Front coverManaging an SOAEnvironment withTivoliDiscusses SOA performance andavailability managementDescribes mediation sc...
International Technical Support OrganizationManaging an SOA Environment with TivoliApril 2008                             ...
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page vii.First Editi...
Contents                 Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
2.3 ITCAM for Response Time Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33                  2.3.1 T...
4.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158Chapter 5...
vi   Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, servi...
TrademarksThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other...
Preface                 Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a major new trend for application                 architect...
Budi Darmawan is a project leader at the International Technical Support               Organization, Austin Center. He wri...
Become a published author        Join us for a two- to six-week residency program! Help write a book dealing with        s...
xii   Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
1    Chapter 1.   Introduction to SOA                 management                 In this chapter, we explain service-orien...
1.1 Introduction to SOA               A service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an architecture that describes a system    ...
used together or adopted incrementally. There are several well-known SOApatterns, including:   Service creation   Service ...
Business impact                  Client applications in an SOA do not contain business logic; they consume                ...
middleware/infrastructure products, for example, WebSphere Enterprise Service        Bus, DataPower®, WebSphere Message Br...
Initially, the concept of SOA governance was applied narrowly to the               development and use of Web Services (va...
of the system). The Management phase also includes tuning the operational             environment to conform to changes in...
Considerations associated with managing an SOA environment include:                  SOA management is needed on the follo...
These metrics include:           Service response time           Service request message size           Service faults    ...
These are possible user roles for SOA management. The primary users are likely               to be common to most organiza...
To accomplish these objectives, an operator can perform monitoring by using           system management tools. The tools c...
application beyond just the SOA interface and into the component level or a               breakdown of the transaction.   ...
The system administrator has the authority to modify the system, such asinstalling a new feature or a patch to the monitor...
Figure 1-2 Administer user dialog1.6.5 Enterprise system management architect               The system management architec...
The architect utilizes the WebSphere Services Registry and Repository to           manage the Web Services life cycle and ...
1.7 Management needs for the SOA environment               Based on the user roles and the users’ needs in 1.6, “Users of ...
and so on. The metrics can provide valuable information about SOA and Web           Services. You need to be able to view ...
occurs. Alerts® allows the user to not have to monitor a particular view all the               time.1.7.4 Mediation manage...
2    Chapter 2.   Tivoli application                 management products                 in this chapter, we provide an ov...
2.1 ITCAM for SOA               in this section, we describe IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager (ITCAM)             ...
Offers heterogeneous platform coverage:             – Support for IBM WebSphere Application Server, CICS® Transaction     ...
Definition Language (WSDL). Usual access uses SOAP over HTTP. Internally,               Web Services are implemented using...
ITCAM for SOA                                                                        Monitoring agent    Application Serve...
IBM Web Services Navigator               IBM Web Services Navigator is an Eclipsed-based tool that is used to visualize   ...
– Pattern invocation statistics      Statistics for discovered patterns, including operation names, number of      occurre...
available for applications in the WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus or               WebSphere Process Server runtime envir...
and primitives. ITCAM for WebSphere also uses WebSphere Performance           Management Interface (PMI) and z/OS System M...
The application servers run the data collector, which is a collecting agent that               runs in the application ser...
that run applications. The difference between ITCAM for J2EE and ITCAM forWebSphere is the platform support for the data c...
The visualization engine is a Web-based GUI with access to graphics, ITCAM                        for WebSphere and ITCAM ...
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  1. 1. Front coverManaging an SOAEnvironment withTivoliDiscusses SOA performance andavailability managementDescribes mediation scenarioswith ESB and message brokerIntegrates ITCAM andother Tivoli solutions Budi Darmawan Pradeep Nambiar Prem Lall Ravinder Gummadavelliibm.com/redbooks Redpaper
  2. 2. International Technical Support OrganizationManaging an SOA Environment with TivoliApril 2008 REDP-4318-00
  3. 3. Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page vii.First Edition (April 2008)This edition applies to: IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for WebSphere V6.1, 5724-L62 IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for Web Resources V6.2, 5724-S32 IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for Response Time Tracking V6.1 FP2, 5724-L99 IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for Response Time V6.2, 5724-C04 IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for SOA V6.1 FP2, 5724-M07 IBM Tivoli OMEGAMON XE for Messaging V6.1 WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus and WebSphere Process Server V6.1 WebSphere Message Broker V6.0 WebSphere Services Registry and Repository V6.0.2© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2008. All rights reserved.Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADPSchedule Contract with IBM Corp.
  4. 4. Contents Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix The team that wrote this paper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Chapter 1. Introduction to SOA management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Introduction to SOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 SOA application principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 SOA constructs and components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.4 SOA governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4.1 Web Services life cycle governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.4.2 Web Services life cycle management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.5 SOA management considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.6 Users of SOA management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.6.1 Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.6.2 Middleware or application subject matter expert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.6.3 Performance analyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.6.4 System administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.6.5 Enterprise system management architect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.6.6 Web Services application developer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.6.7 Business executives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.7 Management needs for the SOA environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.7.1 Web Services metric data collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.7.2 Web Services troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.7.3 Displaying data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.7.4 Mediation management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Chapter 2. Tivoli application management products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.1 ITCAM for SOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.1.1 Product features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.1.2 Product components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2 ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.2.1 Architecture and interconnection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.2.2 The managing server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.2.3 J2EE and WebSphere data collectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.2.4 Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008. All rights reserved. iii
