Front coverIntroducing IBM TivoliService Level AdvisorAchieve proactive SLA managementensuring service qualityGenerate rep...
International Technical Support OrganizationIntroducing IBM Tivoli Service Level AdvisorJuly 2002                         ...
Take Note! Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in “Notices”...
Contents                   Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
2.6.1 Step 1: Define and agree on Service Level Agreements . . . . . . . . . 42                     2.6.2 Step 2: Select a...
4.5.1 IBM DB2 Client installation on AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106   4.5.2 Cataloging the ITSL...
6.2.3 Additional features of Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232                  6.3 Ad...
8.4.1 Installation issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316                 ...
Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398                     ...
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433   ...
x   Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
Figures                  1-1        IT Service perceived by the end user and in reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
4-22    Select features dialogue window - TEDW Report Interface . . . . . . . . . 110                  4-23    Tivoli Pres...
5-23   Create Period window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1705-24   Select Sch...
6-19     Adding the selected items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262                ...
Tables                  3-1        Default TCP/IP port numbers used by the TEDW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60      ...
C-2      DYK_CAT database tables for the MM schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405                 C-3      DYK_CAT ...
NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, servi...
TrademarksThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other...
Preface                  IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor Version 1.1 is a Service Level Management                  solut...
Edson Manoel is a Software Engineer at IBM Corporation - International                 Technical Support Organization, Aus...
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:        International Technical Support Organizatio...
We want our Redbooks to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments                  about this or other Redbooks in ...
Part 1Part        1     All about IBM                  Tivoli Service                  Level Advisor                  In t...
2   Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
1    Chapter 1.    Introduction                  The primary topics of the discussions in this chapter are the principles ...
1.1 Overview                  In the context of delivering services in a complex IT environment, accomplishing            ...
Given that there often are significant amount of money at risk (win if the IT            department deploys successfully, ...
Monitoring                                                                                   Implementing                 ...
Customers can be given access to the results of those agreements.            Customers can be internal (members of a depar...
Once the various components have been deployed they must be monitored to                  verify that the targets are met....
problem                                                    Help Desk                            incident             Chang...
In other words, an extra layer of service has to be established in order to provide                 functions and faciliti...
According to this definition, service management relies upon the internal IT        infrastructure management and the tech...
The quantification of objectives applies to all three parts of the scope of the                 Service Level Management p...
Service Level Management is a means for the lines of business (LOB) and ITorganization to explicitly set their mutual expe...
Service level objectives                     Define the level of services that both the customer and the service provider ...
Managing expectationsOften, customers who were satisfied with service yesterday want betterservice today, and even better ...
16   Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
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Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611
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Introducing ibm tivoli service level advisor sg246611

  1. 1. Front coverIntroducing IBM TivoliService Level AdvisorAchieve proactive SLA managementensuring service qualityGenerate reports and identifytrends toward SLA violationsManage Service Leveland meet customerexpectations Edson Manoel J.B. Baker Filippo Giannelli Frans Sadie Sarie Weberibm.com/redbooks
  2. 2. International Technical Support OrganizationIntroducing IBM Tivoli Service Level AdvisorJuly 2002 SG24-6611-00
  3. 3. Take Note! Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in “Notices” on page xvii.First Edition (July 2002)This edition applies to the IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor Version 1.1 and Tivoli Enterprise DataWarehouse Version 1.1 products.Comments may be addressed to:IBM Corporation, International Technical Support OrganizationDept. JN9B Building 003 Internal Zip 283411400 Burnet RoadAustin, Texas 78758-3493When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a non-exclusive right to use or distribute theinformation in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2002. All rights reserved.Note to U.S Government Users – Documentation related to restricted rights – Use, duplication or disclosure is subject torestrictions set forth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.
  4. 4. Contents Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix The team that wrote this redbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi Comments welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiPart 1. All about IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 IT Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 Service Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4 Ensuring service quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.5 Service Level Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.6 Why bother with Service Level Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Chapter 2. IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor general overview . . . . . . . . 17 2.1 Overview of IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2 IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.1 ITSLA Task Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.2.2 ITSLA Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.3 ITSLA Reports Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.4 ITSLA Database Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.2.5 Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.2.6 Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse Control Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.2.7 IBM Console Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.2.8 ITSLA ETL programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.3 Important ITSLA concepts and terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.4 A glimpse into Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.5 IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor Target ETLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.5.1 ITSLA Registration ETL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.5.2 ITSLA Process ETL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2.6 The SLA Management process of ITSLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 iii
  5. 5. 2.6.1 Step 1: Define and agree on Service Level Agreements . . . . . . . . . 42 2.6.2 Step 2: Select applications for source data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.6.3 Step 3: Populate the ITSLA Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.6.4 Step 4: Define schedules and create offerings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.6.5 Step 5: Define customers and create orders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.6.6 Step 6: Populate the ITSLA Measurement Data Mart database . . . . 44 2.6.7 Step 7: Evaluate data for violations and trends. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2.6.8 Step 8: Notification of SLA violations and trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2.6.9 Step 9: Access SLA reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2.7 Applications providing measurement data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.7.1 Becoming an ITSLA-enabled application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Chapter 3. Implementation planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.1 IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor data flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.2 Planning for supporting applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.2.1 IBM WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.2.2 IBM DB2 Universal Database Enterprise Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3.2.3 Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.3 Planning for IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.3.1 Physical considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3.3.2 Architecture considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.3.3 Planning considerations for source applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.4 Planning for event notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.4.1 SNMP Trap notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.4.2 TEC Event notification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 3.4.3 E-mail notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.5 Planning worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Chapter 4. Getting IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor up and running . . . 