can select the type of backup that needs to be done every day. Also, you can select the number of days, weeks and months you want to keep your backup. In Figure 185, we took four versions of daily backups, three versions of weekly and one monthly. This means that each week, one tape is not overwritten and kept for three weeks. After these three weeks, the first tape will be overwritten by a new weekly backup. The daily backups (Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday) will each be backed up to a separate cartridge, that will be reused the following week. Once you’ve scheduled an Auto Pilot backup job, ARCserve will manage the tapes in the library, and automatically mount the needed cartridge. The total number of cartridges needed is equal to the sum of the three defined values. So in Figure 185, we would need eight tapes. For more information on Auto Pilot, refer to the ARCserve for NetWare Changer Option User Guide.6.7 VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows NT This chapter discusses the installation and configuration of VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows NT Version 7.3. For additional information, please refer to the online documentation, in particular the Administrator’s Guide, which ships with the Veritas product on CD-ROM.6.7.1 Software installation Installation of Backup Exec for Windows NT is straightforward if the correct device driver is installed. The device driver we refer to is the Windows NT tape device driver. To check if the tape device is installed and functioning, use the Tape Device program in the Windows NT control panel.242 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • After you have started the Backup Exec installation process and processed someof the initial installation panels, which include system requirements and licenseagreement, the window shown in Figure 186 will appear where you must choosebetween installing the Backup Exec Software or options, or the RemoteAdministrator.Figure 186. Install the product, options, or remote administratorThe Remote Administrator provides a way to control the backup server from aremote Windows NT server or workstation.When choosing the installation of Backup Exec and options, the next installationpanel will request the license information. The License panel will list the LicenseKey for any product or option previously installed. Options are normallypurchased separately, and require a separate license key to operate.Next, select the options you wish to install as shown in Figure 187.Figure 187. Option selection panelYou can select to install tape device drivers through this panel. However, somedrivers will be less recent than the ones included in the latest Windows NT serverservice pack. Therefore, if you have successfully installed the NT driver beforestarting the installation program, do not select this option. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 243
  • After making your selections, and clicking the Next button the installation will start. After the installation program copies necessary program files, you will be required to supply details of a Service Account as shown in Figure 188. The service account will be the user that is used to run the Windows NT services for this product. These services include: • Agent browser • Alert server • Device and media service • Job engine • Naming service • Notification server • Server Figure 188. Service account details You can select an existing user, or define a new one. If you choose an existing user, ensure that the security attributes of that account reflect that the password never expires. If you don’t, Backup Exec will stop functioning when the password expires. This service account, whether existing or new, will be assigned the following rights: Log on as a service, and Administrative rights. If you selected additional options to be installed, you will go through that installation at this point. Follow the on-screen instructions to finalize the installation. Next, shut down Windows NT and reboot the server. Shutdown and Reboot It is important to shut down and reboot the server before attempting to start the Backup Exec software. This will allow the Backup Exec services to start before the Backup Exec software is used. Omitting this step will cause the client interface shown in Figure 193 on page 247 to continually prompt for a server to log onto.6.7.2 Configuration After the restart of the system, the Backup Exec software is run for the first time. The configuration wizard, which is started automatically, will help you prepare Backup Exec for use.244 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The first step in the configuration of Backup Exec, is to define the way mediaprotection will be handled. You have the choice to either go directly to theprotection level choice, or you can use the Guide me path, which will ask youquestions in order to define the best media overwrite protection for yourinstallation.Figure 189. Media overwrite introduction panel.If you go to the overwrite protection level selection screen, directly or through theguide manner, you will have the following choices: • Full This is the safest option because the media being protected cannot be overwritten unless media in the active or imported media set(s) is moved to the scratch category, or the media has exceeded its user-assigned data retention period. • Partial Media belonging to an active media set cannot be overwritten but this is not the case for imported and recyclable media which can be overwritten. • None This is the least safe option, and basically disables the overwrite protection feature. The administrator is responsible for making sure that media in the storage device does not accidentally get overwritten.Refer to the VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows NT Version 7 Administrator’sGuide for more details on media overwrite protection.Next, you will need to define the order in which Backup Exec will select tapesfrom the available pools. You basically have the choice between two types ofmedia: recycled media, which means media that contains data that has exceededits retention period, or scratch media, which is empty. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 245
  • Figure 190. Media overwrite order When the media configuration is complete, another screen will ask you to turn on or off virus protection. Backup Exec gives you the possibility to scan data for viruses before taking a backup. This way, you have an assurance that your backup copies are virus free. Now, the device configuration will start. This is done through the device configuration wizard. The first step shows you all tape storage devices that are attached to your system, and that are recognized by the program. Figure 191. Detected hardware, with details of IBM 30/70GB DLT tape drive If the tape device is not shown in this panel, there might be a problem with the device or device driver. By pushing the Configure Devices button, the installation program will launch the Windows NT tape device configuration panel. Ensure that the device is seen by Windows NT, and that both device and device driver are functioning. Clicking the Next button displays the panel shown in Figure 192 to help verify drive configuration and ensure that drives appear correctly as stand-alone drives or as drives in an autochanger.246 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 192. Verifying drive configurationAfter the correct device driver has been installed for the tape device(s), and thedriver configuration verified, the device configuration is complete and we canproceed with the backup process. Shut down and reboot If the device driver is not started it will be necessary to shut down Windows NT and reboot the backup server.6.7.2.1 Backup Exec AssistantThe Backup Exec Assistant provides easy access to all of Backup Exec’s wizards.Wizards help guide you through a variety of tasks, which are shown in Figure 193.Figure 193. Backup Exec AssistantThe Backup Exec Assistant may be used for most operations. For moreexperienced users there is also a client interface. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 247
  • 6.7.2.2 Backup Exec Client Interface After the user interface is initialized, the Backup Exec client desktop is displayed as shown in Figure 194. Toolbar Backup Exec Assis- Devices Tab Figure 194. Client interface We can use the Devices tab to look at the tape device which was recognized earlier in the installation process. Figure 195. Client interface - Devices tab The tape drive does not appear in the Cascaded Drive Pools section because it is the only device available. Cascaded drive pools require two or more drives of the same device type and capacity. If we do not wish to use the default Drive Pool “Drive Pool 1” we could create our own drive pool and have it known by a name we assign to it. We can do this by right-clicking Drive Pool .248 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • If we are not sure of the state of the media in the drive we should perform anerase and label operation. Right-click the tape drive in the drive pool to obtain thepop-up menu that allows you to perform actions on the device and mediacurrently in the tape device.The label option is available in the drop-down menu. The label option will requirethe administrator to supply a label. If no label is given, a default cartridge label isused which is comprised of the media type, for example, 8 mm and anincrementing number, for example, 000000. If the tape device has a barcodereader and there is a barcode label on the tape cartridge, the barcode labelautomatically becomes the cartridge label. As long as the media has a barcodelabel, and the device has a barcode reader, Backup Exec will not permit thecartridge label to be changed.You can also use the client interface to perform media operations using the Mediatab. Here, you can label, format and delete volumes, as well as create sets ofvolumes.Figure 196. Client interface - Media tab6.7.2.3 Backing Up DataYou can perform manual backups by pushing the Backup button from the toolbar,which will allow you to select directories and files to back up. In order to facilitatethis operation however, and extend the single backup operation to an automatedbackup rotation schedule, you can use the Create an Automated BackupStrategy button from the Backup Exec Assistant window (see Figure 193 on page247).This will bring up a setup wizard which will guide you through the necessarydefinitions to set up such a strategy.To start, you will need to define which data will be backed up. The choice includeslocal drives, backup exec agents, network drives, or user-defined shares. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 249
