Front coverIntroducing IBM TivoliLicense ManagerHow-to guide for setting up yourlicense management environmentAchieve proa...
International Technical Support OrganizationIntroducing IBM Tivoli License ManagerMarch 2003                              ...
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page xvii.First Edit...
Contents                 Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
3.1.1 ITLM Administration Server considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52                   3.1.2 ITLM Runt...
4.3.2 Creating DB2 schema for Runtime server on AIX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124   4.3.3 Connecting DB2 database to Runt...
6.2 Tivoli Data Warehouse integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210                6.3 Tiv...
Locating the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289Using the Web m...
viii   Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
Figures                 2-1     Software licensing requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
5-5    Updating an administration account. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154               5-6    Ru...
6-25   IBM Tivoli License Manager warehouse environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2166-26   Path to the installation media...
xii   Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
Tables                 2-1     Select License 6.0 price level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
xiv   Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
Examples                 4-1     Changes in the httpd.conf file for UNIX environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115      ...
xvi   Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, servi...
TrademarksThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other...
Preface                 One of the main portions of the investment required to set up an IT infrastructure                ...
This redbook is a valuable addition to the existing product documentation and               should be read in conjunction ...
The team would like to express special thanks to Domenico Di Giulio, Software        Engineer - IBM Rome, for his major co...
Comments welcome                Your comments are important to us!                We want our Redbooks to be as helpful as...
1    Chapter 1.   Introduction to license                 management                 This introductory chapter focuses on ...
1.1 Software License Use Management requirements               The topic of software license use management has been discu...
– Allow customers to control and optimize the use of licenses within the  terms and conditions of the license policyCustom...
This problem is illustrated in the following example: A customer has a mobile                   workforce where each membe...
Administrative burden: Customer X supplier            Customer Perspective                        Software Supplier Perspe...
agreed contractual entitlements. This would typically be managed or controlled               through license management to...
Adding assurance that intellectual property is protected and that software           licenses are used within entitled lim...
management system informs the product of the status; and the product, in an               ideal implementation, executes a...
compliance, if the requested execution exceeds the entitlement, the product will        not go into execution. If, on the ...
With the advent of IBM Program License Agreement (IPLA), software terms and               conditions and pricing models ar...
2    Chapter 2.   IBM Tivoli License Manager                 general overview                 IBM Tivoli License Manager i...
2.1 IBM Tivoli License Manager overview               License Management is one of the many processes involved in the deli...
CSI HR Software                         4           Sales Specialist                                                IT Ope...
Maintaining a historical software usage information and providing reports                  allowing the planning of licens...
CSI HR Software                                      ITLM collects usage of CSI HR using           Sales Specialist       ...
IBM Tivoli License Manager Software Entitlement                                     The IBM Tivoli License Manager provide...
Tier 3                                   Tier 2                                    Tier 1                                 ...
Relational Databases implement persistence and query functions for                                enterprise beans. In the...
2.2.1 IBM Tivoli License Manager Master Catalog           IBM Tivoli License Manager maintains a Master Catalog where deta...
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Introducing ibm tivoli license manager sg246888

  1. 1. Front coverIntroducing IBM TivoliLicense ManagerHow-to guide for setting up yourlicense management environmentAchieve proactive licensemanagementGenerate reports andidentify trends towardslicense violations Edson Manoel John Aronis Ron Falciani Sebastien Fardel Aniruddha Parnaikibm.com/redbooks
  2. 2. International Technical Support OrganizationIntroducing IBM Tivoli License ManagerMarch 2003 SG24-6888-00
  3. 3. Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page xvii.First Edition (March 2003)This edition applies to Version 1.1 of IBM Tivoli License Manager. Note: This book is based on a pre-GA version of a product and may not apply when the product becomes generally available. We recommend that you consult the product documentation or follow-on versions of this redbook for more current information.© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2003. All rights reserved.Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADPSchedule Contract with IBM Corp.