79 4.1 Example scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4.2 Setting up the TEDW Server machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.2.1 IBM DB2 UDE Server for UNIX installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4.2.2 TEDW Central Warehouse and TEDW Data Mart installation . . . . . 86 4.3 Setting up the ITSLA Database Server machine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 4.3.1 Creating the ITSLA Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4.4 Setting up the TEDW Control Center machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4.4.1 IBM DB2 UDE Server for Windows installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.4.2 Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse Control Center installation . . . . . 92 4.4.3 ITSLA ETL programs installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.4.4 Source ETLs installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.4.5 TEDW Control Center basic configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4.4.6 Configuring the ODBC connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4.5 Setting up the ITSLA Server machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106iv Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  6. 6. 4.5.1 IBM DB2 Client installation on AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 4.5.2 Cataloging the ITSLA Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.5.3 TEDW Reports Interface installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4.5.4 ITSLA Server component installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 4.5.5 ITSLA Task Drivers installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1234.6 Setting up the ITSLA Reports machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 4.6.1 IBM WebSphere installation and configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 4.6.2 ITSLA Reports Server installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130Chapter 5. Administering IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor . . . . . . . . . . 1335.1 Source ETLs management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 5.1.1 ETL Warehouse Target and Sources configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 5.1.2 Schedule and run Source ETL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1375.2 Target ETLs management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 5.2.1 Registration Target ETL management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 5.2.2 Process Target ETL management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1505.3 User creation and management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 5.3.1 IBM SLA Console user management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 5.3.2 ITSLA Report users management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1635.4 Management of ITSLA components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 5.4.1 Management of offerings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 5.4.2 Management of orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1795.5 Timing considerations for the ITSLA environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 5.5.1 Scheduling ETLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 5.5.2 ITSLA evaluation schedule and time zone considerations . . . . . . . 1955.6 Trace and message log files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 5.6.1 Handler configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 5.6.2 Message log files management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 5.6.3 Trace log files management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2015.7 Startup and shutdown procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 5.7.1 IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor components startup . . . . . . . . . . 205 5.7.2 ITSLA components shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2085.8 Backup and restore of ITSLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 5.8.1 Backing up the ITSLA environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 5.8.2 Restoring the ITSLA environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214Chapter 6. Service level Reports with ITSLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2176.1 Logging into Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 6.1.1 Default Reports users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 6.1.2 The Ranking algorithm and categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2216.2 Using Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 6.2.1 Reporting categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 6.2.2 Viewing Reports using different search criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Contents v
  7. 7. 6.2.3 Additional features of Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 6.3 Administrating Reports users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 6.3.1 Creating Reports users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 6.3.2 Listing and deleting Reports users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 6.3.3 Disabling Reports user authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 6.4 Reports customization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 6.4.1 Integrating Reports with existing Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 6.4.2 Customizing the appearance of Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 6.4.3 Alternative methods for authenticating users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 6.5 Viewing Reports with third-party software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 6.5.1 Using BrioQuery Designer with Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 6.5.2 Viewing Reports using Seagate Crystal Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 6.5.3 Using BusinessObjects with Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Chapter 7. Performance maximization techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 7.1 Initial considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 7.2 ITSLA Database Server tuning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 7.3 IBM DB2 Performance tuning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 7.3.1 Small environments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 7.3.2 Medium environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 7.3.3 Large environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 7.4 IBM WebSphere performance tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 7.5 IBM HTTP Server performance tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 7.6 Presentation Services Web Console tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 7.6.1 Medium environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 7.6.2 Large environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 7.7 Operating system performance tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 7.7.1 Windows environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 7.7.2 AIX environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Chapter 8. Troubleshooting the ITSLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 8.1 IBM DB2 Universal Database Enterprise Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 8.1.1 Installation and configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 8.1.2 Databases creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 8.1.3 Administration issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 8.1.4 Important initial IBM DB2 commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 8.2 Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 8.2.1 TEDW installation and configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 8.2.2 TEDW administration issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 8.3 IBM WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 8.3.1 Installation and configuration issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 8.3.2 Administration issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 8.4 IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316vi Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  8. 8. 8.4.1 Installation issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 8.4.2 Configuration issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 8.4.3 Administration issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 8.4.4 Un-installation issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 8.5 IBM Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 8.5.1 Logon problems (UNIX platforms). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 8.5.2 Administration problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 8.6 TEDW Source ETLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 8.6.1 Installation issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 8.6.2 Configuration issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 8.6.3 Administration issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 8.7 IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 8.7.1 Accessing Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 8.7.2 Administration issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 8.7.3 Workarounds for ITSLA Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348Part 2. Appendixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Appendix A. Hints and tips for un-installing ITSLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Un-installing the ITSLA core components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Un-installing ITSLA Task Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Un-installing ITSLA Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Un-installing ITSLA Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 Un-installing the ITSLA Target ETL programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Remove the ITSLA Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Un-installing the support applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Appendix B. Service Management according to the ITIL . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 The ITIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Service Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Service Delivery disciplines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Capacity Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 Availability Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Cost Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Contingency Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Service Level Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Measuring service quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 The role of Service Level Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 The objectives of Service Level Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 Specifying service levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Service Support disciplines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 Help Desk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Problem Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Contents vii
  9. 9. Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Software Control and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Appendix C. IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor Databases . . . . . . . . . . . 403 The ITSLA Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 The ITSLA Measurement Data Mart database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Appendix D. Command reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Introduction to the ITSLA CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 General usage overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 Default bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Basic CLI commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Useful commands for ITSLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 ETL commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Offering and order commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Escalation commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 Appendix E. Source ETLs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 Introduction to the Source ETLs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 IBM Tivoli Business Systems Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 TBSM Source ETL objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 TBSM Source ETL process description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 TBSM Source ETL measurement types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 IBM Tivoli Enterprise Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 TEC Source ETL objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 TEC Source ETL processes descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 TEC Source ETL measurement types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 IBM Tivoli Monitoring for Transaction Performance (TWSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 TWSM Source ETL objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 TWSM Source ETL processes description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 TWSM Source ETL measurement types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 IBM Tivoli Distributed Monitoring (DM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 DM Source ETL objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 DM Source ETL processes descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 DM measurement types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Abbreviations and acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 429 IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 429 Other resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 429 Referenced Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 430 How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 431 IBM Redbooks collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... ....... ...... . 431viii Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  10. 10. Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 Contents ix
  11. 11. x Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  12. 12. Figures 1-1 IT Service perceived by the end user and in reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1-2 Service Delivery life cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1-3 Service Delivery in context. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1-4 Point-solution based management infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1-5 Customer, service provider, and service management . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1-6 Service Level Management iterative process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2-1 ITSLA core and logical components relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2-2 ITSLA Database component access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2-3 ITSLA Measurement Data Mart access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2-4 A typical TEDW environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2-5 ITSLA Registration ETL process model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2-6 ITSLA Process ETL process flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2-7 How TSLA collects and stores measurement data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2-8 End-to-Eend SLA Management process flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2-9 A typical Service Level Management process flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3-1 ITSLA data flow scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3-2 ITSLA architecture component placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4-1 Installation scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4-2 Install DB2 V7 - DB2 UDB Enterprise Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4-3 Create DB2 Services - DB2 Instance db2inst1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 4-4 Administration Server screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4-5 Install type dialogue window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 4-6 Select features dialogue window - TEDW Central Data Warehouse . . . 87 4-7 TEDW Central Data Warehouse and Data Mart installation . . . . . . . . . 88 4-8 Select DB2 Enterprise Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4-9 Select features dialogue window - TEDW control server . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4-10 TEDW control server installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4-11 Path to the installation media for the ITSLA ETL programs . . . . . . . . . . 96 4-12 ITSLA ETL programs installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4-13 TEDW Source ETLs setup type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4-14 Path to the installation media for the application packages . . . . . . . . . . 99 4-15 TEDW Source ETLs installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4-16 TWH_MD as control database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 4-17 DYK_PROC_DYK_DM_TARGET user ID information . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4-18 ODBC configuration - System DSN tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4-19 Install DB2 V7 - DB2 Administration Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4-20 Create DB2 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4-21 Install type dialogue window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 xi