  5. 5. 2.3 ITCAM for Response Time Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.3.1 The management server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.3.2 Store and forward agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.3.3 Management agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.3.4 Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.4 OMEGAMON XE for Messaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.4.1 WebSphere MQ configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.4.2 WebSphere MQ monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.4.3 WebSphere Message Broker monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Chapter 3. Basic SOA and Web Services management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.1 Basic monitoring concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.2 Performance metric of Web Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.3 Generating events and alerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3.4 Managing Web Services response time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.4.1 Execution environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.4.2 Creating Rational Performance Tester script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.4.3 Defining Web Response Monitor policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.4.4 Reports generated from the policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.4.5 Tivoli Enterprise Portal workspaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.5 Debugging performance of Web Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.6 Understanding Web Services calling pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3.6.1 Turning on the content logging for a Web Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3.6.2 Using the Log Assembler tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 3.7 Working with Web Services filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3.8 Web Services life cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Chapter 4. Advanced SOA management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 4.1 Mediation and SOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4.2 Enterprise Service Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4.3 Maintaining Web Services continuity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.3.1 Register TraderDBServices in the registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 4.3.2 Developing managed SCA mediation with ITCAM for SOA . . . . . . 110 4.3.3 Deploying the mediation application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 4.3.4 Verifying the service invocation with mediation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 4.4 Service monitoring automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 4.4.1 Automation principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 4.4.2 Update service metadata utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 4.4.3 ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for Web Resources situations. 139 4.4.4 ITCAM for SOA situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 4.4.5 Verifying situation automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 4.5 Using managed message logger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 4.5.1 Viewing the message data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156iv Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  6. 6. 4.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158Chapter 5. Managing an SOA application in a business context . . . . . . 1595.1 Solution overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1605.2 Tivoli EIF probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1615.3 Defining situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1625.4 Designing business services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1645.5 Defining service level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1745.6 Getting the business status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175Appendix A. The Trader application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179Application components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Portal interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Front-end J2EE Web application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Java desktop application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Back-end implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Back-end J2EE servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus mediation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 WebSphere Message Broker mediation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191Software requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Runtime environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Development environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195Appendix B. Additional material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197Locating the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197Using the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 System requirements for downloading the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 How to use the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198Abbreviations and acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201IBM Redbooks publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205How to get IBM Redbooks publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Contents v
  7. 7. vi Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  8. 8. NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consultyour local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area.Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBMproduct, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service thatdoes not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the usersresponsibility to evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document.The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send licenseinquiries, in writing, to:IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where suchprovisions are inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATIONPROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS ORIMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT,MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimerof express or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically madeto the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM maymake improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication atany time without notice.Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in anymanner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of thematerials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk.IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate withoutincurring any obligation to you.Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their publishedannouncements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirmthe accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions onthe capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate themas completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual businessenterprise is entirely coincidental.COPYRIGHT LICENSE:This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrate programmingtechniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs inany form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing applicationprograms conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which thesample programs are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM,therefore, cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008. All rights reserved. vii
  9. 9. TrademarksThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other countries, or both: Redbooks (logo) ® DB2® OS/400® z/OS® ETE™ Rational® Alerts® IBM® Redbooks® AIX® IMS™ RACF® Cloudscape® MQSeries® Tivoli Enterprise Console® CICS® MVS™ Tivoli® DataPower® OMEGAMON® WebSphere®The following terms are trademarks of other companies:SAP NetWeaver, SAP, and SAP logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany andin several other countries.Oracle, JD Edwards, PeopleSoft, Siebel, and TopLink are registered trademarks of Oracle Corporationand/or its affiliates.ITIL is a registered trademark, and a registered community trademark of the Office of GovernmentCommerce, and is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Enterprise JavaBeans, EJB, Java, JavaBeans, JDBC, JMX, JNI, JRE, JVM, J2EE, Solaris, Sun, Sun Java,and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, othercountries, or both.Internet Explorer, Microsoft, Windows, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in theUnited States, other countries, or both.UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.viii Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  10. 10. Preface Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a major new trend for application architecture. It allows you to build applications as components as defined by using a Web Services Description Language (WSDL) file. You can implement applications on multiple servers, even on multiple platforms. You can easily modify application components and workflow logic in execution by allowing a flexible application structure. The use of enterprise service bus (ESB) masks the implementation of the client side and the server side. ESB allows you to implement different servers without needing to modifying the client. Or, multiple clients can use the same server implementation. The highly flexible and distributed nature of SOA-based applications is its primary strength and the source of its appeal. However, when problems arise, this flexible nature also causes a greater challenge in pinpointing the source of a problem. SOA also requires a disciplined management effort to ensure that operational changes do not disrupt overall system availability. The IBM® Tivoli® Composite Application Manager (ITCAM) family of products is designed to assist you in managing distributed applications, including SOA-based applications. However, the overall management of a complete SOA management solution requires the use of several tools that work together. Each tool addresses a different aspect of the application. This paper illustrates the management needs for SOA-based applications and demonstrates how Tivoli products can address your application environment needs. The overall solution that we use includes ITCAM for SOA, ITCAM for WebSphere®, ITCAM for Response Time Tracking, OMEGAMON® XE for Messaging, and the Tivoli Business Service Manager solution to address various needs in SOA-based application management. The intended audience for this IBM Redpaper publication cis any services specialist who implements a performance management solution for an SOA-based environment.The team that wrote this paper This paper was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008. All rights reserved. ix