  4. 4. Contents Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix The team that wrote this redbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi Comments welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii Chapter 1. Introduction to license management . . . . . ....... ...... ... 1 1.1 Software License Use Management requirements . . . ....... ...... ... 2 1.2 Asset Management and Asset Protection . . . . . . . . . . ....... ...... ... 5 1.3 License Use Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... ...... ... 6 1.4 License management system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... ...... ... 7 1.5 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... ...... ... 9 Chapter 2. IBM Tivoli License Manager general overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1 IBM Tivoli License Manager overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2 IBM Tivoli License Manager physical components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2.1 IBM Tivoli License Manager Master Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.2 Network communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.3 Data flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3 IBM Tivoli License Manager logical components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.4 IBM Tivoli License Manager interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.4.1 Web interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.4.2 XML interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.5 Licence Management process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.5.1 Software entitlement process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.6 Example scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.6.1 Microsoft license management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.6.2 Oracle license management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.6.3 IBM Tivoli software license management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Chapter 3. Implementation planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.1 Physical design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved. iii
  5. 5. 3.1.1 ITLM Administration Server considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3.1.2 ITLM Runtime Server considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3.1.3 Scalability limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3.1.4 Network considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.1.5 Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.1.6 Hardware considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.1.7 File systems considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.1.8 Physical design example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.2 Logical design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.2.1 Naming convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.2.2 Customer considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.2.3 Division considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.2.4 Monitored Nodes considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.2.5 Administrator considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3.2.6 Logical design example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.3 Disaster and recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.3.1 Backup and restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.3.2 Failover considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3.4 Planning for IBM Tivoli License Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.4.1 Planning overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.4.2 Planning for IBM DB2 Universal Database Enterprise Edition . . . . . 71 3.4.3 Planning for HTTP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3.4.4 Planning for Proxy server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 3.4.5 Planning for IBM WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 3.4.6 Planning for IBM Tivoli License Manager Administration server . . . . 86 3.4.7 Planning for IBM Tivoli License Manager Runtime Server . . . . . . . . 90 3.4.8 Planning for IBM Tivoli License Manager Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 3.4.9 Planning for IBM Tivoli License Manager Catalog Manager . . . . . . . 96 Chapter 4. Getting IBM Tivoli License Manager up and running . . . . . . . 99 4.1 Example scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4.2 Setting up the ITLM Administration server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4.2.1 IBM DB2 Server installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4.2.2 IBM DB2 Fixpack 7 installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.2.3 IBM WebSphere installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.2.4 IBM WebSphere Fixpack 4 installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.2.5 ITLM Administration server installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.2.6 Creating DB2 schema for Administration server on AIX . . . . . . . . . 113 4.2.7 Connecting DB2 database to Administration server on AIX . . . . . . 114 4.2.8 Setting up SSL configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 4.2.9 Setting up event notification for Administration server . . . . . . . . . . 117 4.3 Setting up the ITLM Runtime server on AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 4.3.1 ITLM Runtime server installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119iv Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  6. 6. 4.3.2 Creating DB2 schema for Runtime server on AIX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 4.3.3 Connecting DB2 database to Runtime server on AIX . . . . . . . . . . . 125 4.3.4 Setting up event notification for Runtime server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 4.3.5 Registering Runtime server to the Administration server . . . . . . . . 1284.4 Setting up the ITLM Runtime server on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 4.4.1 IBM DB2 Server installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 4.4.2 IBM DB2 Fixpack 7 installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 4.4.3 IBM WebSphere installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 4.4.4 IBM WebSphere Fixpack 4 installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 4.4.5 ITLM Runtime Server Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 4.4.6 Creating database schema for Runtime server on Windows . . . . . 141 4.4.7 Setting up event notification for ITLM Runtime server . . . . . . . . . . 141 4.4.8 Registering Runtime server to the Administration server . . . . . . . . 142Chapter 5. Administering IBM Tivoli License Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1435.1 Case study: Physical design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1455.2 Analysis and planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1465.3 Infrastructure build and design process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1475.4 Test scenarios and pilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1485.5 Case study: Logical design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1485.6 Managing Customers and administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 5.6.1 Adding a Customer to the Administration server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 5.6.2 Creating and adding administrators accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 5.6.3 Updating or deleting administration account details . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 5.6.4 Creating administrator accounts on the Runtime server . . . . . . . . . 1555.7 Managing IBM Tivoli License Manager components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 5.7.1 Registering a Runtime server with the Administration server . . . . . 156 5.7.2 Creating Divisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 5.7.3 Deploying an Agent on a node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 5.7.4 Scheduling an inventory scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 5.7.5 Adding application users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1665.8 Managing software entitlement and license pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 5.8.1 Gathering customer licensing and procurement information. . . . . . 166 5.8.2 Selecting a product for entitlement or license pool maintenance . . 167 5.8.3 Creating a license pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1705.9 Managing software product components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 5.9.1 Updating the Master Catalog from the Unknown file table . . . . . . . 176 5.9.2 Importing new releases of the ITLM catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182Chapter 6. Reporting with IBM Tivoli License Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1856.1 ITLM pre-defined reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 6.1.1 ITLM Administration server reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 6.1.2 ITLM Runtime Server report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Contents v