  • Figure 197. Backup selection After selecting what you need to back up, the wizard will allow you to choose three ways of setting up the rotation schedule. These include the Express, the Typical and the Custom methods. To familiarize yourself with the possibilities, we suggest that you take the custom option. If you do not know what to choose, you can leave the defaults as proposed by the software. After choosing Custom , the first required input is the name of the rotation. Here, you can give a name that defines how the jobs related to this schedule will be named. Next, you must set the start date for the schedule. The first backup will always be a normal one. After setting the start date, the wizard prompts you for the type of intermediate backups. You have the choice between differential, incremental or working set backups (see 5.7, “VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows NT” on page 149). In our example, we chose to keep the default, which is differential. Next, Backup Exec will propose a rotation scheme based on the input given so far. Figure 198. Rotation schedule250 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • As seen in Figure 198, the proposed schedule consists of differential backupMonday through Thursday, with a full normal backup on Friday. You can also setthe required start time of the schedule.In the next panels, you will need to select the device or device pools for both thedifferential and normal backups, as well as the media you will use. You can eitherchoose to use scratch media, or append the backups to media allocated to aspecific media set. You may also specify the retention period of the media.Figure 199. Media retention period settingsFinally, you can enable the backup program to verify the backup it just performed.This completes the setup for the automatic rotational schedule jobs. They will belaunched automatically at the required time.6.7.2.4 Restoring dataWhile backing up data from a device, Backup Exec creates a set of catalog filesthat reside in the C:Program FilesVeritasBackup ExecNTcatalogs directory onthe backup server. These catalog files contain information about the contents ofall media and are used when selections are made for restore jobs.If the media has not previously been cataloged, such as media that was backedup from another backup server, the media must have a Catalog operationperformed on it before files can be selected to restore. Do this by right-clickingthe tape drive in the Devices tab, and selecting Catalog from the drop-downmenu. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 251
  • Restore Figure 200. Client Interface - Restore Selections Assuming the media has already been cataloged we can restore anything from a single file to entire directories from the selected media. Figure 200 shows the restore selections available from the media. Selecting the Restore button from the toolbar will bring up the restore panel allowing file/directory selections to be made as well as the target drive/directory to be changed. The following sections show how to configure various IBM tape devices for use with Backup Exec for Windows NT. Each section assumes the particular tape device is already connected to the backup server. Device driver support is provided in the Backup Exec software for most if not all of the IBM tape devices. Where this is not the case, a note will be provided indicating where the device driver may be obtained. Visit the VERITAS Web site regularly to check for updated device drivers.6.7.3 Configuring IBM tape drives Let’s assume the TR4 tape drive has been physically connected to the backup server and Windows NT Server started. It is necessary to perform the following tasks to install the correct device driver in order for Backup Exec to recognize the tape device. 6.7.3.1 Installing the device driver Open the Tape Devices settings by clicking Start → Settings → Control Panel → Tape Devices . A window similar to Figure 201 appears. Depending on your particular drive the contents of the window will be different.252 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 201. Windows NT recognizes the IBM TR4 4.0/8.0 GB Tape DriveSelect the Drivers tab in Figure 201. A window similar to Figure 202 appears.The driver displayed depends on the tape drive you are using.Figure 202. Device driverIf this is not the first time this tape drive is being installed then the correct devicedriver may already be shown here. To install the correct device driver, select theAdd button to view a list of device drivers, then select the Have Disk button andenter the path of the device driver. The device driver may be found in the directoryWINNTDRIVERSI386 of the VERITAS Backup Exec CD-ROM.6.7.3.2 Configuring Backup ExecWith the correct device driver installed, Windows NT will need to be restarted forthe device driver to start. The next step of the configuration process uses BackupExec, so start Backup Exec and select the Devices tab to view device details asshown in Figure 203. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 253
  • Devices Tab Figure 203. IBM TR4 4/8GB Tape Drive recognized by Backup Exec You will see the IBM tape device (shown as CONNER 0 for the 4/8 GB TR4) under both Storage Devices and Drive Pools. It should automatically appear in Drive Pool 1. If this is not the case, simply drag a copy from Storage Devices to Drive Pool 1 or any other defined pool area. Installation of the correct device driver and configuration of the tape drive is complete and is ready for use. As you can see in Figure 203 we have labeled the TR4 tape cartridge in the drive with TR4TAPE001.6.8 Veritas Backup Exec for Novell NetWare This topic will go through the installation and configuration of Backup Exec Version 8.0 for Novell NetWare.6.8.1 Software installation Backup Exec for NetWare has the following system requirements: • Novell NetWare 4.10 or later • 4 MB of RAM in addition to that required by the operating system and other applications • 14 MB disk space Backup Exec for NetWare can be installed using two methods. The first one is to load the installation NLM on the backup server itself (see 6.8.1.1, “Server-based installation” on page 255). A second way of installing Backup Exec is to load the installation program from a workstation running Windows or OS/2 (see 6.8.1.2, “Installation from a Workstation” on page 257).254 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • 6.8.1.1 Server-based installationThis type of installation will be entirely done on the NetWare server.1. Insert the Backup Exec CD into the CD-ROM device, and mount it as a NetWare volume. To do this, type the following commands at the server’s console: load aspicd load cdrom cd mount seagate2. Type the following at the system console to start the installation program: load seagate:netwarebeinstl.nlm3. This will bring up the first window, where you will have to choose the language you want to install in.4. Next, you will need to insert your serial number, which is located on the barcode label of your CD-ROM. Serial Number If you do not enter your serial number, Backup Exec will install itself as a 60-day trial version. Press F2 to continue. The next screen asks yo uto accept the license agreement. If you do not enter a serial number and agree to use the trial version, you will have to choose which version you will install: Enterprise Edition or Single Server. If you want to upgrade your current license, please contact VERITAS for more information. Choices are the Enterprise Edition or the Single Server Unlimited edition (see 5.8, “VERITAS Backup Exec for Novell NetWare” on page 155). This example will cover the Single Server installation. The Enterprise Edition will be covered in 6.8.1.2, “Installation from a Workstation” on page 257.5. The next step will be to choose between a typical or custom installation. A typical installation will use the default installation paths, update Novell NetWare NLMs, run in Directory Services mode and will not copy documentation to the server. If you use the custom method, which we did, you can override these defaults.Figure 204. Choice between Typical and Custom installation Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 255