  11. 11. Budi Darmawan is a project leader at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center. He writes extensively and teaches IBM classes worldwide on all areas of Tivoli and systems management. Before joining the ITSO eight years ago, Budi worked in IBM Indonesia services as a technical lead and solution architect. His current interests are Java™ programming, availability management, business service management, and z/OS® management. Pradeep Nambiar is a Worldwide Technical Evangelist in the IBM Tivoli Business Automation Sales Enablement group. He has over 19 years experience in the IT industry in various areas ranging from graphics systems, networked graphics, IBM Component Broker/WebSphere Application Server system management, business application architecture, design, and development. He is an IBM Certified SOA Solution Designer, IBM Certified WebSphere Enterprise Developer, and IBM Certified Solution Developer in XML and Related Technologies. His current focus is on application management and the automation family of products, including SOA management from IBM Tivoli. He is based in Austin, TX. Prem Lall is a Software Engineer currently assigned to the ITCAM for SOA project where he specializes in the field of Web Services management. He has had over 15 years experience in the IT field. During his 11 years at IBM, he has helped design and implement a variety of software products. He has expertise in front-end, middleware, and back-end development with an emphasis on e-commerce. Among other things, he created end-to-end online banking solutions for IBM clients in the Integrion consortium, he has been part of the WebSphere Application Server development team, and helped create an extensive SOA-based e-File application for the IRS that is currently used by numerous businesses across the country. He holds a Masters of Science Degree in Pure and Applied Mathematics from California State University, Northridge, CA. He also worked as an Actuary, and he has worked in the Atmospheric Physics Division of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Ravinder Gummadavelli is a Software Engineer with IBM Systems Technology Group, in the USA. He has over 10 years of experience in the IT Systems Design and Development field. He holds a Masters in Technology degree in Electrical Engineering from REC, Warangal, India, and a Masters of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Auburn University, Auburn, AL. His areas of expertise include Systems Design, Development, and SOA. His current interests include SOA and IBM Virtualization offerings. Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: Karen Durston, Mark Anderson, Jayne Regan IBM Software Groupx Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  12. 12. Become a published author Join us for a two- to six-week residency program! Help write a book dealing with specific products or solutions, while getting hands-on experience with leading-edge technologies. You will have the opportunity to team with IBM technical professionals, IBM Business Partners, and Clients. Your efforts will help increase product acceptance and customer satisfaction. As a bonus, you will develop a network of contacts in IBM development labs and increase your productivity and marketability. Find out more about the residency program, browse the residency index, and apply online at: ibm.com/redbooks/residencies.htmlComments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our papers to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments about this paper or other IBM Redbooks® publications in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review IBM Redbooks publications form found at: ibm.com/redbooks Send your comments in an e-mail to: redbooks@us.ibm.com Mail your comments to: IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization Dept. HYTD Mail Station P099 2455 South Road Poughkeepsie, NY 12601-5400 Preface xi
  13. 13. xii Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  14. 14. 1 Chapter 1. Introduction to SOA management In this chapter, we explain service-oriented architecture (SOA) and walk you through managing an SOA environment. We divide this discussion into: “Introduction to SOA” on page 2 “SOA application principles” on page 2 “SOA constructs and components” on page 4 “SOA governance” on page 5 “SOA management considerations” on page 7 “Users of SOA management” on page 9 “Management needs for the SOA environment” on page 16© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008. All rights reserved. 1
  15. 15. 1.1 Introduction to SOA A service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an architecture that describes a system that is composed of discrete services that interact with clients and accomplish various tasks. Each service contains operations that perform a small unit of work that corresponds to a high level definition of a given task. These services can perform simple tasks, such as accessing data from a database and returning data to a client, or can be part of a workflow that represents a more complex task. A service usually either provides information or facilitates a way to modify it in a certain way. Although Web Services technology is commonly used to implement an SOA, it is not required; in other words, a service does not have to use Web Services constructs or technology. However, most SOAs rely on the standards, practices, and tools that are available with Web Services. Regard SOA as an approach to build distributed systems that deliver application functionality as Web Services to user applications. Properly used, SOA principles can provide a framework for matching business needs with realistic solutions. Web Services is the programmatical interface to a capability that complies with standard protocols, providing the interface technology and delivering platform independency and loose coupling of the transport. SOA is potentially wider in its scope of governing the policies, rules, and common services that enable logical service bus structure for use by authorized consumers internal and external to the enterprise regardless of implementation technology. Also, SOA enables the design and quality of service that can be reused and that conforms to functional and nonfunctional service level agreements (SLAs). Web Services are the foundational interoperability technology, and SOA is the application of the interoperability that implies considerable change in business and IT practices. This magnitude of business and technology change requires a certain level of management in order to successfully reap the benefits from the investment that has been made for the change. In this chapter, we look into the SOA structure and the management requirements that lead to the need for this paper to define the SOA system management environment.1.2 SOA application principles You can deploy an SOA-based application incrementally and slowly integrate it into an existing environment. Developers have designed SOA scenarios to be2 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  16. 16. used together or adopted incrementally. There are several well-known SOApatterns, including: Service creation Service connectivity Interaction and collaboration services Business Process Management Information as a serviceYou can apply the SOA design, governance, security, and management acrossall of these scenarios.Applications in a typical silo architecture build their functionality on top of anexisting application stack. In an SOA-based environment, the logical boundarybetween Web Services consumer and provider is defined by a business function,not by application boundaries (typical for silo architectures): Separation of Web Services interface from its implementation One of the most important aspects of SOA is that it separates a Web Service’s implementation from its interface. A meta-language, such as Web Services Definition Language (WSDL), can be very helpful, because it describes a business interface that a Web Services provider can expose to a client application and other Web Services while concealing the Web Service’s implementation. A WSDL document acts as a server-side descriptor that defines the Web Service’s operations and the messages they use so the client will know how to invoke the Web Service. Web Services consumers view a Web Services simply as an endpoint that supports a particular request format or contract. Web Services consumers are not concerned with how the Web Services executes their requests; they only expect that it will do so according to the defined interface. Implementations can use anything from Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE™) entities to older code running in a mainframe environment. Loose coupling The exposed interface is purposely “loosely coupled” from the Web Services provider so that implementations can be modified or even replaced (swapped in and out as desired in a plug and play manner), which increases the ability to reuse existing function. Reuse promotes increased performance, reliability, and Quality of Service (QoS), because a common interface can be exposed to many clients regardless of what is underneath. Reusable components do not have to be retested as often as well. Individual Web Services are also loosely coupled, having little or no dependencies upon each other. Web Services must also be stateless (information or state are not preserved from one request to another). Chapter 1. Introduction to SOA management 3