  7. 7. 6.2 Tivoli Data Warehouse integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 6.3 Tivoli Data Warehouse overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 6.4 Tivoli Data Warehouse concepts and components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 6.5 ITLM and TDW integration components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 6.6 Installation and configuration for TDW integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 6.6.1 ITLM Warehouse enablement pack installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 6.6.2 ITLM Warehouse enablement pack configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 6.7 TDW reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 6.7.1 Accessing the reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 6.7.2 Reports available with IBM Tivoli License Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Chapter 7. Performance maximization techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 7.1 Initial considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 7.2 IBM DB2 Performance tuning considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 7.2.1 Small ITLM environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 7.2.2 Medium ITLM environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 7.2.3 Large ITLM environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 7.3 IBM WebSphere performance tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 7.4 IBM HTTP Server performance tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 7.5 ITLM components performance considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 7.6 Operating system performance tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 7.6.1 Windows environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 7.6.2 AIX environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Appendix A. ITLM Agent installation using IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Software Package structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Software Package variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Software Package version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Software Package definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Installation script structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Agents definition file structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Appendix B. SSL key creation for IBM Tivoli License Manager . . . . . . . 275 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Creating the SSL key files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Creating the server certificate file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Creating the key trusted store file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Appendix C. IBM Tivoli License Manager databases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 The ITLM Administration server database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 The ITLM Runtime server database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Appendix D. Additional material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289vi Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  8. 8. Locating the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289Using the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 System requirements for downloading the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 How to use the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290Abbreviations and acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Contents vii
  9. 9. viii Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  10. 10. Figures 2-1 Software licensing requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2-2 Software licensing solution: IBM Tivoli License Manager . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2-3 Three-tiered client/server architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2-4 IBM Tivoli License Manager physical components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2-5 IBM Tivoli License Manager logical components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2-6 IBM Tivoli License Manager software entitlement process . . . . . . . . . . 33 2-7 IBM Tivoli License Manager license pool process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2-8 IBM Passport Advantage relationship volume price band level . . . . . . . 47 2-9 IBM Passport Advantage aggregation example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3-1 IBM Tivoli License Manager physical design example . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3-2 IBM Tivoli License Manager logical design example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3-3 Planning overview for IBM Tivoli License Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 4-1 ITLM installation scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4-2 Install DB2 V7 - DB2 UDB Enterprise Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4-3 Create DB2 Services - DB2 Instance db2inst1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4-4 Administration Server screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4-5 IBM WebSphere Application Server configuration window . . . . . . . . . 106 4-6 IBM WebSphere Application Server Admin console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 4-7 Installation type: Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 4-8 Confirmation of installation options — Administration server. . . . . . . . 111 4-9 Administration Server in WebSphere Administration Console . . . . . . . 112 4-10 Add host alias for port 443 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 4-11 Type of installation: Runtime server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 4-12 Runtime server installation details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 4-13 Runtime server communication options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 4-14 Confirmation of installation options — Runtime server . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 4-15 Tivoli Runtime server in WebSphere administration console. . . . . . . . 124 4-16 Select customer to register a Runtime server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 4-17 Register first Runtime server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 4-18 Runtime server form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 4-19 Server is registered (plugged in) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 4-20 Select DB2 Enterprise Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 4-21 Confirmation of installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 4-22 Runtime server in WebSphere administration console . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 5-1 Typical implementation scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 5-2 Creating a customer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 5-3 Providing customer details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 5-4 Creating a customer/license administrator account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved. ix
  11. 11. 5-5 Updating an administration account. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 5-6 Runtime server administrator account details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 5-7 Registering a Runtime server on the Administration server. . . . . . . . . 157 5-8 Registering the Runtime server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 5-9 Shows the status of the Runtime server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 5-10 Adding the Division details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 5-11 Deploying an Agent on a node. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 5-12 Sample Agent deployment communication letter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 5-13 Enter the details for the inventory scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 5-14 Creating a software entitlement setting for a product . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 5-15 Selecting details of the entitlement settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 5-16 Provide details for the license pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 5-17 Setting distribution parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 5-18 IBM catalog manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 5-19 Searching the unknown file table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 5-20 Details to create a new software product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 5-21 Information on the new software product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 5-22 Select the file to import and update the Master Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . 182 5-23 Begin the process to update the Master Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 6-1 Parameters for historic snapshot -1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 6-2 Parameters for historic snapshot -2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 6-3 Historic snapshot report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 6-4 Historic snapshot - product / license details - 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 6-5 Historic snapshot - product / license details - 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 6-6 Historic snapshot - product / license details - 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 6-7 Parameters for trend analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 6-8 Parameters for trend analysis - 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 6-9 Trend analysis report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 6-10 Trend analysis report parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 6-11 Parameters for level analysis - 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 6-12 Parameters for level analysis - 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 6-13 Parameters for level analysis - 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 6-14 Level analysis report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 6-15 Parameters for software inventory - 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 6-16 Parameters for software inventory - 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 6-17 Software inventory report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 6-18 Parameters for real-time report - 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 6-19 Parameters for real-time report - 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 6-20 Real-time report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 6-21 Details of software “In Use” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 6-22 Section of Real-time report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 6-23 Section of Real-time report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 6-24 A typical Tivoli Data Warehouse environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213x Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  12. 12. 6-25 IBM Tivoli License Manager warehouse environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2166-26 Path to the installation media for the COD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2196-27 IBM Tivoli License Manager warehouse pack installation . . . . . . . . . . 2206-28 Installation summary window — ITLM warehouse enablement pack . 2206-29 IBM Tivoli License Manager Source ETLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2236-30 COD_TLMA_Source user ID information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2236-31 IBM Tivoli License Manager Target ETLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2246-32 COD_TWH_CDW_Target user ID information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2256-33 Schedule COD_m05_Populate_Mart_Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2266-34 Schedule configuration for COD_m05_Populate_Mart_Process . . . . . 2266-35 Promoting scheduled processes to production status . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2276-36 Logging on to the IBM Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2296-37 IBM Console report menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2306-38 Report list for IBM Tivoli License Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2326-39 Summary report: Products Installed by Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2336-40 Extreme case Report: ITLM Agents Installed by Division . . . . . . . . . . 2347-1 ITLM implementation for small environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2367-2 ITLM implementation for medium environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2377-3 ITLM implementation for large environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238A-1 Software Package for ITLM Agent installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255A-2 Software Package variables definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257C-1 ITLM Administration server database schema. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285C-2 ITLM Runtime server database schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Figures xi
  13. 13. xii Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  14. 14. Tables 2-1 Select License 6.0 price level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2-2 Software entitlement example for Microsoft Excel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2-3 Software entitlement example for Oracle Database Enterprise Edition . 45 2-4 Software entitlement example for IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager . . 49 3-1 Planning for Administrator definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3-2 Hardware requirements — IBM DB2 UDB Enterprise Edition . . . . . . . . 72 3-3 Software requirements — IBM DB2 UDB Enterprise Edition . . . . . . . . . 73 3-4 DB2 network ports for UNIX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3-5 DB2 network ports for Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3-6 Hardware requirements for IBM WebSphere Application Server . . . . . 81 3-7 Software requirements for IBM WebSphere Application Server . . . . . . 82 3-8 WebSphere network ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 3-9 Hardware requirements for ITLM Administration server . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3-10 Software requirements for ITLM Administration server. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3-11 IBM Tivoli License Manager Administration server network port . . . . . . 89 3-12 IBM Tivoli License Manager Runtime server network port . . . . . . . . . . 90 3-13 Hardware requirements for IBM Tivoli License Manager Agent . . . . . . 93 3-14 Software requirements for IBM Tivoli License Manager Agent . . . . . . . 94 C-1 TLMA database tables for the ADM schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 C-2 TLMR database tables for the RTM schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved. xiii
  15. 15. xiv Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  16. 16. Examples 4-1 Changes in the httpd.conf file for UNIX environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 5-1 Setting up the ITLM CLI environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 5-2 The expcat command output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 5-3 The impcat output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 7-1 httpd.conf parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 7-2 Changes in the system.properties file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 A-1 Software Package definition for ITLM Agent installation . . . . . . . . . . . 259 A-2 Installation script for ITML Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 A-3 Definition file for the ITLM Agent installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 B-1 SSL key files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 B-2 Server certificate file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved. xv
  17. 17. xvi Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  18. 18. NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consultyour local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area.Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBMproduct, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service thatdoes not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the usersresponsibility to evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document.The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send licenseinquiries, in writing, to:IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where suchprovisions are inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATIONPROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS ORIMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT,MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimerof express or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically madeto the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM maymake improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication atany time without notice.Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in anymanner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of thematerials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk.IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate withoutincurring any obligation to you.Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their publishedannouncements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirmthe accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions onthe capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate themas completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual businessenterprise is entirely coincidental.COPYRIGHT LICENSE:This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrates programmingtechniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs inany form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing applicationprograms conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which thesample programs are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM,therefore, cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. You may copy,modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM for the purposes ofdeveloping, using, marketing, or distributing application programs conforming to IBMs applicationprogramming interfaces.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved. xvii