  13. 13. 4-22 Select features dialogue window - TEDW Report Interface . . . . . . . . . 110 4-23 Tivoli Presentation Services ports panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 4-24 TEDW Report Interface installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 4-25 ITSLA Server component installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4-26 ITSLA Database dialogue window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 4-27 ITSLA Measurement Data Mart database dialogue window . . . . . . . . 116 4-28 Port information for the ITSLA Server installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 4-29 ITSLA event notifications window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 4-30 Configuring SNMP Trap event notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 4-31 Configuring Tivoli Enterprise Console event notification . . . . . . . . . . . 120 4-32 Configuring e-mail notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 4-33 Configuring e-mail notification - Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 4-34 ITSLA Server installation confirmation window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 4-35 ITSLA Task Drivers component installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 4-36 ITSLA Task Drivers communication ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 4-37 ITSLA Task Drivers installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 4-38 IBM WebSphere Application Server configuration panel . . . . . . . . . . . 128 4-39 IBM WebSphere configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 4-40 ITSLA Reports component installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 4-41 Specify a node name for you ITSLA Report Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 4-42 ITSLA Report Server installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 5-1 Properties window of Warehouse Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 5-2 Tables of Warehouse Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 5-3 Processes folder of TAPM Subject Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 5-4 Set to Production mode TAPM Source ETL steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 5-5 Select schedule for Registration ETL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 5-6 Registration ETL Schedule window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 5-7 Work in Progress selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 5-8 Immediately run the first step of the Registration ETL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 5-9 See log information for failed ETL Registration step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 5-10 Configuration of Notification for the Registration ETL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 5-11 Select Schedule for Process ETL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 5-12 Define Schedule for Process ETL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 5-13 Start Work in Progress tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 5-14 Manually run the first step of the Process Target ETL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 5-15 Start Notification dialogue for Process ETL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 5-16 IBM Web Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 5-17 User creation task in the General window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 5-18 Service offering specialist role selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 5-19 IBM Console starting page for service offering specialist user . . . . . . 163 5-20 Log in with user Sawyer to ITSLA Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 5-21 Manage Offerings window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 5-22 Create Schedule window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169xii Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  14. 14. 5-23 Create Period window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1705-24 Select Schedule window with a new schedule defined . . . . . . . . . . . . 1725-25 Resource Type tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1735-26 Select QoS ROUNDTRIPTIME metric to configure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1745-27 SLO Configuration dialogue window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1765-28 Configuration dialogue window for SLO breach values . . . . . . . . . . . . 1775-29 Create Customized Offering Components window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1785-30 Confirm Offering window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1795-31 Manage Orders window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1805-32 Select Customer dialogue window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1815-33 Create Customer window with a new realm defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1825-34 Select Customer dialogue window with new customer defined . . . . . . 1835-35 Assign Resources to order offering component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1845-36 Include Resources dialogue window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1855-37 Select Resource Definition Type dialogue window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1865-38 Select Resources window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1875-39 Include Resources window with a new component defined. . . . . . . . . 1885-40 Assign Resources window with a complete offering component . . . . . 1895-41 The Manage Orders screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1905-42 SLA State screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1915-43 View Violation screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1925-44 Data Flow in the ITSLA environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1935-45 Configure logging for IBM Console environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995-46 Properties dialogue window for tracing handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005-47 Enable trace logging on the IBM Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2046-1 Reports sign-on screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2186-2 Customer user view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2196-3 Executive user view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2206-4 Operations user view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2216-5 Operations user ranking categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2256-6 Trends Report screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2276-7 Violations Report screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2286-8 Results Report screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2296-9 Time Period drop-down menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2316-10 SLA Type drop-down menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2326-11 The Search field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2336-12 Maximum rows to display feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2346-13 Additional Web links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2356-14 Report graph using Results Report category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2366-15 Graph Data page view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2376-16 BrioQuery Database Connection Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2596-17 Query screen for DYK_CAT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2606-18 Dragging Violationview to the Content window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Figures xiii
  15. 15. 6-19 Adding the selected items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 6-20 Limiting the items for query processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 6-21 Query results for limited Violationview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 6-22 New report screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 6-23 Report results table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 6-24 Two-dimensional graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 6-25 Three-dimensional graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 6-26 Report gallery with Custom button selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 6-27 Choose SQL Table window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 6-28 Insert fields and report design page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 6-29 Select Expert being used to limit the violation dates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 6-30 The preview screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 6-31 Chart Expert box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 6-32 The Data tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 6-33 Report preview screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 6-34 Define Universe Parameters window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 6-35 Parameters of database connection window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 6-36 Second step of Universe creation process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 6-37 Select Universe as data access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 6-38 Query Panel - Report for SLA violations Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 6-39 Business Object Report for max violations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 6-40 Apply templates to report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 6-41 BusinessObject customized report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 6-42 Create a condition in a BusinessObjects query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 6-43 List of consumer names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 6-44 BusinessObjects window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 B-1 The Service Management disciplines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 B-2 Key relationships among Service Management disciplines . . . . . . . . . 