  • 6. After choosing the custom installation path, the first step will be to update the Novell NetWare NLMs. Backup Exec will need to update some NetWare loadable modules in order to function correctly. During this step, the installation program will show a list of modules requiring change. 7. Now, you will have to enter the SCSI controller type. In our case, the Adaptec 294X controller is selected. Figure 205. SCSI adapter selection The supported DMA option will normally default to Yes for this adapter. If it does not, be sure to select it, as otherwise memory below 16 MB will be used. Press F2 to continue. 8. Next, Backup Exec will start copying some preparation files, and then ask you where you want to install the files. Figure 206 shows this window. Figure 206. Installation directories The different types of files are as follows: Catalog files: Used to determine tape contents. Job history files: Store results of jobs processed. Tape rotation files: These files are used when processing tape rotation jobs. Partition management files: Store partition management databases.256 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Agent and client files: Used to install the Backup Exec clients and agents to user’s workstation. Install online documentation: Copies the online documentation from the installation CD to the server’s hard disk.After the copying completes, Backup Exec creates two ncf files: BESTART.NCFand BESTOP.NCF. BESTART.NCF is added to the AUTOEXEC.NCF file, andcontains all necessary information to load tape device support and the BackupExec Job Manager. The BESTOP.NCF file can be used to stop the Backup Execapplication.6.8.1.2 Installation from a WorkstationThe second way of installing Backup Exec for NetWare is using the client-basedinstallation program. Using this program, it is possible to install the backup serverusing Windows-based interfaces. If you are running Windows 95 or Windows NT,just insert the CD. Otherwise, run the SETUP.EXE program located in the rootdirectory of the CD. This will start the installation interface (see Figure 207).Select the Backup Exec for NetWare option, and select the Install button.Figure 207. Main installation windowAfter selecting the language version you want to install, you are given the choicebetween different installation actions (see Figure 208). To install the Backup Execserver, select the Install Backup Exec Software on Backup Server option andclick Next. You then will be asked to install the software or upgrade an alreadyinstalled version. Since this is a fist time installation, select the Install BackupExec for NetWare option. After this, you are requested to enter the serial numberfor the product. If you do not enter a license number, you can install a 60-day trialversion. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 257
  • Figure 208. Main install options Next, the license agreement will appear. If you agree, and did not install a license, you will have to choose which product evaluation code you are going to install (see Figure 209). Figure 209. Select Evaluation Version Desired We chose the Enterprise Edition. Next, a list of NetWare servers will appear that show the possible targets for our installation. Highlight the required server, and click Next. You will be prompted to enter a user ID and password for this server, with supervisor rights to the root object on your tree (unless you are already logged on as supervisor). Next, you can choose a typical or custom installation path. For both paths, the next screen (Figure 210) requires input for both client installation and server configuration. Refer to the Backup Exec manuals for more information. It will also show the required disk space and the available disk space on the target server. After this, additional installation options will need to be entered if custom installation has been chosen.258 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 210. Install OptionsAfter clicking Next , you can modify the installation path (if you chose the custominstallation method). See Figure 211 for details. The different directories are usedfor the following:Catalog files: Used to determine tape contents.Job history files: Store results of jobs processed.Tape rotation files: These files are used when processing tape rotation jobs.Partition management files: Store partition management databases.Agent and client files: Used to install the Backup Exec clients and agents to user’s workstation.Install online documentation: Copies the online documentation from the installation CD to the server’s hard disk.Figure 211. Directory OptionsNext, the appropriate SCSI adapter must be selected. Select the AdaptecAHA-294x adapter (or whatever adapter is appropriate for your installation), and Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 259
  • make sure that the option to use DMA access above 16 MB is checked (see Figure 212). Figure 212. Select Controller Type After you have selected the adapter, the files will be copied to the server. You can read the readme files after the installation finishes. Since you are installing the Enterprise Edition, you will have the possibility to install another server. If you choose not to, the Windows client will be installed. You can now automate startup of the Backup Exec backup server by adding BESTART.NCF to the server’s AUTOEXEC.NCF file.6.8.2 Software configuration Once the software is installed, you will need to configure it to recognize your tape devices. To do this, you will need to use Job Manager on the NetWare server to set up partition management. To start the Job Manager, load BEMGR.NLM in the Backup Exec directory, or use the BESTART.NCF file. BESTART.NCF will load all required components to use Backup Exec, and this will be done using the SureStart concept. SureStart will check if all necessary software and hardware requirements are met, and perform some housekeeping on the product. The Session Status window (see Figure 213) is the main Job Manager user interface. From here, you can do the following: • Monitor active jobs. • View partition information, tape drive configuration and hardware settings. • Change partition settings. • Perform tape utility tasks. • Access the Job Manager options. • Exit the Job Manager.260 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 213. Backup Exec Job Manager main windowPress Ctrl-O to open the Options screen. You will be required to log in assupervisor. From the Options window, select Partition Management (Figure214).Figure 214. Backup Exec Job Manager main options windowNext, select Define/Maintain Partitions (Figure 215).Figure 215. Backup Exec Job Manager Partition Management window Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 261
  • As shown in Figure 216, Backup Exec has already defined a default partition for the tape device it detected. To edit this default definition, press Enter. This will bring up the Partition Description window. Here you can change the properties of the partition (Figure 217). Figure 216. Backup Exec partition maintenance window Figure 217. Backup Exec Partition Description window Once the partition is defined, the backup server will be ready to accept jobs from clients.6.9 Seagate Sytos Premium for OS/2 Sytos Premium for OS/2 is a backup application made for OS/2 Warp Server. It is an easy to use, easy to configure application, that allows you to back up your servers running OS/2. It is included with most current single-tape devices bought from IBM. Currently, the following devices are supported: • IBM 4/8 GB TR4 tape drive • IBM 12/24 NS tape drive • IBM 4/10 GB DDS-2 tape drive • IBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 tape drive • IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive262 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Since Sytos does not use clients or agents, backups are limited to the local machine to which the tape device is connected. You can back up OS/2 network file systems to which you are connected from the local server. This limits the use of Sytos Premium in enterprise wide, mixed environments. Although limited for large sites, Sytos could be a good solution for small locations or enterprises. It has functions and features that make it a valid backup solution. These features include: • Able to back up Access Control Lists (ACLs) and file permissions. • Long file name and extended attributes support for HPFS file systems. • Multi-threaded and multi-tasking. • File grooming possibilities. • Autoloader support using the optional Autoloader module (currently, only the IBM internal 4 mm 12/24 GB autoloader is supported). Also, Sytos supports non-SCSI devices, like EIDE tapes, diskettes or hard drives as backup devices.6.9.1 Installing Sytos Premium Version 2.2 Sytos Premium has the following system requirements: • IBM OS/2 Warp 3.0 or later • LAN Server 3.0 or Warp Server 4.0 or later • 3 MB of free hard disk space (does not include space needed for database and log files) • 4 MB of RAM free above operating system and other application requirements When starting the installation of Sytos, the first thing to check is the SCSI configuration of your system. Standard SCSI requirements apply. These are: • SCSI host adapter driver is loaded and configured. • The SCSI bus is properly terminated. Non-SCSI Devices Since non-SCSI devices are beyond the scope of this publication please refer to Sytos manuals for more information on installation and configuration of these devices. To begin the installation, start the installation utility (SETUP.EXE) on the CD-ROM. This will bring up the License Agreement window and a list of system requirements. When you finish reading this information, you will have to enter the serial number that is located on your CD-ROM. After doing this, the installation procedure begins. The first step will be to define the installation directory. By default, Sytos uses a SYPLUS directory on the OS/2 boot drive. Next, you will need to define the backup device you are using (see Figure 218). You can define more than one device by selecting them but there can be only one default device. Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 263