  17. 17. Business impact Client applications in an SOA do not contain business logic; they consume Web Services instead. Therefore, they become much smaller and easier to implement. A shorter time-to-market for new products is an important result for business development. SOA principles in general can help form a stronger connection between the business needs that define the architecture and the software and information systems that implement it. Web Services can be created according to an abstract model that conforms to the needs of the business. If done correctly, an abstraction can drive the concrete very effectively.1.3 SOA constructs and components Standards have been developed to ensure Web Services technologies conform to common principles. Support for Web Services interoperability, Web Services security, sending attachments using Web Services, and Web Services Management have been defined by organizations, such as W3C, OASIS, and so on. Standards help ensure that Web Services products sold by different software vendors conform to common agreed upon expectations. For example, a user must be able to expect that a Web Services client written using Microsoft® .Net can invoke a Web Services written using Apache Axis deployed on the WebSphere Application Server without any complications if these tools conform to Web Services standards. With the advent of application server technology, Web Services can be distributed across many machines and environments, making it easier to perform scalability, clustering, and load balancing across your enterprise (SOA can ease the transition away from existing systems towards modern application servers and middleware). For example, COBOL and C++ applications that use messaging software, such as IBM MQSeries®, can be phased out in favor of Java applications that use SOAP/Java Message Service (JMS) and message-driven beans (MDBs). SOA-related constructs, such as enterprise service buses (ESBs), business processes, and so on, can add further structure and flexibility to your architecture by providing routing, mediation, and flow management functions. Just as you can hide implementations from a client, transport/protocol layers and message formats can be similarly concealed by the inclusion of an enterprise service bus. SOAP/Java Message Service (JMS), SOAP/HTTP, Remote Method Invocation (RMI)/Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP), XML/MQSeries, local Java calls, and so on are all supported and transparent to the user. Often, people implement an enterprise service bus by technologies that are found in certain4 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  18. 18. middleware/infrastructure products, for example, WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus, DataPower®, WebSphere Message Broker, and so on. You can combine discrete Web Services into composite business processes to accomplish more complex business objectives. As part of a business process, individual Web Services can be viewed as activities within a workflow. This facilitates the creation of a business process that can be described by a meta-language called Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). Business Process Execution Language is similar to Web Services Definition Language (WSDL) in that it provides a static definition of a Business Process. Just as with Web Services, the potential for reuse is quite high after these Business Process definitions are created. In recent years, a new method has been introduced to model Web Services in an SOA called the Service Component Architecture (SCA). SCA components are designed to separate implementation details from any business logic so that you can put together an integrated application without knowing its implementation details and make each component interoperate with any other SCA component. Issues, such as security, transactions, and so forth, are resolved in a seamless manner across SCA components. SCA components are often used in business process modeling, because they provide a great deal of flexibility. A mediation is a special type of SCA module. You can insert mediations between loosely coupled Web Services. Introducing mediations between Web Services provides added function for processing messages that are being passed between these Web Services. Mediations intercept and modify messages that are passed between existing Web Services and clients that want to use those Web Services. Mediations are ideal for deployment in an environment that contains an enterprise service bus, because they can reroute and examine Web Services traffic.1.4 SOA governance It is important to consider both governance and management requirements when planning an SOA. SOA governance is an extension of IT governance that focuses on the life cycle of Web Services and composite applications in an organization’s SOA. SOA governance is related to establishing policies within the context of the activities and constructs associated with SOA that are similar to those that exist for managing and controlling other aspects of IT. Chapter 1. Introduction to SOA management 5
  19. 19. Initially, the concept of SOA governance was applied narrowly to the development and use of Web Services (validating Web Services adherence with specific standards or managing Web Services in the SOA runtime environment). Today, SOA governance spans SOA architecture, as well as the governance of Web Services, across the entire implementation life cycle. Architecture governance and Web Services-level life cycle governance are the two of the main components of SOA governance. For the purposes of this discussion, we will concentrate mainly on the latter.1.4.1 Web Services life cycle governance The goal of Web Services life cycle governance is to define: Decision rights for the development, deployment, and management of new Web Services Monitoring and reporting processes for capturing and communicating governance results There are four phases of the Web Services life cycle: Modeling: This phase involves incorporating business requirements and objectives into your business design so that the design becomes a specification of business processes that achieve goals and consider assumptions. Assembly: This phase centers around the information systems that will be used to assemble the business design. Typically, an enterprise architect working with a business analyst can convert the business design into a set of business process definitions that are composed of activities. The required Web Services are derived from the activity definitions and business processes from the business process definitions. Deployment: This phase involves creating the environment that will host composite Web Service-based applications and then deploying those applications there. This phase includes identifying resource dependencies for the application, as well as operational conditions, requirements, and constraints that impact the successful deployment and running of the applications. Management: This phase addresses the maintenance of the operational environment and the policies that govern the deployed applications. This phase includes monitoring the performance of Web Services requests and responses and developing a recovery strategy for failures (detecting and quarantining failures and logging them, rerouting traffic around failures and recovering work affected by them, correcting problems and restoring the state6 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  20. 20. of the system). The Management phase also includes tuning the operational environment to conform to changes in the business design. Because SOA applications are so loosely coupled, they introduce new governance challenges. But with the proper standards, practices, and processes in place, businesses can reap the full benefit of service orientation. Effective SOA governance helps business and IT teams better identify how to achieve most business goals. It also empowers employees by clearly defining their roles and responsibilities.1.4.2 Web Services life cycle management After you implement the SOA governance framework, you use it in the model, assemble, deploy, and manage phases within the SOA life cycle. With respect to the operational aspects of implementing SOA governance, Web Services life cycle management addresses how Web Services will be developed, deployed, and managed. Web Services life cycle management focuses on the development and deployment of Web Services, while SOA governance supplies the decision rights, processes, and policies for those activities. After a Web Services is deployed, there must be management strategies in place to control and monitor the Web Service. Web Services life cycle management is subject to the business design created within the governance stage that ensures that reuse and cost reduction are achieved.1.5 SOA management considerations Implementing SOA-based applications introduces new IT management challenges. Because Web Services development tools make it easy to create services within the SOA framework, there is a danger that services can proliferate and become uncontrollable within the SOA enterprise, if the growth is not managed properly. When systems are composed of multiple independent business processes, the relationships between these processes and the applications executing in the IT layer are not always obvious. For example, consider verifying the correctness of a workflow in a system or locating a performance bottleneck. While these actions are difficult in smaller systems and might become impractical to manage as the size and complexity increases in larger systems. Simply stated, SOA management includes solutions and software for managing and monitoring composite applications and the infrastructure that supports it across the entire architecture. Chapter 1. Introduction to SOA management 7