371 B-3 Performance Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 B-4 Service Delivery quality perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 B-5 Levels of service and customer satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 B-6 Service level specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 B-7 Incident priority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 B-8 Cycles of change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 B-9 The Change Advisory Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 B-10 The SC&D process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401xiv Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  16. 16. Tables 3-1 Default TCP/IP port numbers used by the TEDW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3-2 Ports used by the ITSLA components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3-3 Hardware requirements for ITSLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3-4 Single machine installation hardware requirements for ITSLA . . . . . . . 63 3-5 Software requirements for ITSLA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3-6 ITSLA Web browser support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3-7 Supported source Tivoli applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3-8 Planning worksheet for IBM WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . 76 3-9 Planning worksheet for databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3-10 Planning worksheet for ITSLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3-11 Planning worksheet or event notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4-1 ITSLA Databases installation scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4-2 Measurement source codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 4-3 Tivoli source databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5-1 IBM Tivoli source application and Warehouse Source and Targets . . 134 5-2 Subject Areas and related Tivoli applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 5-3 IBM SLA roles and associated tasks on the IBM Web Console . . . . . 159 5-4 View values and authorization levels for Report users . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 5-5 User manipulation commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 5-6 Local times for SLA evaluation and peak period start times . . . . . . . . 196 5-7 Locations of message log files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 5-8 Available ITSLA trace loggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 5-9 Commands to start ITSLA components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 5-10 Commands to shutdown ITSLA components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 6-1 Users and associated ranking categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 6-2 Included JSP files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 6-3 Available query and display classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 6-4 Available filter parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 6-5 Available input field names for searching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 6-6 Available parameters for maximum rows to display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 6-7 Customizable table column parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 6-8 Customizable table properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 6-9 Customizable graph properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 7-1 Definition of small, medium, and large ITSLA environment . . . . . . . . . 290 8-1 /etc/systems parameters on Sun Solaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 8-2 Parameters for a Sun Solaris IBM DB2 server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 8-3 IBM DB2 command reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 C-1 DYK_CAT database tables for the DB2ADMIN schema . . . . . . . . . . . 404© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 xv
  17. 17. C-2 DYK_CAT database tables for the MM schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 C-3 DYK_CAT database views for the DB2ADMIN schema . . . . . . . . . . . 406 C-4 DYK_DM database tables for the DYK schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 D-1 Order commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 D-2 Offering commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415xvi Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  18. 18. NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consultyour local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area.Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBMproduct, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service thatdoes not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the usersresponsibility to evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document.The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send licenseinquiries, in writing, to:IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where suchprovisions are inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATIONPROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS ORIMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT,MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimerof express or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically madeto the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM maymake improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication atany time without notice.Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in anymanner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of thematerials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk.IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate withoutincurring any obligation to you.Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their publishedannouncements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirmthe accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions onthe capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate themas completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual businessenterprise is entirely coincidental.COPYRIGHT LICENSE:This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrates programmingtechniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs inany form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing applicationprograms conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which thesample programs are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM,therefore, cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. You may copy,modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM for the purposes ofdeveloping, using, marketing, or distributing application programs conforming to IBMs applicationprogramming interfaces.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 xvii
  19. 19. TrademarksThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other countries, or both: AIX® Perform™ SP2® DB2® pSeries™ Tivoli® DB2 Universal Database™ Redbooks™ Tivoli Enterprise™ IBM® Redbooks(logo)™ Tivoli Enterprise Console® Informix® RETAIN® TME® Netfinity® RS/6000® WebSphere® NetView® SP™ xSeries™The following terms are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation and Lotus DevelopmentCorporation in the United States, other countries, or both: Lotus® Notes® Word Pro®The following terms are trademarks of other companies:ActionMedia, LANDesk, MMX, Pentium and ProShare are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the UnitedStates, other countries, or both.Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in theUnited States, other countries, or both.Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SunMicrosystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.C-bus is a trademark of Corollary, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.SET, SET Secure Electronic Transaction, and the SET Logo are trademarks owned by SET SecureElectronic Transaction LLC.Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.xviii Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  20. 20. Preface IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor Version 1.1 is a Service Level Management solution for providers of IT Services. It simplifies and automates the process of managing service level agreements, enabling IT organizations to proactively manage and report on service levels from across the management infrastructure. In a nutshell, IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor Version 1.1 enables you to: Define services from a user perspective, including response time and availability metrics. Automate service level agreement validation and receive alerts for service level agreement violations. Identify and fix performance and availability problems before they occur. Provide flexible, Web-based reports to clients, executives, and IT staff. The primary objective of this Redbook is to introduce the new IBM Tivoli offering for defining and managing service level agreements, and is targeted at the technical professional responsible for providing services in an IT organization. It can be used as a reference book upon the deployment of IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor Version 1.1 guiding you during the planning, installation, configuration, administration, and troubleshooting, as well as general product usage phases, with focus on how to effectively deploy this product in a way that quickly generates real business value for customers. This redbook is a valuable addition to existing product documentation and should be read in conjunction with the official product documentation, which complements some of the concepts explained in this book. General knowledge of the Tivoli Framework, general Tivoli applications, Business Intelligence and database implementation, and Web application servers is assumed.The team that wrote this redbook This redbook was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 xix