  • Figure 218. Sytos Premium device definition Once you’ve selected the device you are using (in our case, the IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm drive), click Continue. Next, you will have to define the SCSI adapter you are using. For most IBM servers, select the Adaptec AHA-2940 adapter (see Figure 219). You will need to define an adapter for each tape device you’ve selected. Figure 219. Sytos Premium SCSI adapter selection Next, you will need to define a default tape set name (see Figure 220). This set name will be the name used to define the tapes that are used by the default jobs defined in Sytos. Once you’ve entered this set name, the installation program will give you the possibility to confirm or modify the installation options, and start copying the files to your hard disk.264 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Figure 220. Default Tape Set definitionNext, the installation program asks you to modify the CONFIG.SYS file, updatingit with drivers for your tape device (see Figure 221). The driver installed is specificfor each tape device. Table 19 shows an overview of the supported tape deviceswith their associated drivers. If you have problems, or want to find out if newerdevices are supported, you can download drivers from the Sytos Web page:http://www.seagatesoftware.com/sytosos2Table 19. Supported drivers Tape Device Driver IBM 20/40 GB 8 mm IBM_2040.SYS IBM 4/10 GB 4 mm DDS-2 IBS_4GBI.SYS IBM 12/24 GB 4 mm DDS-3 IBM_1224.SYS IBM TR4 IBMTR4S.SYS IBM 12/24 GB NS (Driver planned but not available at time of publication.) Chapter 6. Installation and configuration 265
  • Figure 221. Updating the Config.Sys This concludes the installation of Sytos Premium for OS/2. You can open the user interface by double clicking the Sytos Premium Icon on your desktop. Figure 222 shows the main user interface. You can immediately take a backup by selecting one of the predefined backup jobs. These jobs will use the default device defined during installation (tape device and tape set name). Figure 222. Sytos Premium user interface For more information on using this interface, please refer to the user guides included on the CD ROM.266 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Appendix A. Sources of information These Web sites may be useful for finding out more about tape backup solutions for Netfinity systems: IBM Tape Products — http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/tape/index.html Contains information about IBM’s complete range of tape hardware for all platforms, notebook to mainframe. Links include the list of media that are available from IBM. Support for IBM Tape Drives — http://www.pc.ibm.com/support Click Options by IBM Support then Tape Drives from the list box then the part number of the drive you are looking for. IBM Tape Products Compatibility — http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/matrix.shtml Contains matrixes listing IBM server and IBM tape drive compatibility. IBM SAN information — http://www.storage.ibm.com/ibmsan/ DLTtape.COM — http://www.dlttape.com. An online resource that is sponsored and maintained by Quantum. It contains the latest DLT tape-related information including product reviews and press releases as well as an online discussion forum. QIC Drive Standards — http://www.qic.org LTO — http://www.lto.org Tivoli Storage Manager — http://www.tivoli.com/products/index/storage_mgr Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups — http://www.tivoli.com/products/index/data_protect/ VERITAS — http://www.veritas.com. Where you can find information on VERITAS products: NetBackup, Backup Exec and Sytos. Legato Products — http://www.legato.com/Products/index.html© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 267
  • Information on the Legato NetWorker software. CA ARCServeIT — http://www.cai.com/arcserveit/ USA Announcement Letters — http://www.ibmlink.com/usalets. All IBM product announcements are available in HTML, PostScript and PDF formats, searchable by date, product name, product number or any search string.268 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Appendix B. Hardware part numbers This appendix contains a list of all tape drives and libraries, and their associated part numbers. Table 20 identifies part numbers associated with the 40/80 GB DLT tape drive: Table 20. IBM 40/80 GB DLT tape drive part numbers IBM 40/80 GB DLT Tape Drive US P/N EMEA P/N Tape drive (black bezel) 007N7990 007N7990 DLT IV cartridge 59H3040 59H3040 DLT cleaning cartridge 59H3092 59H3092 DLT external SCSI enclosure 3503BOX 03K8705 NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL 3551001 03K8756 Active terminator 32G3918 32G3918 Table 21 identifies part numbers associated with the 35/70 GB DLT tape drive: Table 21. IBM 35/70 GB DLT tape drive part numbers IBM 35/70GB DLT Tape Drive US P/N EMEA P/N Tape drive (black bezel) 04K0149 04K0149 Internal 4-drop 68-pin SCSI cable 60H7826 60H7826 DLT III XT 59H3411 59H3411 DLT IV cartridge 59H3040 59H3040 DLT cleaning cartridge 59H3092 59H3092 DLT external SCSI enclosure 3503BOX 03K8705 NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL 3551001 03K8756 Active terminator 32G3918 32G3918 Table 22 identifies part numbers associated with the 20/40 GB DLT tape drive: Table 22. IBM 20/40 GB DLT tape drive part numbers IBM 20/40GB DLT Tape Drive US P/N EMEA P/N Tape drive (black bezel) 01K1320 01K1320 DLT III XT 59H3411 59H3411 DLT IV cartridge 59H3040 59H3040 DLT cleaning cartridge 59H3092 59H3092 DLT external SCSI enclosure 3503BOX 03K8705 NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL 3551001 03K8756 Active terminator 32G3918 32G3918© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 269
  • Table 23 identifies part numbers associated with the 20/40 GB 8 mm tape drive: Table 23. IBM 20/40 GB 8mm tape drive part numbers IBM 20/40GB 8mm Tape Drive US P/N EMEA P/N Tape drive 01K1325 01K1325 8 mm 170 m AME data cartridge 59H2679 8 mm cleaning cartridge 59H2898 External half-height SCSI enclosure 3510020 3510020 NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL 3551001 03K8756 Internal 2-drop SCSI cable (for Netfinity 36L9636 36L9636 3500 M10 and Netfinity 5000) Active terminator 32G3918 32G3918 Table 24 identifies part numbers associated with the 20/40 GB DDS-4 tape drive: Table 24. IBM 20/40 GB DDS-4 tape drive part numbers IBM 20/40GB DDS-4 Tape Drive US P/N EMEA P/N Tape drive 00N7990 00N7990 DDS-4 data cartridge 59H4458 Cleaning cartridge External half-height SCSI enclosure 3510020 3510020 NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL 3551001 03K8756 Internal 2-drop SCSI cable (for Netfinity 36L9636 36L9636 5000) Active terminator 32G3918 32G3918270 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Table 25 identifies part numbers associated with the 12/24 GB DDS-3 tape drive:Table 25. IBM 12/24 GB DDS-3 tape drive part numbers IBM 12/24GB DDS-3 Tape Drive US P/N EMEA P/N Tape drive 01K1282 01K1282 DDS-3 data cartridge 59H3465 Cleaning cartridge External half-height SCSI enclosure 3510020 3510020 NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL 3551001 03K8705 Internal 2-drop SCSI cable (for Netfinity 36L9636 36L9636 5000) Active terminator 32G3918 32G3918Table 26 identifies part numbers associated with the 10/20 GB NS-20 tape drive:Table 26. IBM 10/20 GB NS-20 tape drive part numbers IBM 10/20GB NS-20 Tape Drive US P/N EMEA P/N Tape drive 01K1319 01K1319 External half-height SCSI enclosure 3510020 3510020 NetMEDIA storage expansion unit EL 3551001 03K8705 Internal 2-drop SCSI cable (for Netfinity 36L9636 36L9636 3500 and Netfinity 5000) Active terminator 32G3918 32G3918 68 to 50-pin SCSI cable convertor 01K1326 01K1326 Appendix B. Hardware part numbers 271
  • Table 27 identifies part numbers associated with the 490/980 GB DLT tape library: Table 27. IBM 490/980 GB DLT tape library part numbers IBM 490/980GB DLT Tape Library US P/N EMEA P/N Tower model (3502-314) 3502314 00N79xx1 Rack model (3502-R14) 3502R14 00N79xx2 DLT tape library drive upgrade 33L4979 33L4979 DLT IV cartridge 59H3040 59H3040 DLT cleaning cartridge 59H3092 59H3092 1. Due to country dependent power connections, the two last digits of the part number depend on the country in which the library is ordered. The following list gives an overview of countries and related last two digits (xx): United Kingdom 77 EU1 type connector 74 Denmark 75 India/South Africa 76 Switzerland 78 Italy 79 Israel 80 2. Due to country dependent power connections, the two last digits of the part number depend on the country in which the library is ordered. The following list gives and overview of countries and related last two digits (xx): United Kingdom 84 EU1 type connector 81 Denmark 82 India/South Africa 83 Switzerland 85 Italy 86 Israel 87272 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Table 28 identifies part numbers associated with the 280/560 GB DLT tapeautoloader:Table 28. IBM 280/560 GB DLT autoloader part numbers IBM 280/560 GB DLT Autoloader US P/N EMEA P/N Desktop model (3502-108) 3502108 Country Specific1 DLT Tape library drive upgrade 33L4979 33L4979 DLT IV Cartridge 59H3040 59H3040 DLT cleaning cartridge 59H3092 59H3092 1. Due to country dependent power connections, the part number depends on the country in which the library is ordered. The following list gives an overview of countries and related part numbers: United Kingdom 00N7970 EU1 type connector 33L4981 Denmark 33L4982 India/South Africa 33L4983 Switzerland 00N7971 Italy 00N7972 Israel 00N7973Table 29 identifies part numbers associated with the 3449 8 mm tape library:Table 29. IBM 3449 8mm tape library part numbers IBM 3449 8mm Tape Library US P/N EMEA P/N Tower Model (3449-355) 3449355 3449355 Rack Model (3449-356) 3449356 3449356 20 GB 8 mm tape drive 59H3391 59H3391 10 cartridge media magazine 87G1728 87G1728 SCSI F/W differential kit 59H3900 59H3900 8mm AME data cartridge 59H2678 59H2678 Cleaning cartridge 59H2898 59H2898 Appendix B. Hardware part numbers 273