  21. 21. Considerations associated with managing an SOA environment include: SOA management is needed on the following scenarios: – Defining your Web Services in a way that they can be easily managed as resources (Service Creation) – Defining how Web Services relate to each other (Service Connectivity and Interaction) – How to manage your Web Services within their deployment environment (Governance/Management) The information that is needed from the management system: – Capturing data that can be used to evaluate whether nonfunctional and quality of service requirements as defined by business needs are supported (reliability, scalability, cost, and so on) – Defining which Web Services/Activities to group into Business Processes/Workflows to accomplish a business goal (Collaboration Services) – Define service level agreements based on data that can be easily monitored (average response time, maximum message size, and so on) – Using standards whose enforcement can be monitored – Evaluating whether your Web Services are secure (Security) The management environment itself must be properly evaluated. Considerations about the management technology are: – How to display Monitored and Registered information to users (using a console, such as the Tivoli Enterprise Portal (TEP) or the Tivoli Enterprise Console® (TEC) – What technology and products to use to monitor various resources (examples include Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Java Management Extensions (JMX™), Java API for XML-Based RPC (JAX-RPC), Java API for XML-Based Web Services (JAX-WS), and so on) – How can you manage infrastructure that employs tiers and clustering. Ensuring that both Web Services providers and consumers can be monitored. Also, resolving how to display interactions if only certain things are managed (how do you display unmanaged clients and Web Services that are part of the same flow) – What are some of the various user types that you will need monitor and administer your applications (administrators, operators, and so on) There are number of metrics that you must monitor for a holistic application health view in an SOA environment.8 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  22. 22. These metrics include: Service response time Service request message size Service faults Real-time service performance metrics Application server health where the service is deployed Health of dependent components, such as database, messaging resources, and so on Service performance metrics for historical purposes Service request and response message data These metrics help measure service level agreements (SLAs) for applications. You can use these metrics to debug performance bottlenecks in applications. You can also use these metrics to automatically take corrective actions or initiate failover steps to maintain service availability when the primary service provider goes down or is not performing to meet the SLAs. IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager (ITCAM) for SOA and other ITCAM offerings provide all the necessary metrics to keep the applications in an SOA environment healthy and resilient.1.6 Users of SOA management There are several types of users that use SOA management and need to interact with the SOA-based environment. In this section, we discuss the access patterns and the needs of those users in relation to SOA management. With any management software, a number of various personnel can be potential users. You can have multiple user roles, and each role can be defined in part by the user’s current job responsibilities. For example, an application developer and a performance tester most likely are interested in viewing varying pieces of information at different times and thus might use the same console to view different information. Depending on their responsibilities, they might even have different levels of access to various views. Ultimately, the roles and responsibilities that are defined for various users will depend greatly on how a company defines their architecture and how they want to manage it. Chapter 1. Introduction to SOA management 9
  23. 23. These are possible user roles for SOA management. The primary users are likely to be common to most organizations. There can also be secondary and provisional users as well: Note: We consider the user roles for managing the performance and the availability of an SOA-based application. We do not include security management and its roles in this paper. Primary users: These users are the most common in most organizations. They have a critical need to use the SOA management tools for their day-to-day jobs: – Operator – Middleware and application subject matter expert Secondary users: These users have supportive roles that require occasional access to the SOA management tools. Although the tools are not a necessity for them to perform their work, the tools greatly enhance their productivity: – Performance analyst – System administrator – Web Services application developer Provisional users: These users also need access to SOA management only as the need arises. These roles use SOA management rarely, and the tools do not perform a critical role: – Enterprise system management architect – Business manager or executive1.6.1 Operator An operator or system operator is the first level of IT support personnel that might detect system, application, or performance problems. The operator or system operator job is directly related to ensuring the health of the IT environment and attaining the appropriate service level for IT operation. The primary interaction for an operator with the SOA management environment relates to: Monitoring for potential problems and correcting them Ensuring that they adhere to the system SLA Providing initial troubleshooting of a problem, and, if possible, fixing it Escalating a problem to the next level of support or subject matter expert for resolution if necessary10 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  24. 24. To accomplish these objectives, an operator can perform monitoring by using system management tools. The tools can provide views that the operator can use to detect color-coded conditions or troublesome values in a measurement. The tools can also provide automatic monitoring that generates events or alerts for the operator to address. In most environments, the operator must rely on alerts and events that happen on the environment instead of trying to navigate the tools to uncover problems. Using the Tivoli tools, IBM Tivoli Monitoring provides a facility for the operator to get alerts and navigate views in order to problems in the Tivoli Enterprise Portal. An alert might be sent to Tivoli Enterprise Portal to signal that a problem has occurred. On other occasions, uncovering the problem might require investigation by the operator. In either case, an operator must examine metric data to see if the operator can make a preliminary diagnosis of the problem. Event monitoring is represented by situations. ITCAM provides situations that come predefined (ready to use) or that can be modified by using the situation editor. Breaching an SLA can fire a situation to alert the operator of the problem. The situation event console displays information about these situations. Figure 1-1 shows the situation event console. Figure 1-1 Situation event console An operator can also look at the results of queries that are performed against Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Agent. These queries can be either predefined or created by using the Tivoli Enterprise Portal query editor. The system or product administrator loads the predefined queries into the Tivoli Enterprise Portal Server. An administrator will often use the query editor to define and create queries for display on the Tivoli Enterprise Portal.1.6.2 Middleware or application subject matter expert The subject matter experts on the application or the middleware perform the in-depth problem determination. They might respond to problems that were initially uncovered by an operator. For a composite application and specifically for the SOA-based application, they must be able to see and trace the Chapter 1. Introduction to SOA management 11
  25. 25. application beyond just the SOA interface and into the component level or a breakdown of the transaction. Subject matter experts on the application or the middleware perform these in-depth diagnostics from several sources, such as: Investigating the Web Services flow from one application server to another Rerouting and modifying mediation and the Web Services flow Collecting response time breakdowns using correlation tracking Performing a method trace for the J2EE application The subject matter experts on an application or the middleware perform these functions by using a combination of ITCAM solutions, such as: ITCAM for SOA ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE ITCAM for Response Time Tracking1.6.3 Performance analyst A performance analyst inspects reports about availability and response time for various applications, including applications deployed in an SOA environment. If the metrics indicate that a threshold is close to being reached, the performance analyst consults a trend analysis of how the application has been performing over time. The conclusion can indicate a sudden spike in activity or a increasing trend over time, which might mean you need to expand your capacity. The performance analyst collects this information from various data sources from the monitoring system historical data. The Tivoli solution in the IBM Tivoli Monitoring environment is based on Tivoli Data Warehouse. The Tivoli Data Warehouse collects historical data from various Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Agents. This data can be reported and analyzed by using the reporting tools that report into a DB2® database.1.6.4 System administrator The system administrator is a user with administrative privileges that performs the day-to-day tasks of maintaining the management system. The system administrator tasks include granting access to users, implementing a monitoring solution, extending the monitoring solution by using a standard procedure, and so on.12 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  26. 26. The system administrator has the authority to modify the system, such asinstalling a new feature or a patch to the monitoring system, thus, allowinginteraction with the management of the SOA solution.The system administrator can install, configure, and maintain all the tools that asubject matter expert needs. A system administrator can also configure, start,and stop agent processes, or perhaps even reconfigure the entire monitoringenvironment.System administrator interactions include: Managing situations, workspaces, and actions in Tivoli Enterprise Portal that are related to the SOA application Administering users, such as Tivoli Enterprise Portal users. Using the Administer Users window for setting authorities to specific features, specifying access to applications, and specifying access to Navigator views. Selecting the features in Tivoli Enterprise Portal to provide access to each user and to set the specific permissions granted to each user (see Figure 1-2 on page 14) Chapter 1. Introduction to SOA management 13