  21. 21. Edson Manoel is a Software Engineer at IBM Corporation - International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center. He applies his extensive field experience as an IT Specialist to his work at the ITSO in the Systems Management area. Prior to joining the ITSO, Edson worked in the IBM Software Group as a Tivoli Technology Ambassador and in IBM Brasil Professional Services Organization as a Certified IT Specialist. He was involved in numerous projects, designing and implementing systems management solutions for IBM customers and Business Partners. Edson holds a BSc degree in Applied Mathematics from Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. J.B. Baker is a Software Engineer for the IBM Tivoli Software Group in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. He holds a degree in Psychology and Anthropology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Upon graduation, he joined IBM in 1999 where he served as a Systems Administrator for the e-Business Web Content Hosting Group, until joining IBM Tivoli in 2000. He is a Cisco Certified Network Associate and is currently pursuing a Certification for Information System Security Professional (CISSP). Filippo Giannelli is an IT Specialist at IBM Integrated Technology Services, Italy. He has three years of experience in the Information Technology field. He has worked at IBM for three years. He holds a Masters degree in Electronic Engineering from Universita La Sapienza in Rome. His areas of expertise include the architecture and implementation of Tivoli Solutions in the Configuration and Operation area, in the Application Management area, and the Web Services, Management area. Frans Sadie is an Advisory IT Specialist at IBM Integrated Technology Services, South Africa. He has six years of experience in the Information Technology field. He holds a Bachelors of Commerce degree in Industrial Psychology from the Rand Afrikaans University and a Honours Bachelors of Commerce Degree in Business Management from the University of South Africa. His areas of expertise include the architecture, design, and implementation of Tivoli systems management solutions, as well as business process design and re-engineering. His product experience includes the Tivoli Core products and the “Tivoli Manager for” product suite on the AIX and Windows platforms. He is a Certified Tivoli Consultant in Tivoli Framework, Tivoli Inventory, and Tivoli Distributed Monitoring. Sarie Weber is an IT Specialist from Pretoria, South Africa. She joined IBM South Africa in 1997 and is currently working in IBM Integrated Technology Services. She has experience in the Information Technology field. She holds a Honours BSc degree in Computer Science from the Potchefstroom University. Her areas of expertise include the Tivoli range of core products, AIX, and Windows. She is certified in Tivoli Framework, Tivoli Distributed Monitoring, and Tivoli Inventory.xx Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  22. 22. Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center Bart Jacob, Morten Moeller, Chris Blatchley, Julie Czubik IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor Development, Performance, and Quality Assurance teams Kathy Hebblethwaite, Bryan Ellington, Ping Chang, Jayne Regan, Chris Karstens, Kevin Kuhner, Eswara Kosaraju, Steve Tremper, Brian Jeffrey IBM Tivoli Early Support Programs Jon O Austin and Gary Forghetti IBM Tivoli Market Management Business Impact & Event Solutions Michael Tabron IBM Tivoli Worldwide Sales Enablement David Hobbs Technical Evangelism, EMEA Product Management Lewis TrokeBecome a published author Join us for a two- to six-week residency program! Help write an IBM Redbook dealing with specific products or solutions, while getting hands-on experience with leading-edge technologies. Youll team with IBM technical professionals, Business Partners and/or customers. Your efforts will help increase product acceptance and customer satisfaction. As a bonus, youll develop a network of contacts in IBM development labs, and increase your productivity and marketability. Find out more about the residency program, browse the residency index, and apply online at: ibm.com/redbooks/residencies.htmlComments welcome Your comments are important to us! Preface xxi
  23. 23. We want our Redbooks to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments about this or other Redbooks in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review redbook form found at: ibm.com/redbooks Send your comments in an Internet note to: redbook@us.ibm.com Mail your comments to: IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization Dept. JN9B Building 003 Internal Zip 2834 11400 Burnet Road Austin, Texas 78758-3493xxii Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  24. 24. Part 1Part 1 All about IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor In this part we provide a great deal of information on all aspects of IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor concepts, architecture, planning, installation, configuration, product administration, and product usage.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 1
  25. 25. 2 Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  26. 26. 1 Chapter 1. Introduction The primary topics of the discussions in this chapter are the principles behind Service Level Management from an IT Service Delivery organization standpoint, as close as possible to those presented in the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) published by the British government’s Central Computing and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA), and from those in the context of the IBM approach to Service Level Management with IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor. This chapter contains the following topics: IT Services Service Delivery Service Management Service Level Management Service Level Agreements© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002 3
  27. 27. 1.1 Overview In the context of delivering services in a complex IT environment, accomplishing a high level of customer satisfaction requires the IT function of an organization to have a full understanding of and insight into the different aspects of its operation and performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. When the IT organization fails to ensure operational performance the business may turn to an outsourcer that may quickly, accurately, and economically meet its needs. To prevent this defection, an IT organization must improve service delivery while spending less money. Service Level Management can offer IT organizations the ability to deliver the level of service that will keep their businesses competitive. Running a customer focused, cost conscious information technology (IT) organization is not an easy task. Today an increasing number of businesses are putting pressure on their IT departments to think of themselves as competitive corporate allies. This originates primarily from three main reasons: 1. Desire to reduce costs Businesses are constantly seeking ways to reduce costs, and IT costs are not immune. This has given rise to an increasing number of outsourcing service providers, each promising to deliver reliable service while off-loading the costly burdens of staffing, procuring, and maintaining an IT organization. Enterprises that do not outsource are demanding more accountability from their IT organizations as well as demanding that IT aligns with business goals, not the other way around. In both cases, there is the concept of a service level agreement, which represents a contract of service delivery between IT and its customers. As a result, IT departments need management services that focus on and support business processes and service delivery rather than just simple monitoring of the IT resources, such as disk space monitoring and server availability. 