  19. 19. TrademarksThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other countries, or both: AIX 5L™ IBM eServer™ SP™ AIX® Lotus Notes® SP1® Balance® Lotus® SP2® CT™ Notes® Tivoli Enterprise™ DB2 Universal Database™ Perform™ Tivoli® DB2® Redbooks™ TME® eServer™ Redbooks (logo)™ WebSphere® ™ RS/6000® XT™ IBM® SLC™ z/OS™The following terms are trademarks of other companies:ActionMedia, LANDesk, MMX, Pentium and ProShare are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the UnitedStates, other countries, or both.Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in theUnited States, other countries, or both.Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SunMicrosystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.C-bus is a trademark of Corollary, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.SET, SET Secure Electronic Transaction, and the SET Logo are trademarks owned by SET SecureElectronic Transaction LLC.Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.xviii Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  20. 20. Preface One of the main portions of the investment required to set up an IT infrastructure now is related to software. The software Asset Management process is becoming more and more important. From a business point of view, this process includes tasks, such as software and vendor evaluation, contract negotiation, budget planning, hardware compliance analysis, software life cycle planning, and software monitoring. There is a need to know exactly what software is installed within the enterprise and, more importantly, how this software is being utilized within the IT infrastructure. Sometimes, enterprises buy corporate licenses, even though the licenses are procured for some specific divisions and won’t be used by the rest of the enterprise. Often, organizations are overbuying licenses so as not to expose the enterprise to the risk of non-compliance usage of software products, simply because they are not able to prove or to evaluate how many licenses they really need or use. The license procurement information must be properly reconciled with the software usage and inventory data. This is the only way an enterprise can tell whether it is paying more license fees than necessary or whether it should buy new licenses to be compliant with the product license policies. Currently, many software vendors leave the responsibilities of licence management to enterprises that buy the products. They often don’t provide technical support to maintain or apply the product license policies. Furthermore, the organizations have to prove that they are not using more licenses than they are authorized to. IBM Tivoli License Manager offers a technical way to control and apply the software vendors’ pre-defined licensing policies. It allows the Administrator to easily manage different products in different ways, reflecting the rules of each product license agreement. The primary objective of this redbook is to introduce the new IBM offering for designing and creating a license management solution, and it is targeted at the technical professional responsible for providing license management services in an IT organization. It can be used as a reference book for the deployment of IBM Tivoli License Manager Version 1.1, guiding you during the planning, installation, configuration, administration, tuning, and general product usage phases, focusing on how to effectively deploy this product in a way that quickly generates real business value for customers.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved. xix
  21. 21. This redbook is a valuable addition to the existing product documentation and should be read in conjunction with the official product documentation, which complements the concepts explained in this book.The team that wrote this redbook This redbook was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center. Edson Manoel is a Software Engineer at IBM Corporation - International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center, working as an IT Specialist in the Systems Management area. Prior to joining the ITSO, Edson worked in the IBM Software Group as a Tivoli Technology Ambassador and in IBM Brasil Professional Services Organization as a Certified IT Specialist. He was involved in numerous projects, designing and implementing systems management solutions for IBM customers and Business Partners. Edson holds a bachelor’s degree in Applied Mathematics from Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. John Aronis is an IT Specialist at IBM Canada with the Enterprise Event Management (EEM) team in Toronto, Canada. He has worked in various roles over the last six years with IBM, from Deskside Support, ESM Tools and Development team, to his current role with the EEM team. He holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of Toronto. Ron Falciani is an Executive Project Manager in SWG at Research Triangle Park near Raleigh, North Carolina. He has several years of experience in hardware and software sales, hardware development management, and hardware and software marketing, including seven years experience in license use management and related IBM strategy and policies development. He is currently chairman of IBMs worldwide License Use Management Project Office. He holds a degree in Electrical Engineering from Duke University. Sebastien Fardel is an Advisory IT Specialist at IBM Corporation - Global Services - Switzerland, acting as a Tivoli Architect in the Performance and Availability, and Configurations and Operations areas. He has been in the IT industry since 1996 and has experience in IT infrastructure management, programming, and systems management area. Aniruddha Parnaik (also known as “Ani”) is a Technical Executive in IBM Global Services India. He provides technical support in the areas of systems management and system administration. His areas of expertise includes Windows NT and 2000, Microsoft Exchange Server, and Tivoli Enterprise. He holds a master’s degree in Computer Systems Management.xx Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  22. 22. The team would like to express special thanks to Domenico Di Giulio, Software Engineer - IBM Rome, for his major contribution and support to this book. Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: Joanne Luedtke, Lupe Brown, Wade Wallace, Chris Blatchley, and Budi Darmawan IBM Austin, International Technical Support Organization Gabrielle Velez IBM Rochester, International Technical Support Organization Sandra Freudenberg IBM Boulder, IGS SDTC Pierre-André Schranz IBM Switzerland Terry Paul, Murray Taylor, James Jones, Paul Jacobs, Yang Fan, Carolanne Graham, Jayne Muise-Brown IBM Canada Ulrik Soerensen IBM Denmark Carlo Romano IBM Rome David Ertl ITLM Product Manager, IBM AustinBecome a published author Join us for a two- to six-week residency program! Help write an IBM Redbook dealing with specific products or solutions, while getting hands-on experience with leading-edge technologies. Youll team with IBM technical professionals, Business Partners and/or customers. Your efforts will help increase product acceptance and customer satisfaction. As a bonus, youll develop a network of contacts in IBM development labs, and increase your productivity and marketability. Find out more about the residency program, browse the residency index, and apply online at: ibm.com/redbooks/residencies.html Preface xxi
  23. 23. Comments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our Redbooks to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments about this or other Redbooks in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review redbook form found at: ibm.com/redbooks Send your comments in an Internet note to: redbook@us.ibm.com Mail your comments to: IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization Dept. JN9B Building 003 Internal Zip 2834 11400 Burnet Road Austin, Texas 78758-3493xxii Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  24. 24. 1 Chapter 1. Introduction to license management This introductory chapter focuses on the IBM strategy and technology direction for customers to manage the use of software. It explains the concepts of license use management, the value to the customer and IBM, the underlying technology, and how the technology will be exploited by IBM products. The general goal for IBM is to create a consistent license management system across all its and other vendors operating system environments giving customers one method for managing software licenses. This chapter discusses: Software License Use Management requirements Asset Management and Asset Protection information License Use Management and License management system concepts IBM viewpoint and approach to License management© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved. 1