  27. 27. Figure 1-2 Administer user dialog1.6.5 Enterprise system management architect The system management architect interacts with the business side of the company and is familiar with the company’s business processes. An architect must understand the model for the SOA-based application, including Web Services, SCA, and business process choreography to model the architecture of the business. The architect observes as the model is built and then implemented into system management. The architect must oversee the system management implementation based on the business model and ensure that the management model is kept up-to-date. The architect must review the rollout of the new application and the change of the mediation rule to ensure that the monitoring model is still current and meaningful.14 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  28. 28. The architect utilizes the WebSphere Services Registry and Repository to manage the Web Services life cycle and can use the discovery through Tivoli Common Object Repository to monitor new services and the new model. You can do this by displaying the ITCAM for SOA Services Overview view to see the difference between which Web Services have been observed and which Web Services are registered. If you notice that certain observed Web Services are not registered, then you can update the registry.1.6.6 Web Services application developer The application developers are responsible for coding Web Services applications. After the developer’s Web Services are deployed, the developers must be available to fix problems. Depending on the severity of the problem, the developers usually have a small amount of time in which to complete the fix, and then they run tests to verify that the problem has been resolved. A typical scenario is a new mediation that needs to be added to manage traffic for an existing Web Service, because the system performance has been unexpectedly affected. The system management tools can assist the developer to identify the potential bottlenecks and performance problems in test system. The developers need to use the tools to test fixes for possible performance bottlenecks before the fixes go into production. After the build with the fix is installed, the developers observe whether the performance problem has been alleviated.1.6.7 Business executives The business executives care about their business processes and the applications that support the business. The management solution must allow the business executives to see the application health based on either the SOA performance or another metric. The business executives need an interface with minimum technical detail. The business executives need a simple but meaningful view of the business process health and possibly the SLA attainment. Chapter 1. Introduction to SOA management 15
  29. 29. 1.7 Management needs for the SOA environment Based on the user roles and the users’ needs in 1.6, “Users of SOA management” on page 9, the management needs for the SOA environment are: Understanding the current performance of the SOA application in real time in order to proactively identify any potential outage and problem Collecting historical trends of SOA performance Building structure about the calling pattern of the Web Services Understanding the structure and life cycle of Web Services Performing “deep dives” and diagnoses on the SOA-based application Modifying the routing and data analysis of the SOA Web Services calls Showing the business impact of Web Services call performance problems or outages Managing security of the SOA-based application. We do not discuss security management in this paper. See Understanding SOA Security Design and Implementation, SG24-7310. In a production environment, it is vital to have sufficient information for the management system as long as collecting this information does not adversely affect the managed environment. To manage an SOA-based application, you need to have information about the Web Services contained within it and the environment on which they are deployed. You can observe data on Web Services by monitoring it or from static definitions, such as WSDL documents that define a Web Service. Data on Services, ports, and operations is exposed, as well as details about the server (deployment environment) upon which the data runs (application servers, such as WebSphere Application Server, WebLogic, JBoss, DataPower, and so on). As with other software components, you must gather information throughout the Web Service’s life cycle (see section on 1.4.2, “Web Services life cycle management” on page 7).1.7.1 Web Services metric data collection You can collect metrics throughout the life of a Web Service. These metrics are usually numeric information that you can use to indicate or calculate the health and performance of Web Services. You can collect these metrics by using a polling process or instrumenting the application to report the metrics. Metrics that are collected at the Web Services operation level include average response time, average message size, number of messages, number of faults,16 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  30. 30. and so on. The metrics can provide valuable information about SOA and Web Services. You need to be able to view real-time data, as well as historical data, corresponding to a specific time interval. You can collect metric data by using a management API, such as Java API for XML-Remote Procedure Call (JAX-RPC) handlers, which make Web Services into manageable resources. Data collection using the JAX-RPC handler happens when when either of the following events occurs: A client application invokes a Web service, which is referred to as a client-side interception. The Web Services request is received by the hosting application server, which is referred to as a server-side interception. The data can be stored in log files for later analysis, sent to a management server, or loaded into a repository.1.7.2 Web Services troubleshooting Troubleshooting Web Services includes monitoring the health of the infrastructure that supports the Web Services, such as the underlying middleware. Think of Web Services as manageable resources in the system management environment. In this way, you can determine whether policies are being enforced in SOA and whether SLAs are achieved or not. Data on throughput, availability, workload, transactions, and so on can be gathered to help you determine if your current topology is optimal, given the demands placed on your enterprise. Business processes are managed indirectly in that the Web Services that make up the business processes are managed resources. You might also consider a SOA management standard, such as Web Services Distributed Management (WSDM) from Oasis. See: http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=wsdm1.7.3 Displaying data You must be able to display Web Services entities, such as the deployed server, operation, namespace, relationship, and other attributes, to users. You can present this information in a tabular or graphical form, and you need to provide drill-down capability for the user to see details about the Web Service. A user must also be able to define events and alerts to monitor an SOA application. These alerts allows users to be notified when a certain condition Chapter 1. Introduction to SOA management 17
  31. 31. occurs. Alerts® allows the user to not have to monitor a particular view all the time.1.7.4 Mediation management Mediation is a special type of SCA module. You can insert mediations between loosely coupled Web Services. Introducing mediations between Web Services provides added function for processing messages that are being passed between these Web Services. Mediations intercept and modify messages that are passed between existing Web Services and clients that want to use those Web Services. Managing mediations includes the ability to filter mediations or reroute Web Services calls based on monitoring metrics. You can perform this function on a mediation platform, such as WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus or WebSphere Message Broker.18 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  32. 32. 2 Chapter 2. Tivoli application management products in this chapter, we provide an overview of the various Tivoli solutions that you can use to manage a service-oriented architecture (SOA) environment. Tivoli has a set of solutions to manage composite application. In a way, you can regard SOA as a special composite application environment. We discuss: “ITCAM for SOA” on page 20 “ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE” on page 26 “ITCAM for Response Time Tracking” on page 33 “OMEGAMON XE for Messaging” on page 41© Copyright IBM Corp. 2008. All rights reserved. 19