2. Use of IT Services to gain a competitive advantage Businesses have recognized that electronic and online services can be a significant competitive weapon. Beating competition is almost always achieved through speed to market. Therefore IT teams need to be able to respond quickly in deploying services such as online procurement, consumer purchasing mechanisms, and supply-chain delivery in response to the aggressive goals of their companies.4 Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  28. 28. Given that there often are significant amount of money at risk (win if the IT department deploys successfully, and lose if the services become unavailable or inaccessible) there must be a flexible but very robust set of management tools and services deployed as part of the IT infrastructure. Systems like this involve networks, servers, and application management to succeed, as well as focus on the overall service delivery. 3. Increased pace of change Competition continues to quicken the pace of change. As companies turn more and more to the network in order to market, sell, and deliver their products and services, they must now focus on quick delivery from IT. These requirements force IT organizations to continuously improve productivity and reduce costs while maintaining and delivering a consistent high level of service. IT organizations are being forced to improve alignment with their internal customers and developing a competitive mind set using the concept of Service Level Management. Service Level Management can also provide the tool that enables IT to match the service delivered to the real business need. Before jumping into the details of Service Level Management, we will take a look at the concepts of IT Services, Service Delivery, and Service Management. We will stay as close as possible to the definitions provided by the ITIL, as it provides the best practices for the management of an IT infrastructure. Appendix B, “Service Management according to the ITIL” on page 365, provides a great deal of information on service management in terms of the ITIL.1.2 IT Services For the purpose of the current discussion, the following definition of IT Service will be used in this redbook: A set of related functions provided by IT systems that supports one or more business areas and facilitates the achievement of corporate objectives and business goals in a timely and cost-effective manner. This service can be made up of IT and non-IT facilities and fulfills one or more needs of the customer. Such services should be perceived by the customers as being a self-contained, coherent whole. Examples are software, hardware, and communication facilities. Figure 1-1 on page 6 shows a customer receiving IT Services without realizing that there is an entire structure in place working together in order to fulfill the customer’s requirements. Chapter 1. Introduction 5
  29. 29. Monitoring Implementing Troubleshooting IT Services Planning Customer Figure 1-1 IT Service perceived by the end user and in reality There are a couple of questions that come from the above definition: Who does provide the service? In order to provide a service in a timely and cost-effective manner, the service provider is required to provide all the equipment, skills, procedures, and documentation required to support the service, and ensure that the service is reliable, efficient, and correct. This may be very costly and resource-consuming to overcome, so instead of realizing all of the above within the IT department, more and more companies choose to acquire one or more sub-services from external providers. In this case the IT department is still the service provider to the users, but the IT department itself may be also be the receiver the true provider of the service. This lets us know that a service can rely on other services and still be perceived by the end receiver of the service as a hole entity. Who pays for the service? Another question raised by the definition is that of accountability. The word service suggests that the users of the service are customers, and this in turn suggests that the service provider is paid to provide the service. In the context of IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor, a customer is a party that enters into an agreement with the service provider on the level the service will be delivered.6 Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  30. 30. Customers can be given access to the results of those agreements. Customers can be internal (members of a department within the enterprise) or external (a member, department, or company) associated with a service provider.1.3 Service Delivery Delivering an IT Service requires careful planning of deploying, monitoring, supporting, and reporting. The main motivation to perform all these tasks is that customers’ expectations must be met. This also supports the decision-making while planning the service delivery. The actual execution of the tasks is taken care of by processes in the Service Support area. However, the responsibility of ensuring that the required infrastructure, capacity, and operational procedures are in place lies within the Service Delivery area. Refer to “Service Delivery disciplines” on page 371 for additional details. The IT Service Delivery life cycle does not vary from that of other services. See Figure 1-2. Service Delivery P Pl an an lv e Re sso ep STO P po Di or t t P Pl Plan an an loy D ep Service Support Figure 1-2 Service Delivery life cycle Chapter 1. Introduction 7
  31. 31. Once the various components have been deployed they must be monitored to verify that the targets are met. If this is not the case, corrections have to be applied in order to meet the targets, and of course it must be verified that the corrections have no impacts other than those anticipated. Pro-active monitoring of the components is not the only way of identifying problems that might put the service delivery in jeopardy. The end users play an important role by reporting irregularities and disturbances to the Service Delivery. A Help Desk must be established to receive, register, and (if possible) answer calls from end users, which are often known as incidents. If no solution to the problem is available, the Problem Management processes will be used to provide one. In addition to problems reported by end users, the Help Desk may also receive incidents generated by the tools monitoring the components that make up a service. Most of these automatically generated incidents can be associated with well-known solutions—tasks recovering or circumventing the problematic situation. Some of these well-known solutions may be invoked automatically—either directly by the monitoring tools generating the incident, or by the tools used by the Help Desk. Other incidents may require manual intervention or authorization before the well-known solutions can be applied. Finally, the last group of incidents has no known solutions associated with them. These incidents are handled by the Help Desk and passed on to Problem Management for problem diagnosis and resolution, Change Management for authorization, and finally to the group responsible for deploying the change for implementation.8 Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  32. 32. problem Help Desk incident Change request change Delivery solution report Approved Change Problem Management request Software Delivery & Control Change Management Figure 1-3 Service Delivery in context It is evident that in order to keep a consistently high level of any service, changes that effect the provider’s ability to deliver the service must be authorized, planned, and executed thoroughly. The service provider must have procedures in place to help assess the impact of a change to any component in the service hierarchy. Also, procedures to apply the changes securely and to verify that the change actually had the desired impact are needed.1.4 Ensuring service quality Providing a service requires a dedicated and focused infrastructure consisting of hardware, software, communication equipment and facilities, documentation, and skills required to support the provision of the IT Service. In order to monitor the components of a service, general and/or service-specific monitoring tools have to be deployed either as an integral part of the service deployment or as independent, self-contained service. These monitors are typically implemented as part of the service components themselves or as integral part of component-specific tools used to manage the components. The capabilities of the monitoring tools may—or may not—support management and operation of the service from, and reporting to, a central command center. This functionality, however, is a necessity when delivering services, partly because of the need to allow the support staff to fulfill their mission, and partly to enable centralized diagnosis and reporting of all the components of a service. Chapter 1. Introduction 9