  25. 25. 1.1 Software License Use Management requirements The topic of software license use management has been discussed and debated, and tools have been developed and redeveloped over the past 15 years or so, with various technologies employed by many companies to fulfill either perceived or requested customer needs and software publisher wants. In an effort to resolve these issues, a customer group initiated a work effort which led to the creation of A Requirement for Software License Use Management, a 1996 document (copyrighted by the international user group SHARE Inc.), which subsequently led to the development of the international standard for license use management, XSLM, from The Open Group. A Requirement for Software License Use Management is available on the Internet at: http://www.xslm.org/html/Something_about_XSLM/About_XSLM/Original_Requirements/ original_requirements.html To help put the topic in perspective, the following materials in this section are excerpted from A Requirement for Software License Use Management, which are copyrighted in the License Use Management Project of GUIDE International Corporation, August 29, 1996 , and are included herein with the express permission of the copyright holder: The key factors driving the need for comprehensive license use management are: – Escalating software costs – The high administrative burden of license compliance control – The lack of effective customer control over the use of software Customers must deal with multiple products, from multiple software suppliers, on multiple platforms, with multiple licensing models. Given the exponential growth in complexity, there is a clear requirement for an overall framework for license use management that is: – Extensible, flexible and comprehensive – Independent of software supplier – Independent of platform – Independent of operating environment – Independent of implementation – Adaptable to future technologies License use management tools, processes, products, and systems must: – Meet the needs of both customers and software suppliers – Be cost-effective for both customers and software suppliers – Provide facilities to define license terms and conditions – Record and report use level data – Determine, report on, and verify compliance to license terms2 Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  26. 26. – Allow customers to control and optimize the use of licenses within the terms and conditions of the license policyCustomers and software suppliers agree that software charges shoulddirectly correspond to the value or expected value of the software. There is,however, no single universal value metric or way of measuring value. Thevalue metric will differ from product to product and even from customer tocustomer. In addition, software suppliers are entitled to a fair return on theirinvestments and require assurance that their software assets are protectedagainst intentional and unintentional misuse.Improved price to valueFor example, a customer wants to acquire a customer service package foreach of its branch offices. Some branches have mainframe systems, somehave RISC systems and others have PC networks. The number of usersvaries greatly by branch so the customer wants a choice of licensing models.The customer wants to manage user authorizations centrally. Finally,corporate headquarters wants to charge back usage based on the number ofinvoices printed per month.The software supplier offers a choice of licensing alternatives for this productthat assures reasonable protection of the software suppliers assets. Thesoftware supplier not only offers a choice of licensing models, but also allowscustomers to acquire generic user authorizations, that is, a user authorizationcan be applied to any of the three platforms. Additionally, the softwaresupplier has designed the product to collect information on invoices printed aswell as information on the number of users.Price to value: Customer X supplier Customer Perspective Software Supplier Perspective Choice of licensing models Improved customer satisfaction Better cost to value relationship Cost recovery and fair return on investment Central management of users and operational efficiency Assurance of asset protection Support for multiple use metricsReduced administrative burdenAs licensing practices have become more diverse and environments morecomplex, customers have developed costly, people-intensive methodologiesto manage software licenses. Customers license management environmentsoften mirror their operating environments: a hybrid of uncoupled software,some internally developed, others acquired. Chapter 1. Introduction to license management 3
  27. 27. This problem is illustrated in the following example: A customer has a mobile workforce where each member has the capability of selecting the software best suited for the territory. All software is acquired and controlled centrally. This results in hundreds of software licenses that must be managed, involving management of keys, if required, and running tallies of the number of licenses to take advantage of discounts. The implementation of license use management tools and processes is key to the customer in a decentralized, multiple platform environment. Administrative burden: Customer X supplier Customer Perspective Software Supplier Perspective Use staff to develop applications, not Use staff to focus on core business tools competencies Capture all data from all applications on Reduced infrastructure required to all platforms from all software suppliers support keys and product registration within a single framework Increased probability that customers will Select applications on the merit of the acquire the appropriate number of application and not if it fits into the licenses (or authorizations) existing license management tool Cost-effective customer managed use Enhanced interoperability Customers are faced with heterogeneous, distributed computing environments that challenge their ability to monitor and control the use of licensed software. They need the ability to capture use level data to facilitate product acquisition justification, planning and budgeting for software, implementation of charge-back systems to recover software costs, and workload balancing. They also need the ability to ensure that their use of software products complies with license terms and conditions. For example, a customer has hardware servers from two different suppliers installed at two locations at corporate headquarters. This customer has acquired licenses for 150 users of a software product. Performance on one of the servers has been slow, resulting in multiple user complaints. Without access to use level data, the customer is unaware that 125 users are using the server that has the noted performance problems and only 50 users are accessing the other server. The customer is also unaware that 175 users, which is 25 users beyond the entitled number, are using the application. With the capture of and access to use level data, the customer will have the data necessary to charge the appropriate departments for usage, to balance the workload, and to fairly compensate the software supplier for use.4 Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  28. 28. Administrative burden: Customer X supplier Customer Perspective Software Supplier Perspective Balance the workload, resulting in better Potential for minimizing the overuse of performance software Acquire additional user authorizations Improved ability for fair return on (licenses), as needed, to comply with investments and cost recovery the terms and conditions of the license Increased customer satisfaction Charge the appropriate departments for usage Optimize use of licenses (End of excerpt)1.2 Asset Management and Asset Protection More broadly, a primary concern of customers, Asset Management refers to the customers ability to understand the inventory of software installed. For a more complete solution, the customer often wants to understand the use of that software and its association with the various hardware identifiable boxes together with the relationship of that data to a customers contracts with vendors regarding software acquisition and entitlements. Software shipments from vendors (physically and online), software inventory records for asset and tax purposes, software deployment records regarding who is assigned the right to use each piece of software and for how long by individual and/or department and/or identifiable hardware box are also relevant associations in a vibrant Asset Management system. As such, an integrated asset management system manages the physical, financial and contractual information about software assets. It covers the total customer view of its (software) assets, including elements such as product inventory and use that match against entitlement, contracts, purchasing and accounts payable. The customer aim of good asset management is to: Avoid compliance issues Achieve maximum use of the assets (software) at minimum cost Take advantage of knowledge of product use levels and contract expiration dates Similarly, as a primary concern of software vendors, Asset Protection refers to the vendors ability to ensure the customers use of the vendors products is in compliance with the contract terms and conditions, the pricing models, and the Chapter 1. Introduction to license management 5