  33. 33. 2.1 ITCAM for SOA in this section, we describe IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager (ITCAM) for SOA V6.1. We discuss: “Product features” on page 20 “Product components” on page 212.1.1 Product features ITCAM for SOA manages service-oriented architecture (SOA). It can monitor, manage, and control the Web Services layer of the IT architecture, while drilling down to the application or resource layer to identify the source of bottlenecks or failures and to pinpoint services that take the most time or use the most resources. ITCAM for SOA: Provides service monitoring views in Tivoli Enterprise Portal. ITCAM for SOA workspaces consist of data collector-based workspaces: – Performance Summary: Shows the response time information for Web Services calls as viewed from the client or the server – Message Summary: Shows the message statistics, including the volume and size of message information – Fault Summary: Shows failure analysis for Web Services calls Other workspaces for each agent are: – Service Management Agent Environment: Provides a summary of the Web Services metrics for all data collectors – Service Management Agent: Shows the agent configuration summary, data collectors, monitoring profiles, and filters – Mediation Configuration: Shows configuration entries for mediation on Service Component Architecture (SCA) – Message arrival: Shows the message arrival rate and events based on the message arrival critical situation Leverages Tivoli Enterprise Portal situations to check thresholds. ITCAM for SOA provides predefined situations that you need to tailor. The predefined situations concern: – Number of messages received by a service within a time window – Size of the messages Provides basic mediation support with the ability to filter or reject Web Services call messages from a particular client or service. It can log request and response messages for analysis.20 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  34. 34. Offers heterogeneous platform coverage: – Support for IBM WebSphere Application Server, CICS® Transaction Server, Microsoft .NET, JBoss, BEA WebLogic, and other SOA clients and servers – Target IBM Enterprise Service Bus platforms: WebSphere Application Server Versions 5.x and 6.x and WebSphere Business Integration Server Foundation V5.1.1 Displays a list of services and operations that are monitored in the environment Leverages Tivoli Enterprise Portal workflow and policy editor for threshold-triggered action sequences Offers the ability to include services-layer views in Tivoli Enterprise Portal The context-rich views and inter-workspace linkages in Tivoli Enterprise Portal enables users to drill down to IT resources to identify Web Services bottlenecks and failures. By providing built-in and extensible alerts, situations, and workflows, users can create powerful automated mediation scenarios using the Tivoli Enterprise Portal. The service metrics, alerts, and automation workflows that are provided by ITCAM for SOA and other Tivoli products can be displayed in Tivoli Enterprise Portal with the cross-workspace linkages to provide a rich and multilayered source of information. This information can help to reduce the time and skills that are required for problem root-cause analysis and resolution. ITCAM for SOA includes the Web Services Navigator, a plug-in to IBM Rational® Application Development and other Eclipse-based tools. It provides a deep understanding of the service flow, patterns, and relationships for developers and architects. The Web Services Navigator uses data from the IBM Tivoli Monitoring V6.1 Tivoli Data Warehouse or from the ITCAM for SOA log files using the Log Assembler tool. In Version 6.1, IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for SOA contains a new component for mediation service management based on SCA. It enables you to modify several of the mediation service settings dynamically. Mediation is a facility that sits between Web Services requester and Web Services provider that allows manipulation of Web Services messages, includes format translation, filtering, and enrichment.2.1.2 Product components ITCAM for SOA manages Web Services. Web Services can be viewed as a remote processing facility that is defined through the use of Web Services Chapter 2. Tivoli application management products 21
  35. 35. Definition Language (WSDL). Usual access uses SOAP over HTTP. Internally, Web Services are implemented using the Java API for XML-based Remote Procedure Call (JAX-RPC). ITCAM for SOA installs itself as the JAX-RPC handler to capture and manage Web Services calls. ITCAM for SOA consists of these logical components: Web Services data collector that acts as the JAX-RPC handler and intercepts Web Services calls to collect statistical information and write to a log file. Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Agent that collects information from all of the data collectors on a machine and forwards them to Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Server. We discuss the data collectors and Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Agent in “Monitoring agent data collector” on page 22. An Eclipsed-based viewer that processes log files that are generated by the Web Services data collector. It generates visual representations of various characteristics of monitored Web Services. See “IBM Web Services Navigator” on page 24. Mediation SCA tools that enable partial monitoring of SCA within WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus. See “Managing SCA mediation” on page 25. Monitoring agent data collector ITCAM for SOA works with several application server environments: IBM WebSphere Application Server V5.1.0.5 with PQ89492, V6.0, and V6.1 IBM WebSphere Business Integration V5.1.1.1 IBM WebSphere Process Server V6.0.1 IBM WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus V6.0.1 IBM CICS Transaction Server V3.1 and later BEA WebLogic Server V8.1.4 Microsoft .NET V1.1 with Service Pack 1 and V2.0 JBoss V4.03 WebSphere Community Edition V1.0 and its service packs SAP® NetWeaver V6.40 with Service Pack 9 or later service packs IBM WebSphere DataPower SOA Appliance Firmware V3.5.0.5 or later Figure 2-1 on page 23 shows the ITCAM for SOA data collection conceptual architecture.22 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  36. 36. ITCAM for SOA Monitoring agent Application Server configuration Web Services handler or Data Data collector Tivoli Enterprise extension collector adapter Monitoring Agent log Tivoli Enterprise Management Server Tivoli Enterprise Portal ServerFigure 2-1 ITCAM for SOA structureThe monitoring agent data collector is implemented as a JAX-RPC handler orservice extension that is installed into the application servers that host themonitored Web Services. The handler is given control when either of thefollowing events occurs: A client application invokes a Web service, which is referred to as a client-side interception. The Web Services request is received by the hosting application server, which is referred to as a server-side interception.The monitoring agent records and collects monitored information into one ormore local log files. The information is then transferred to Tivoli EnterpriseMonitoring Server and can be archived into a historical database for laterretrieval with IBM Web Services Navigator.ITCAM for SOA V6.1 focuses on the SOAP engine of IBM WebSphereApplication Server, WebSphere Service Integration Bus, Microsoft .NETFramework, and BEA WebLogic.The Web Services data collector supports both Java 2 Platform, EnterpriseEdition (J2EE) application client and server container environments, becauseJAX-RPC handlers are supported only by these environments. The WebServices must be compliant with JSR-109 specifications.To ensure the proper operation of the JAX-RPC handler, verify that the clientapplications are written according to the conventions at the following location:http://www.jcp.org/aboutJava/communityprocess/final/jsr109/ Chapter 2. Tivoli application management products 23
  37. 37. IBM Web Services Navigator IBM Web Services Navigator is an Eclipsed-based tool that is used to visualize Web Services in an SOA environment. It provides a graphical display of: Web Services transaction flows Service topology Flow patterns Figure 2-2 illustrates Web Services Navigator concepts. Metric log Data collector TDW warehouse Metric Tivoli Enterprise log Data Monitoring Agent collector Web Services Navigator Metric log Data collector Log Assembler Combined metric log Metric log Data collector Figure 2-2 Web Services Navigator The Web Services Navigator is a log-browsing tool intended for offline analysis of SOA Web Services. The Web Services Navigator provides four primary views: Statistic tables: – Message statistics Per-message statistics, including requestor, provider, send/receive time, and message size – Invocation statistics Response time, network delay, message size, and more for each Web Services invocation – Transaction statistics Statistics for aggregated transactions, including elapsed time, number of faults, number of machines that this transaction involves, and number of invocations comprising this transaction24 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  38. 38. – Pattern invocation statistics Statistics for discovered patterns, including operation names, number of occurrences, response times, and message sizes Note: To see the message content from the ITCAM for SOA metric log: 1. Set a monitor control higher than “none” for any or all of the Web Services being monitored. 2. Include the subsequent xxxx.content.log when running Log Assembler. Service topology view This view is a graphical representation of the monitored Web Services that displays aggregated information and details about the relationships between Web Services. Transaction flows view The transaction flows view displays Universal Markup Language (UML) style sequence diagrams. The transaction flow shows a chronological view of each transaction, the flow between the various Web Services over time, and the topology and statistics for each transaction. You can zoom in on the view to see the details of individual transactions. Flow pattern view The flow pattern view is a visual representation of the aggregated pattern of transactions represented in the log file. The view also represents each pattern as a distinct sequence of Web Services calls and displays the frequency of each pattern.Managing SCA mediationWebSphere Process Server and WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus introduce anew way to model services in an SOA, which is called the Service ComponentArchitecture (SCA). SCA is designed to separate business logic from itsimplementation so that you can focus on assembling an integrated applicationwithout knowing implementation details.There is a special type of SCA component, which is called a mediation. In anSOA, where services are loosely coupled rather than connected directly to eachother, mediations can be inserted between the services, where they canintercept and process messages that are passed between the services.Mediations can process these messages and take appropriate actions, such asreroute, log, or transform a message, or create a notification or an event.IBM Tivoli Composite Application Manager for SOA provides the ability todynamically enable and disable the deployed mediation functions. This facility is Chapter 2. Tivoli application management products 25