  33. 33. In other words, an extra layer of service has to be established in order to provide functions and facilities that enable managing of the service from a central command center. These functions must include monitoring, event forwarding and escalation, measurement data gathering, and status reporting from the service components, and allow for operation and configuration of the components from the central command center. This service layer is called the management services layer. Server Service Server Service service III monitoring Server Service I events service II reporting service I Server System Mgmt. Subsystem Server System Mgmt. service III Subsystem Service I operation service II System Mgmt. Tools configuration service I Client System Mgmt. Subsystem Client System Mgmt. Subsystem Client I System Mgmt. Tools Client Service Client Service Client Service I Figure 1-4 Point-solution based management infrastructure It goes without saying that the general management service of choice must be so versatile that the majority of—if not all—services delivered are supported. The management service will have to have a modular structure to enable deployment of special functions for specific services, while reusing the basic functions provided by the management service. In this way the basic management can be extended to fit the specific needs of a given mix of services - operating systems, subsystems, networking, and applications alike. Based on this, we define Service Management as: The management of an IT infrastructure of hardware, software, communications equipment and facilities, documentation, and skills used to provide the required service at the required level of quality.10 Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  34. 34. According to this definition, service management relies upon the internal IT infrastructure management and the technical environment, as well as managing third-party contractors. IT Service Management IT Service Provision Customer Third-Party Hardware management Service IT infrastructure management Provider Skills Software Documentation Figure 1-5 Customer, service provider, and service management1.5 Service Level Management Service Level Management is the process of negotiating, defining, and managing the levels of IT Service that are required and cost-justified. The Service Management goal is important because it emphasizes the quantification of services. Therefore, when defining the objectives for the Service Level Management processes, the deliverable should be specified in quantifiable terms. Examples of such definitions are as follows: IT Services are catalogued. IT Services are quantified in terms that both customer and IT provider understand. Internal and external targets of IT Services are defined and agreed upon. Achievement of agreed service targets is reached. Chapter 1. Introduction 11
  35. 35. The quantification of objectives applies to all three parts of the scope of the Service Level Management process and involves the management of IT Services between the customer organization and the IT Services organization, the IT Services organization and its external suppliers, and the IT Services organization and its internal departments. According to this we can define Service Level Management (SLM) as follows: The iterative, disciplined, proactive methodology and procedures used to ensure that adequate levels of service are delivered to all IT users in accordance with business priorities and at acceptable cost. Negotiate/Define implementation Review Manage Figure 1-6 Service Level Management iterative process A key to the success of Service Level Management is correctly quantifying the services being provided. Unless there is an agreed-upon method of how services are to be measured, there is no way of knowing whether targets have been met or not. Service Level Management is responsible for understanding and documenting the customer requirements and translating them into a set of understandable measures.12 Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  36. 36. Service Level Management is a means for the lines of business (LOB) and ITorganization to explicitly set their mutual expectations for the content and extentof IT Services. It also allows them to determine in advance what steps will betaken if these conditions are not met. The concept and application of ServiceLevel Management allows IT organizations to provide a business-oriented,enterprise-wide service by varying the type, cost, and level of service for theindividual LOB.In order to accomplish Service Level Management and really manage the qualityof service provided by an internal IT organization or by an external serviceprovider, establishing Service Level Agreements is a must. For the context of thisredbook, we define Service Level Agreement (SLA) as follows:An agreement or contract between a service provider and a customer of thatservice, which sets expectations for the level of service with respect toavailability, performance, and other measurable objectives.There are various types of Service Level Agreements. From an IT organizationstandpoint, the most common are: Internal or in-house SLAs These are agreements negotiated between the service provider, such as an IT department, and an in-house user or department. These kinds of SLAs are sometimes used by the company as an important selling point to external customers, ensuring the high quality of the company products. External SLAs These are agreements that a company may establish when purchasing services from an external provider. For example, company A may hire an Internet services provider (ISP) to host its Web site requiring 100 percent availability. If company A gets less than acceptable service from its ISP, without this SLA in place, company A may not have many options to force the ISP to address the problem or to terminate their contract without penalties.There are a number of components that make up an SLA, including the following: Term Defines the period of time the SLA will cover. Scope Defines the services covered in the agreement. Limitations Define what must happen in order for the requested service levels to be provided. Chapter 1. Introduction 13
  37. 37. Service level objectives Define the level of services that both the customer and the service provider agree on. This is a specification of a metric that is associated with a guaranteed level of service. Service level indicators Define the means by which the service level objectives can be measured. Non-performance Defines what happens if the service provider does not meet the objectives. Exclusions Specifies what is not covered in the SLA. Reviews Establish scheduled reviews between the customer and the service provider. Reporting is the most important way this can be accomplished and is a key component of Service Level Management. Once established, Service Level Agreements help with the following: Allows for the IT organization to better understand customer service requirements Controls customer expectations for levels of service to be delivered Allows for a clear understanding of priorities when handling service problems1.6 Why bother with Service Level Management There are six compelling reasons to establish a Service Level Management discipline in your company or with your service provider: Satisfying clients The IT Service provider must understand what the customer perceives as good service. The customer must understand what is reasonable to expect from the IT Service provider given limitations in hardware, network performance, staff, and so on. Communication between an IT service provider and a customer is an essential part of Service Level Management. There must be an agreement of what constitutes acceptable service against which service levels can be measured. When IT service providers meet expectations, customers can clearly see their expectations are being met and confidence increases.14 Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor
  38. 38. Managing expectationsOften, customers who were satisfied with service yesterday want betterservice today, and even better tomorrow. Some savvy ones may just want tomaintain service levels knowing that more users are receiving IT Services. Tomanage such a situation, an IT service provider and customer must negotiatea SLA. Both parties may later renegotiate the agreement as needed.Regulating resourcesWhen both the IT service provider and customer monitor service levelsclosely, they can become aware of developing problems in overcapacity orlack of resources and can be proactive by taking corrective actions.Marketing internal IT ServicesIn the old days, the only contact between the IT service provider andcustomers happened when something went wrong. This situation was alwaysseen as a roadblock to achieving business goals. With a Service LevelManagement process in place, an IT service provider can document the factthat it is providing good services supporting the business.Controlling costsWith a Service Level Management process in place, IT service providers canclarify which areas if of its services need improvement and requiresinvestment, and which areas still perform at satisfactory levels. This helps withthe decision-making process and justification as to whether investments arenecessary to upgrade service levels.Establishing a defensive strategyIT service providers can demonstrate in measurable terms that they are worththe customers investments. With precise SLA and effective reporting,customers’ perceptions of a good service can be eased and most likelycustomers will be less likely to purchase IT Services from a different ITservice provider. In the case of an internal IT organization, it can dispersearguments for outsourcing. Chapter 1. Introduction 15
  39. 39. 16 Introducing IBM Tivoli Service Level Advisor

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