  • Table 30 identifies part numbers associated with the Magstar 3570 MP tape library: Table 30. IBM Magstar 3570 MP tape library part numbers IBM Magstar 3570 MP Tape Library US P/N EMEA P/N Magstar 3570-C21 MP 3570C21 08L6479 Magstar 3570-C22 MP 3570C22 08L6482 Second C-drive (for 3570-C21) 08L6487 SCSI adapter card kit 08L6517 08L6517 Cleaner cartridge 05H2463 05H2463 Cartridge magazine 49G6598 49G6598 B–Format data cartridge 05H2462 05H2462 B-Format Replacement Label Kit - 10 05H9393 05H9393 sets of labels 1 1 B-Format Custom VOLSER Label Kit - 05H9643 05H9643 10 sets of labels C–Format data cartridge 08L6187 08L6187 C-Format Replacement Label Kit - 10 08L6191 08L6191 sets of labels 1 1 C-Format Custom VOLSER Label Kit - 08L6192 08L6192 10 sets of labels C-Format XL data cartridge 08L6663 08L6663 C-Format XL Replacement Label Kit - 08L6665 08L6665 10 sets of labels 1 1 C-Format XL Custom VOLSER Label 08L6666 08L6666 Kit - 10 sets of labels 1. The label and the internally recorded VOLSER must match. If there are existing cartridges where there is a mismatch between the barcode label and the VOLSER with which the tape was initialized, a set of custom cartridge labels can be ordered to match the barcode label to the internal VOLSER.274 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Appendix C. Storage area networks and Fibre Channel Today, the industry considers Fibre Channel (FC) as the architecture on which most SAN implementations will be built. Fibre Channel is a technology standard that allows data to be transferred from one network node to another at very high speeds. Current implementations transfer data at 100 MB/sec. The 200 MBps and 400 MBps data rates have already been tested. This standard is backed by a consortium of industry vendors and has been accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Many products are now on the market that take advantage of FC’s high-speed, high-availability characteristics. Note that the word Fibre in Fibre Channel is spelled using British English rather than the American form, Fiber. This is because the interconnections between nodes are not necessarily based on fiber optics, but can also be based on copper cables. Some people refer to Fibre Channel architecture as the Fibre version of SCSI. Fibre Channel is an architecture used to carry intelligent peripheral interface (IPI) traffic, IP traffic, FICON traffic, FCP (SCSI) traffic, and possibly traffic using other protocols, all at the same level on the standard FC transport. An analogy could be Ethernet, where IP, NetBIOS, and SNA are all used simultaneously over a single Ethernet adapter, since these are all protocols with mappings to Ethernet. Similarly, there are many protocols mapped onto FC. FICON is expected to be the standard protocol for IBM System/390, and FCP is the expected standard protocol for other systems, all using Fibre Channel architecture to carry the traffic. In the following sections, we will introduce some basic Fibre Channel concepts, starting with the physical layer and proceeding to define the services offered.C.1 Layers Fibre Channel is structured in independent layers, as are other networking protocols. There are five layers, where 0 is the lowest layer. The physical layers are 0 to 2, the upper layers are 3 and 4.C.1.1 Lower layers • FC-0 defines physical media and transmission rates. These include cables and connectors, drivers, transmitters, and receivers. • FC-1 defines encoding schemes. These are used to synchronize data for transmission. • FC-2 defines the framing protocol and flow control. This protocol is self-configuring and supports point-to-point, arbitrated loop, and switched topologies.C.1.2 Upper layers Fibre Channel is a transport service that moves data fast and reliably between nodes. The two upper layers enhance the functionality of Fibre Channel and provide common implementations for interoperability.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 275
  • • FC-3 defines common services for nodes. One defined service under development is multicast, to deliver one transmission to multiple destinations. • FC-4 defines upper layer protocol mapping. Protocols such as FCP (SCSI), FICON, and IP can be mapped to the Fibre Channel transport service.C.2 Topologies Fibre Channel interconnects nodes using three physical topologies that can have variants. Topologies include: • Point-to-point — The point-to-point topology consists of a single connection between two nodes. All the bandwidth is dedicated for these two nodes. • Loop — In the loop topology, the bandwidth is shared between all the nodes connected to the loop. The loop can be wired node-to-node; however, if a node fails or is not powered on, the loop is out of operation. This is overcome by using a hub. A hub opens the loop when a new node is connected and closes it when a node disconnects. • Switched — A switch allows multiple concurrent connections between nodes. There can be two types of switches, circuit switches and frame switches. Circuit switches establish a dedicated connection between two nodes, whereas frame switches route frames between nodes and establish the connection only when needed. A switch can handle all protocols as it does not look at the Fibre Channel layer FC-4.C.3 Classes of Service Fibre Channel provides a logical system of communication called Class of Service that is allocated by various login protocols. The following five classes of service are defined: • Class 1 — Acknowledged Connection Service Dedicates connections through the fabric equivalent of a dedicated physical link and delivers frames with acknowledgment in the same order as transmitted. • Class 2 — Acknowledged Connectionless Service Multiplexes frames from multiple sources with acknowledgment. Frame order is not guaranteed. • Class 3 — Unacknowledged Connectionless Service As class 2, without frame acknowledgment. Flow has to be controlled at buffer level. • Class 4 — Fractional Bandwidth Connection Oriented Service As class 1, but with only a minimum of bandwidth guaranteed. If sufficient bandwidth is available, class 2 and 3 frames will share connections. • Class 6 — Simplex Connection Service As class 1, but also provides multicast and preemption.276 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • C.4 SAN components As mentioned earlier, the industry considers Fibre Channel as the architecture on which most SAN implementations will be built, with FICON as the standard protocol for S/390 systems, and FCP as the standard protocol for non-S/390 systems. Based on this perception, the SAN components described in the following sections will be Fibre Channel based.C.4.1 SAN servers The server infrastructure is the underlying reason for all SAN solutions. This infrastructure includes a mix of server platforms such as Windows NT, UNIX (various flavors) and OS/390. With industry drives towards server consolidation and e-business, the need for SAN will increase. Although the early SAN solutions only supported homogeneous environments, SAN will evolve to support a truly heterogeneous environment.C.4.2 SAN storage The storage infrastructure is the foundation on which data processing relies and therefore must support a company’s business objectives and business model. In this environment, simply deploying more and faster storage devices is not enough; a new kind of infrastructure is needed, one that provides enhanced network availability, data accessibility, and system manageability than is provided by today’s infrastructure. The SAN meets this challenge. The SAN liberates the storage device, so it is not on a particular server bus, and attaches it directly to the network. In other words, storage is externalized and functionally distributed across the organization. The SAN also enables the centralizing of storage devices and the clustering of servers, which makes for easier and less expensive administration.C.5 SAN interconnects The first element that must be considered in any SAN implementation is the connectivity of storage and server components using technologies such as Fibre Channel. The components listed below have typically been used for LAN and WAN implementations. SANs, like LANs, interconnect the storage interfaces together into many network configurations and across long distances. Much of the terminology used for SAN has its origin in IP network terminology. In some cases, the industry and IBM use different terms that mean the same thing, and in some cases, mean different things. For example, after reading C.5.10, “Bridges” on page 280 and C.5.11, “Gateways” on page 280, you will find that the IBM SAN Data Gateway is really a bridge, not a gateway. Appendix C. Storage area networks and Fibre Channel 277