  39. 39. available for applications in the WebSphere Enterprise Service Bus or WebSphere Process Server runtime environment. The invocation is provided in a new workspace in Tivoli Enterprise Portal called the Mediation Configuration workspace. The actions are: ConfigureMediation_610 DeletePrimitiveProperty_6102.2 ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE The IBM Tivoli application management solution for J2EE application servers comes in the form of ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE. These two products share the same managing server. ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE observe and report on the health of J2EE-based applications. They track the progress of applications as they traverse through J2EE application servers, middleware adapters and transports, and database calls, and on to back-end systems, such as CICS or IMS™, to extract business data or to invoke mainframe business processes. Tracking applications produces request traces, where the events in a request’s life are recorded and stored in a monitoring repository database. ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE capture the CPU and the elapsed internal times when events are called and when they are exited, measuring as far down as the CPU times consumed and the elapsed internal times charged to individual methods in J2EE classes. The methods or events taking the most time are marked as an application’s parts that deserve attention for runtime improvement studies and code optimizations. ITCAM for WebSphere manages and monitors WebSphere-based application servers, while ITCAM for J2EE manages and monitors the following J2EE containers: JBoss Tomcat SAP NetWeaver® BEA WebLogic Server Oracle® Application Server Apache Web Server Sun™ Java™ System Web Server Microsoft IIS WebSphere Application Server CE ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE do not need modification of any J2EE or mainframe application code. The data collectors use the following principal data sources: Java Virtual Machine Tool Interface (JVMTI) interfaces26 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  40. 40. and primitives. ITCAM for WebSphere also uses WebSphere Performance Management Interface (PMI) and z/OS System Measurement Facility (SMF) 120 records. The monitoring data is collected and analyzed to offer a wealth of information about the health of J2EE applications and their servers. These products collect and report many system-level performance metrics about J2EE application servers. The status of the servers and their resources (particularly at vital checkpoints, such as CPU utilization), memory usage, and the status of internal components, such as database connection pools, JVM™ thread pools, EJB™ usage, and request processing statistics, can be extremely important in locating real-time problems with J2EE applications. ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE bring attention to these critical indicators with real-time, graphical displays of their values and their trends over spans of time.2.2.1 Architecture and interconnection ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE are distributed performance monitoring applications for application servers. The components are connected through TCP/IP communication. The central component of ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE, the managing server, is its heart and brain. It collects and displays various performance information from application servers. Chapter 2. Tivoli application management products 27
  41. 41. The application servers run the data collector, which is a collecting agent that runs in the application server and sends monitoring information to the managing server. These data collectors operate independently of each other. Figure 2-3 shows the overall architecture of ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE. Browser interface ITCAM for WebSphere ITCAM for J2EE Managing Server I Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Agent e ris nt rp te ge Tivoli Enterprise En ng A li i Application servers with vo or Ti onit Management Server Data collectors M and Tivoli Enterprise Portal Server Web Servers Figure 2-3 ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE architecture The application monitor consists of two major parts: the managing server and the data collectors. A data collector agent runs on each monitored application server, whether J2EE, CICS, or IMS, and communicates essential operational data to the managing server. Unique sampling algorithms maintain low CPU and network processing while providing application-specific performance information. The managing server consists of several Java-based components that provide the environment to collect and present management data.2.2.2 The managing server ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE use one common managing server that controls and coordinates data collectors for J2EE, CICS, and IMS servers28 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli
  42. 42. that run applications. The difference between ITCAM for J2EE and ITCAM forWebSphere is the platform support for the data collectors. These data collectorscan run independently.The managing server uses the following software: Managing server database (DB2 UDB or Oracle on Sun Solaris™) for the relational data repository WebSphere Application Server to run the visualization engine Web console application An optional Web server, such as IBM HTTP Server The managing server overseer components, which are a set of Java-based processesThe overseer components are the controlling logic for the managing server. Forthe overseer components: Kernels control the managing server. There are always two copies of the kernels running on an ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE managing server for redundancy and failover. The kernels register components as they join the managing server, periodically renew connections and registrations with components and data collectors, and collect server and component availability information. Publishing servers receive application and system event data from the data collectors, gather and compute request-level information about performance metrics such as response times, and implement the trap monitoring and alerts features. Archive agents receive monitoring data from the publish servers and store the monitoring data in the repositories of ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE. The global publishing server collects information from the publish servers and correlates all parts and pieces of multiserver requests, such as requests from J2EE servers to execute CICS or IMS programs. The message dispatcher is a conduit for messages from ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE using e-mail and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) facilities. Chapter 2. Tivoli application management products 29
  43. 43. The visualization engine is a Web-based GUI with access to graphics, ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE performance reports, real-time views of different slices of monitoring data, and ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE internal commands and event-driven functions. The visualization engine runs on a WebSphere Application Server. Figure 2-4 shows the conceptual relationship among the components. Snapshot traffic Publish traffic Global Publish Server (SAM) Publish Server (PS) Kernel (KL) Visualization Engine Provide services on: Provide services on: Message Dispatcher - Lookup -Administration (MD) - Registration -Availability - Recovery -Problem Determination Archive Agent (AA) - Configuration -Performance Management OCTIGATE databaseFigure 2-4 Kernel components At the managing server, monitoring data is prepared for real-time displays within the monitoring console and is inserted into the OCTIGATE data repository. These are extremely resource-intensive operations. Having this processing in the managing server isolates this from other the application servers, thus reducing the footprints of ITCAM for WebSphere and ITCAM for J2EE in the monitored systems. This design also helps keep the data collectors’ processing at levels low enough for 24x7 production system monitoring. Data from the data collectors is collected by the publishing server and then stored in the OCTIGATE database by the archive agent. The visualization engine reads the database to present data through the Web console, and snapshot information, such as lock analysis and in-flight transactions, is retrieved directly from the data collectors.2.2.3 J2EE and WebSphere data collectors The data collectors run inside the application servers. They use native system services, and they are tailored for the particular environments where they30 Managing an SOA Environment with Tivoli

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