  29. 29. agreed contractual entitlements. This would typically be managed or controlled through license management tools. The basic challenge to balance both the customers and the vendors needs is the need to bridge between contractually defined entitlement levels and the real physical customer IT environments, where actual license deployment and use takes place. This ideally implies on one side a basic requirement for detailed, well-maintained record of entitlements, inventory and use for the customer, and on the other side the presence of license management tools in the customers IT environment capable of monitoring and counting in a way reflecting the contractually defined rules.1.3 License Use Management License Use Management includes tools and processes to: Enable, without serious risk of revenue loss to vendors, the implementation of products priced on their use rather than on potential processor capacity, and so on (for example, the number of concurrent or registered users or resources) Provide customers with tools to manage the access to and usage of software products Enable, without risk of revenue loss to vendors, supply before buy merchandising (for example, trial, pre-packaged, pre-loaded or electronically transmitted software) License Use Management, correctly implemented, serves the interests of both customers and software vendors. License Use Management assists Customers by enabling use-based charging and: Collecting basic use statistics and monitoring use levels Informing customers when entitled use levels have been or are about to be exceeded Measuring resource use for the purpose of establishing software charges Generating reports and statistics on use Providing data to both enable customer charge back systems and leverage software volume Opportunities Providing a means to demonstrate license compliance to external and internal auditors License Use Management assists software vendors by:6 Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  30. 30. Adding assurance that intellectual property is protected and that software licenses are used within entitled limits Enabling software family packaging and supply before buy merchandising Potentially reducing software distribution costs Regarding license use management, generally IBMs announced direction is to implement self-compliance, that is, Customer Managed Use for IBM-owned use-based priced software products, whereby a customer will not need to request a use-key from IBM which controls the use-levels for which the customer is licensed (a process and license management tool capability known as vendor managed use). During an enrollment process the customer administrator is asked to enter the overall licensed use-level for each product and then the customer can track product use with the license management system by using the administrative tools supplied. Other software contains the ability to communicate product use with the license use management system, allowing a customer to be able to receive information about the licenses used (for example, the number of users or number of resources used or managed) by these products. Changes and/or usage data is logged in special files, which can be used for internal and external audit purposes. A customer can also use the license use management administrative tools to receive reports of use and compare this information to the use levels that have been licensed. As a result customers are able to take action to either increase or decrease product use and license use payments to their suppliers.1.4 License management system A license management system controls or allows the customer to control the execution of a product based on the entitlement for which the customer has contracted. In the context of widely distributed products, Web-based and client-server implementations, and in the presence of a wide variety of pricing models, the ability of a customer to manage the installation is virtually impossible without a tool. Therefore, a well-conceived license management tool will allow customers to operate within their entitlements and allow vendors to recover revenue which would have been lost without such a tool, independent of customers basic honesty. An effective license management system, designed to support both the customers asset management needs and the vendors asset protection wants, typically requires initial product enrollment in the form of an electronic file, or key, with data relevant to the entitlement agreed to by the customer, in a license management system repository. At product execution time, a license server is asked to validate that the request is within the entitled levels. The license Chapter 1. Introduction to license management 7
  31. 31. management system informs the product of the status; and the product, in an ideal implementation, executes accordingly. The license management system does not directly effect the product execution. It is the product that decides to execute or not, based on information received from the license management system and the license management policy of the vendor. Relevant data is then logged to allow effective customer management and audit capability. Within that context, the following brief descriptive terms are commonly used: Vendor policies These policies can be categorized as follows: Customer Managed Use (CMU) This vendor policy requires the customer to set the entitlement against which the license management system will manage compliance. This policy allows two types of implementation, hard and soft compliance. Vendor Managed Use (VMU) Vendors provide customers with product keys reflecting the customer entitlement, against which the license management system will manage compliance. This policy has only one implementation — hard compliance. The purpose is vendor asset protection, affording the customer no latitude in managing the installation. Compliance Various approaches may be perceived in achieving customer compliance: Trust Completely trust the customer to manage without tools. Soft The customer is provided tools to manage by warning if an (often self-declared) entitlement level is exceeded. An audit trail is established through a secure, audit log of all relevant events. Hard The customer, through use of license management tools, is precluded from non-compliant use. Hard and soft compliance are implemented in the same way with respect to the license management system, which simply determines whether a requested use authorization is within the stated entitlement. It is the reflection of the vendor policy (hard or soft compliance) within the application product being managed that dictates whether the product will execute or not, based on the response from the license management system to the request to execute. Therefore, with Hard8 Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  32. 