  • C.5.1 Cables and connectors As with parallel SCSI and traditional networking, there are different types of cables of various lengths for use in a Fibre Channel configuration. Two types of cables are supported: copper and optical (fiber). Copper cables are used for short distances (up to 30 m) and can be identified by their DB9 (9-pin) connector. Fiber cables come in two distinct types: Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF) for short distances (up to 2 km), and Single-Mode Fiber (SMF) for longer distances (up to 10 km). IBM will support the following distances for FCP: Table 31. Fibre Channel optical cable characteristics Diameter (microns) Mode Laser type Distance 9 Single-mode Longwave <=10 km 50 Multi-mode Shortwave <=500 m 62.5 Multi-mode Shortwave <=175 m In addition, connectors (see C.5.3, “Gigabit interface converters (GBIC)” on page 278) and cable adapters (see C.5.4, “Media interface adapters (MIA)” on page 278) have been developed that allow the interconnection of fiber optic based adapters with copper based devices.C.5.2 Gigabit link model (GLM) Gigabit link models are generic Fibre Channel transceiver units that integrate the key functions necessary for installation of a Fibre Channel media interface on most systems.C.5.3 Gigabit interface converters (GBIC) Gigabit Interface Converters are typically used with hubs and switches, and allow both copper and fiber optics to connect up to the same hub or switch. This works well in an environment where the components to be attached may be both fiber optics and copper, depending on cost and distance requirements.C.5.4 Media interface adapters (MIA) Media Interface Adapters can be used to facilitate conversion of an optical interface connection to copper and vice versa. Typically, MIAs are attached to host bus adapters, but can also be used with switches and hubs. When a hub or switch only supports copper or optical connections, MIAs can be used to convert the signal to the appropriate media type (copper or optical).278 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • C.5.5 Adapters Adapters are devices that connect to a network, server, or storage device and control the electrical protocol for communications. Adapters are also referred to as Network Interface Cards (NIC), Enterprise Systems Connection (ESCON) adapters, Host Bus Adapters (HBA), and SCSI host bus adapters.C.5.6 Extenders Extenders are used to facilitate longer distances between nodes that exceed the theoretical maximum.C.5.7 Multiplexors Multiplexors provide for more effective utilization of high speed bandwidth resources by interleaving data from multiple sources onto a single link. An example of this would be the FIbre CONnection Channel (FICON) Bridge, which allows up to eight separate ESCON paths to be multiplexed over a single FICON link. The FICON bridge is not a separate box; as shown in the picture, it is a card in the ESCON Director. Multiplexors are also becoming increasingly efficient in terms of data compression, error correction, transmission speed and multi-drop capabilities.C.5.8 Hubs Fibre Channel hubs are used to connect up to 126 nodes into a logical loop. All connected nodes share the bandwidth of this single logical loop. Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) protocol is the most widely accepted, cost-effective implementation. Each port on a hub contains a Port Bypass Circuit (PBC) to automatically open and close the loop to support hot plugging. Multiple hubs and links can be implemented to provide alternate path failover capability for high availability server environments. Intelligent hubs are currently being offered that provide features such as dynamic loop configuration and some of the benefits of switches.C.5.9 Routers Storage routing is a new technology based on the old concept of routing as it is understood by the data communications industry. Storage routers differ from network routers in that the data being routed uses storage protocols like FCP (SCSI) instead of messaging protocols such as TCP/IP. The data path used to transfer storage data may be the same as that used for messaging traffic, but the content of the data itself contain imbedded storage protocol information. This is similar to the concept of tunneling protocols used in the broader market. For example, a storage router could encapsulate SCSI information in TCP/IP packets for transmission over an intervening Ethernet network. The term routing implies data transfers over differing transmission media and addressing schemes. As a combination of communications and storage channel capabilities, Fibre Channel Appendix C. Storage area networks and Fibre Channel 279
  • represents the first opportunity to apply communication techniques, such as routing, to storage traffic.C.5.10 Bridges Bridges facilitate communication between LAN/SAN segments and/or networks with dissimilar protocols. An example of this would be a FICON bridge, which allows the ESCON protocol to be tunneled over the Fibre Channel protocol. FICON bridges reduce the requirements of ESCON connections, ESCON channels, ESCON Director ports, and so on; they support large and small block multiplexing.C.5.11 Gateways A gateway is a network station used to interconnect two or more dissimilar networks or devices, and may or may not perform protocol conversion. These boxes are typically used to provide WAN access from a LAN. With gateways, SANs can be extended across a WAN. Note: The IBM SAN Data Gateway is used to attach SCSI devices such as tape libraries, disk subsystems at one end, and Fibre Channel connections at the other end, which makes it a router, not a gateway.C.5.12 Switches Switches are among the highest performing hardware available for interconnecting large numbers of devices, increasing bandwidth, reducing congestion and providing aggregate throughput. Fibre Channel protocol was designed specifically by the computer industry to remove the barriers of performance with legacy channels and networks. When a Fibre Channel switch is implemented in a SAN, the network is referred to as a fabric, or switched fabric. Each device connected to a port on the switch can access any other device connected to any other port on the switch, enabling an on-demand connection to every connected device. Various FC switch offerings support both switched fabric and/or loop connections. As the number of devices increases, multiple switches can be cascaded for expanded access (fanout). As switches allow any-to-any connections, the switch and management software can restrict which other ports a specific port can connect to. This is called port zoning.C.5.13 Directors When ESCON was announced, the switches were named directors, as they included high availability and other features, for example, dual power supply, not included in traditional switches. C.5.13.1 ESCON ESCON transfers data in half-duplex mode at a transfer rate of 17 MBps. The directors provide dynamic or static connections between attached channels, control units, devices, and other ESCON directors. ESCON Directors provide single-link distances up to 3 km for multi-mode fiber and 20 km for single-mode fiber.280 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • The ESCON director supports the FICON bridge card mentioned in C.5.10,“Bridges” on page 280. Using the FICON bridge, an S/390 system can, through aFICON channel, communicate with ESCON control units and devices attached tothe director.C.5.13.2 FICONFICON transfers data in full-duplex mode at a rate of 100 MBps. The FICONdirector is a regular Fibre Channel switch with some additional features. Itprovides connections between FICON channels and control units or devices withFICON interfaces. FICON Directors provide single-link distances up to 550meters for multi-mode fiber (50 or 62.5 micron) and 10 km (20 km with RPQ) forsingle-mode fiber (9 micron). Appendix C. Storage area networks and Fibre Channel 281
  • 282 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Appendix D. TSM element addresses and worksheets This appendix provides information and worksheets to help you plan your tape installation. Recording your configuration information using these worksheets will provide a convenient way to document your backup implementation.D.1 Device names For devices supported by either the Tivoli Storage Manager SCSI driver or Windows NT drivers, you can use an alias name to refer to the devices when using Tivoli Storage Manager. The alias name replaces the real TSM SCSI name or Windows NT name for a device in Tivoli Storage Manager commands and screens. An alias name has the form mt x.y.z.n or lb x.y.z.n. The mt indicates the device is a tape device and the lb indicates the device is the controller for a tape autochanger or an automated library. The alias can be abbreviated. Some examples follow: mt3 Tape drive at SCSI ID 3, LUN 0 on port 0, bus 0 lb4.1 Library at SCSI ID 4, LUN 1 on port 0, bus 0 mt5.0.1 Tape drive at SCSI ID 5, LUN 0, port 1, bus 0 Because the alias name does not change unless you change how the device is physically attached, we recommend that you always use the alias name for devices controlled by Windows NT device drivers. To distinguish between a real device name and an alias, Tivoli Storage Manager checks for a backslash () at the beginning of the name. If the name begins with a backslash, Tivoli Storage Manager recognizes that the name is the real device name and not an alias. Using the real device name for a device controlled by a Windows NT device driver is not recommended because that name can change the next time the machine is booted.D.2 Single tape devices Since manual libraries do not need element numbers, all single-tape devices only need the device name when defining them. The following table can be used to record the SCSI ID and the device name. Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive ______________ mt___.___.___.___© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 283
  • D.3 Tape libraries The following tables show an overview of element addresses for the IBM tape libraries and autoloaders.D.3.1 IBM 3502-108 Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 16) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Robot ______________ lb___.___.___.___D.3.2 IBM 3502-x14 Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 16) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 2 (element 17) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 3 (element 18) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Robot ______________ lb___.___.___.___284 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • D.3.3 IBM 3447 Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 116) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 2 (element 117) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Robot ______________ lb___.___.___.___D.3.4 IBM 3449 Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 23) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 2 (element 24) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Robot ______________ lb___.___.___.___ Appendix D. TSM element addresses and worksheets 285
  • D.3.5 IBM 3570 C2x Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 16) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 2 (element 17) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Robot ______________ lb___.___.___.___D.3.6 IBM 3575 L06 Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 16) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 2 (element 17) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Robot ______________ lb___.___.___.___ Drive 1 16 Drive 2 17286 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • D.3.7 IBM 3575 L12 Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 16) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 2 (element 17) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 3 (element 18) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 4 (element 19) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Robot ______________ lb___.___.___.___ Drive 3 Drive 1 18 16 Drive 4 Drive 2 19 17D.3.8 IBM 3575 L18, L24, and L32 Device SCSI ID Device Name Tape Drive 1 (element 16) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 2 (element 17) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 3 (element 18) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 4 (element 19) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 5 (element 20) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Tape Drive 6 (element 21) ______________ mt___.___.___.___ Robot ______________ lb___.___.___.___ Appendix D. TSM element addresses and worksheets 287
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  • Appendix E. Special notices References in this publication to IBM products, programs or services do not imply that IBM intends to make these available in all countries in which IBM operates. Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only IBMs product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent program that does not infringe any of IBMs intellectual property rights may be used instead of the IBM product, program or service. Information in this book was developed in conjunction with use of the equipment specified, and is limited in application to those specific hardware and software products and levels. IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, in writing, to the IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504-1785. Licensees of this program who wish to have information about it for the purpose of enabling: (i) the exchange of information between independently created programs and other programs (including this one) and (ii) the mutual use of the information which has been exchanged, should contact IBM Corporation, Dept. 600A, Mail Drop 1329, Somers, NY 10589 USA. Such information may be available, subject to appropriate terms and conditions, including in some cases, payment of a fee. The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is distributed AS IS. The information about non-IBM ("vendor") products in this manual has been supplied by the vendor and IBM assumes no responsibility for its accuracy or completeness. The use of this information or the implementation of any of these techniques is a customer responsibility and depends on the customers ability to evaluate and integrate them into the customers operational environment. While each item may have been reviewed by IBM for accuracy in a specific situation, there is no guarantee that the same or similar results will be obtained elsewhere. Customers attempting to adapt these techniques to their own environments do so at their own risk. Any pointers in this publication to external Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of these Web sites. Any performance data contained in this document was determined in a controlled environment, and therefore, the results that may be obtained in other operating environments may vary significantly. Users of this document should verify the applicable data for their specific environment. Reference to PTF numbers that have not been released through the normal distribution process does not imply general availability. The purpose of including these reference numbers is to alert IBM customers to specific information relative to the implementation of the PTF when it becomes available to each customer according to the normal IBM PTF distribution process.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 289
  • The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States and/or other countries: DB2 ESCON IBM Magstar NetBAY3 Netfinity OpenEdition OS/2 OS/390 OS/400 RS/6000 S/390 ServerProven SP StorWatch System/390 Versatile Storage Server The following terms are trademarks of other companies: C-bus is a trademark of Corollary, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. PC Direct is a trademark of Ziff Communications Company in the United States and/or other countries and is used by IBM Corporation under license. ActionMedia, LANDesk, MMX, Pentium and ProShare are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and/or other countries licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Limited. SET and the SET logo are trademarks owned by SET Secure Electronic Transaction LLC. Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.290 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Appendix F. Related publications The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed discussion of the topics covered in this redbook.F.1 IBM Redbooks For information on ordering these ITSO publications see “How to get IBM Redbooks” on page 295. • Tivoli Storage Manager Version 3.7: Technical Guide, SG24-5477 • Using Tivoli Storage Manager in a Clustered Windows NT Environment , SG24-5742 • Backup Solutions for Netfinity SAP R/3 on Windows NT, SG24-5431 • Using Tivoli Data Protection for Workgroups, SG24-5490 • Getting Started with ADSM: A Practical Implementation Guide, SG24-5416 • Introduction to Storage Area Networks, SG24-5470 • Storage Area Networks: Tape Future in Fabrics, SG24-5474 • Tivoli ADSM - Windows 2000 Considerations, SG24-5744 • Implementing Netfinity Disk Subsystems, SG24-2098 • IBM Magstar Tape Product Family: A Practical Guide, SG24-4632 • Magstar MP 3575 Tape Library Dataserver: Multiplatform Implementation , SG24-4983F.2 IBM Redbooks collections Redbooks are also available on the following CD-ROMs. Click the CD-ROMs button at http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/ for information about all the CD-ROMs offered, updates and formats. CD-ROM Title Collection Kit Number System/390 Redbooks Collection SK2T-2177 Networking and Systems Management Redbooks Collection SK2T-6022 Transaction Processing and Data Management Redbooks Collection SK2T-8038 Lotus Redbooks Collection SK2T-8039 Tivoli Redbooks Collection SK2T-8044 AS/400 Redbooks Collection SK2T-2849 Netfinity Hardware and Software Redbooks Collection SK2T-8046 RS/6000 Redbooks Collection (BkMgr Format) SK2T-8040 RS/6000 Redbooks Collection (PDF Format) SK2T-8043 Application Development Redbooks Collection SK2T-8037 IBM Enterprise Storage and Systems Management Solutions SK3T-3694F.3 Other resources • ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager for Windows NT, Administrator’s Reference, GC35-0293 • 3447 and 7337 Digital Linear Tape Library Setup and Operation Guide, GA32-0399© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 291
  • • 3447 and 7337 Digital Linear Tape Library Service Guide, GA32-0400 • IBM 3449 8 mm Tape Library Operator Guide, GA32-0376 • IBM 7331 and 3449 8 mm Tape Library Installation, GA32-0375 • Magstar MP 3570 Tape Subsystems Installation and Planning Guide, GA32-0392 • IBM Netfinity Rack Planning and Installation Guide, S24L-8055 • ARCserve for NetWare Changer Option User Guide (shipped with the product) • VERITAS Backup Exec for Windows NT Version 7 Administrator’s Guide (shipped with the product) • 490/980 GB DLT Autoloader User’s Guide (shipped with the product)F.4 Referenced Web sites • http://www.redbooks.ibm.com • http://w3.itso.ibm.com • http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/storage/matrix.shtml#tape • http://www.dlttape.com/resource/university/home.html • http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/tape/lto/lto.htm • http://www.ibm.com/pc/us/solutions/accessories/tapedrives.html • http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/tape/pubs/prodpubs.htm • http://www.ibm.com/storage/SANGateway • http://www.pc.ibm.com/us/compat/clustering/sanmatrix.shtml • http://www.storage.ibm.com/ibmsan • http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/products/fcswitch/refinfo.htm • http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/products/sangateway/refinfo.htm • http://www.legato.com/product_literature_library.htm • http://www.tivoli.com/support/storage_mgr/adsercli.htm • http://www.cai.com • http://support.cai.com/techbases/asnt/arcnt66.html • http://support.cai.com/Download/patches/asitnt/LO57168.html • http://support.cai.com/Download/patches/asitnt/LO63384.html • http://support.cai.com/Download/patches/asitnt/LO63156.html • http://support.veritas.com • http://support.cai.com/techbases/as61/asitnwcdl.html • http://www.tivoli.com/support/storage_mgr/pubs/admanual.htm#ntV37 • http://www.cheyenne.com/CheyTech/Download/patches/techptch.html • http://www.seagatesoftware.com/sytosos • http://www.lto.org • http://www.tivoli.com/products/index/data_protect292 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • • http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/tape/index.html• http://www.pc.ibm.com/support• http://www.qic.org• http://www.tivoli.com/products/index/storage_mgr• http://www.veritas.com• http://www.legato.com/Products/index.html• http://www.cai.com/arcserveit• http://www.ibmlink.com/usalets• http://w3.ibm.com Appendix F. Related publications 293
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  • How to get IBM RedbooksThis section explains how both customers and IBM employees can find out about IBM Redbooks, redpieces, andCD-ROMs. A form for ordering books and CD-ROMs by fax or e-mail is also provided. • Redbooks Web Site http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/ Search for, view, download, or order hardcopy/CD-ROM Redbooks from the Redbooks Web site. Also read redpieces and download additional materials (code samples or diskette/CD-ROM images) from this Redbooks site. Redpieces are Redbooks in progress; not all Redbooks become redpieces and sometimes just a few chapters will be published this way. The intent is to get the information out much quicker than the formal publishing process allows. • E-mail Orders Send orders by e-mail including information from the IBM Redbooks fax order form to: e-mail address In United States usib6fpl@ibmmail.com Outside North America Contact information is in the “How to Order” section at this site: http://www.elink.ibmlink.ibm.com/pbl/pbl • Telephone Orders United States (toll free) 1-800-879-2755 Canada (toll free) 1-800-IBM-4YOU Outside North America Country coordinator phone number is in the “How to Order” section at this site: http://www.elink.ibmlink.ibm.com/pbl/pbl • Fax Orders United States (toll free) 1-800-445-9269 Canada 1-403-267-4455 Outside North America Fax phone number is in the “How to Order” section at this site: http://www.elink.ibmlink.ibm.com/pbl/pblThis information was current at the time of publication, but is continually subject to change. The latest informationmay be found at the Redbooks Web site. IBM Intranet for Employees IBM employees may register for information on workshops, residencies, and Redbooks by accessing the IBM Intranet Web site at http://w3.itso.ibm.com/ and clicking the ITSO Mailing List button. Look in the Materials repository for workshops, presentations, papers, and Web pages developed and written by the ITSO technical professionals; click the Additional Materials button. Employees may access MyNews at http://w3.ibm.com/ for redbook, residency, and workshop announcements.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 295
  • IBM Redbooks fax order formPlease send me the following:Title Order Number QuantityFirst name Last nameCompanyAddressCity Postal code CountryTelephone number Telefax number VAT number Invoice to customer number Credit card numberCredit card expiration date Card issued to SignatureWe accept American Express, Diners, Eurocard, Master Card, and Visa. Payment by credit card notavailable in all countries. Signature mandatory for credit card payment.296 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Abbreviations and acronymsADSM ADSTAR Distributed Storage HPFS high-performance file system Manager HSM hierarchical storage managerAIX advanced interactive executive HTML hypertext markup languageAME advanced metal evaporated HVD high voltage differentialANSI American National Standards IBM International Business Machines Institute CorporationAPI application programming interface IP Internet ProtocolASCII American National Standard Code IPI intelligent peripheral interface for Information Interchange IPL initial program loadANSI American National Standards Institute IPX Internetwork Packet eXchangeASM application specific modules ITSO International Technical Support OrganizationASPI advanced SCSI programming interface JRE Java runtime environmentATAPI advanced technology Attachment LAN local area network Packet Interface LCD liquid crystal displayATM asynchronous transfer mode LED light-emitting diodeBIOS basic input/output system LTO Linear Tape OpenCD-ROM compact disk read-only memory LUN logical unit numberDASD direct access storage device LVDS low-voltage differential SCSIDAT digital audio tape LVDS low-voltage differential SCSIDCLZ data compression Lempel-Ziv MB megabytesDLT digital linear tape MIA Media Interface AdapterDOS disk operating system MMF Multi-Mode FiberECC error checking and correcting MSBF mean swap between failuresECMA European Computer Manufacturers MTBF mean time between failures Association MVS multiple virtual storageEIA Electronics Industries Association NDS NetWare Directory ServicesEIDE enhanced integrated drive electronics NLM NetWare loadable moduleEMEA Europe/Middle East/Africa NTFS NT file systemESCON enterprise systems connection OCP operator control panelFAT file allocation table ODBC open database connectivityFC Fibre Channel PBC Port Bypass CircuitFC-AL Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop PCI peripheral component interconnectFDDI fiber distributed data interface PDF portable document formatFTP file transfer protocol PMC PCI Mezzanine CardF/W fast/wide POST power-on self-testGB gigabytes PTF program temporary fixGBIC gigabit interface connector QIC quarter-inch cartridgeGUI graphical user interface QMS queue management servicesHGA head guide assembly RAID redundant array of independent disks© Copyright IBM Corp. 1998 2000 297
  • RAM random access memoryRDBMS relational database management systemRF radio frequencyRMI remote method invocationRPQ request for price quotationSAN storage area networkSAP Systeme, Anwendungen und Programme in der Datenverarbeitung (Systems, Products, and Programs in Data Processing)SC standardized connectorSCO Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.SCSI small computer system interfaceSMF Single-Mode FiberSNA systems network architectureSNMP simple network management protocolSPX Sequenced Packet eXchangeSQL structured query languageTCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet ProtocolTDP Tivoli Data ProtectionTSM Tivoli Storage ManagerUEC Unit Error CodeUNC Universal Naming ConventionURL Uniform Resource LocatorVHD very high densityWAN wide area network298 Netfinity Tape Solutions
  • Index automation 3Numerics classes, in NetBackup 1384 mm tape control files 24 See DAT cumulative incremental 58 mm tape database servers 23 20/40 GB drive 58 differential 5 3449 tape library 83 expiration time 28 advanced metal evaporated media 39 full 4 format 39 fuzzy 26 Mammoth technology 39 incremental 4 mean time between failure 40 LAN-free 15 metal particle media 39 log files 24 methodologies 4 number of copies 28A number of tapes 9Accelis 45 patterns 5ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager performance 19 See Tivoli Storage Manager SAN implementations 14advanced metal evaporated media 39 scheduling 19agents, backup 23 server 10archiving 3 server-free 16ARCserve for NetWare simulated offline 25 configuration 228 software 123 installation 224 software support matrix 123 managing 233 storage management 3ARCserveIT tape rotation 6 backup agent for open files 144 terminology 3 Certified Device List 147 throughput 22 client agent support 144 why backups are needed 3 concepts 145 bandwidth considerations 20 concepts, NetWare 148 branch office model 13 configuration (Windows NT) 221 data migration support 144 database backup agents 144 C description 143 causes of data loss 3 disaster recovery option 143 centralized storage administration 10 editions 143 changed data 5 for NetWare 147 Class of Service 276 image option 144 client nodes for Tivoli Storage Manager 171 installation (Windows NT) 217 collocation 8 networked library option 144 compression 21 optical library support 144 compression, selecting hardware versus software 22 product patch 147 copy group 129 RAID option 144 cost of tape versus disk 1