32. compliance, if the requested execution exceeds the entitlement, the product will not go into execution. If, on the other hand, the vendor policy is Soft compliance, under the same circumstance, the product will go into execution anyway and inform the license system of this fact for logging in its audit database.1.5 Conclusion In any definition of asset protection schema and related license management policies, a number of factors should be considered. The challenge for the vendor is to achieve the optimal balance between maximizing revenue recovery against both the administrative cost for the vendor and the potential customer satisfaction impacts due to cost, operational burden, and perceived intrusion. In addition, the balance must consider practical aspects of the business models, such as requirements on vendor operational processes, availability and quality of collected data, rolls of the Business Partners, and the competitive environment. Care must be taken to ensure that any attempt to eliminate software product over-use (willful or overt) will likely require implementation of additional control measures that are not only costly but will also be likely to place an unwarranted burden on all customers. Compliance enforcement should also serve to protect the interests of the compliant customer, and should not willingly favor the non-compliant customer. Another basic parameter to consider is customer and business partner satisfaction. The customer satisfaction considerations for a given compliance enforcement schema will need to include both tangible factors, such as the administrative burden and potential operational limitations imposed, but also less tangible factors, such as the potential perception of a scheme as being intrusive or “spying" on the customer. For some customers imposing any level of license management discipline, however reasonable from a vendors view, might be perceived as painful; while for others, the technical personnel making, for instance, operational capacity allocations potentially affecting software compliance may not be those that manage software entitlements or acquisitions. The compliance enforcement schema therefore needs to be sufficiently robust to cover the great span in the (broad) customer base in terms of business processes and organization, technical capabilities, and particular license management practices. Further, the vendors asset protection process requirements imposed on the customer need to be balanced as to appear reasonable and a logical component of the over-all business model and the benefits the customer receives from it. A strong logical correlation to the business model will also alleviate at least the rational concerns over potential vendor "spying." Chapter 1. Introduction to license management 9
  33. 33. With the advent of IBM Program License Agreement (IPLA), software terms and conditions and pricing models are geared to reflect more directly the customer-perceived value of software, together with capacity-on-demand hardware for distributed systems products. As in the case of z/OS and Workload License Charges (WLC), the dynamic aspect of software execution and pricing demands a consistent, easy-to-use, cross-platform license management tool. The IBM direction to fulfill this quintessential business need is IBM Tivoli License Manager. Ultimately, the customer will be looking for value in terms of help to manage over-all software costs; a successful schema and tool set must therefore provide support for the customers own asset management processes while ensuring the vendors asset protection. It is with this intent that IBM Tivoli License Manager is offered.10 Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  34. 34. 2 Chapter 2. IBM Tivoli License Manager general overview IBM Tivoli License Manager is a Web-based solution that faces the challenge to support the complex software asset management process. It provides the software metering and license allocation services on different host platforms. This chapter contains the following: An overview of IBM Tivoli License Manager explaining the main benefits and defining the main functions of IBM Tivoli License Manager. A detailed description of the Physical and Logical components of IBM Tivoli License Manager. An introduction to the Web and XML interfaces provided with the product. A complete overview of the License management process and realistic examples about the Microsoft, Oracle and IBM Tivoli Software licenses management process.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved. 11
  35. 35. 2.1 IBM Tivoli License Manager overview License Management is one of the many processes involved in the delivery of IT services. By having a real-time control on software assets, an enterprise could understand exactly what resources are needed to support its business. Currently the main portion of the investment required to set up an IT infrastructure is related to software, not to hardware. Figure 2-1 on page 13 shows an example of an ineffective licensing process for a fictitious company called ACME enterprise. ACME enterprise needs to buy the most recent version of the CSI HR software that has already been tested and deployed in about 100 machines of both the HR and Finance departments of the ACME enterprise. The pricing policy for the CSI HR software is based on the number of concurrent users. Since the IT department of ACME enterprise, in this scenario, is not able to control how many licenses are concurrently in use by the HR and Finance departments, a total of 100 licenses need to be acquired as the ACME enterprise won’t be able to prove the makers of the CSI HR software how many licenses will be used concurrently.12 Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  36. 36. CSI HR Software 4 Sales Specialist IT Operator The IT Operator starts making an Inventory but as the Software is installed on all machines, the IT Operator requests 100 licences because he could not control how 20 users in the HR many license are used Division concurrently. 1 3 6 There is a The IT Administrator The IT Manager asks the IT Operator need to buy signs the to count the number the new license contract of required licenses version of the for 100 licenses. for this new version. CSI HR Software 80 users in the Financial Division 5 The IT Administrator, based on the information of the IT Operator, requests 100 licenses. 2 The IT Manager asks the IT Administrator for the number IT Manager IT Administrator of required licenses for this new version.Figure 2-1 Software licensing requirements IBM Tivoli License Manager (ITLM) can help enterprises meet the software assets management objectives by accomplishing, often silently, a certain number of tasks described as follows: Collecting information about installed products using an inventory scan technology. Identifying the start and the stop of a software on any machines. Comparing the installed, used and procured licenses. Metering software usage even for products that have no license requirements. Informing Administrators when license usage reaches a defined level. Enforcing license agreements by refusing to start a application in case there are no licenses available. Assigning pool of licenses to users and/or machines. Chapter 2. IBM Tivoli License Manager general overview 13
  37. 37. Maintaining a historical software usage information and providing reports allowing the planning of license needs. Providing real-time reports for inventory and software usage information. Continuing with our example using the ACME enterprise, as shown in Figure 2-2, one year has past since ACME enterprise acquired the CSI HR software and now, it is time to negotiate the maintenance contract for this software. The maintenance pricing policy is still based on the number of concurrent users. During the past year, ACME enterprise has deployed the IBM Tivoli License Manager solution. Using this technology, the IT Administrator doesn’t need to ask the IT Operator to make an inventory, because IBM Tivoli License Manager makes it automatically. Furthermore, as IBM Tivoli License Manager is able to analyze the start and the stop of software, the IT Administrator analyzes, within the reports provided by IBM Tivoli License Manager, that the average of the concurrent users is 45. So, the maintenance contract could be signed for only 45 licenses instead of 100. This way, ACME enterprise has saved the cost of 55 licenses that have never been used.14 Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  38. 38. CSI HR Software ITLM collects usage of CSI HR using Sales Specialist 4 inventory information and Software entitlement. 5 ITLM stores all information in a RDBMS and can provide historical or/and real- 20 users in the HR time reports. Division 1 It is time to 7 negotiate the The IT Manager maintenance could negotiate contract for the maintenance the 100 3 contract for only licences of 45 licenses The IT Administrator CSI HR instead of 100. defines the Software Software entitlement in ITLM for CSI HR. 80 users in the Financial Division 6 The IT Administrator reads in the report that only 45 licenses are concurrently used. The IT Manager asks the IT IT Manager 2 Administrator if the 100 IT Administrator licenses are still needed.Figure 2-2 Software licensing solution: IBM Tivoli License Manager An IBM Tivoli License Manager solution can be seen as a three part solution: IBM Tivoli License Manager Components IBM Tivoli License Manager Software Entitlement IBM Tivoli License Manager Reports IBM Tivoli License Manager Components The IBM Tivoli License Manager solution is composed of two types of components: Physical and Logical. This is discussed in more detail in 2.2, “IBM Tivoli License Manager physical components” on page 16 and 2.3, “IBM Tivoli License Manager logical components” on page 23. Chapter 2. IBM Tivoli License Manager general overview 15
  39. 39. IBM Tivoli License Manager Software Entitlement The IBM Tivoli License Manager provides a way to create software entitlement and licensing policies for any kind of software. This allows you to strictly apply licensing contract policies or to measure software usage. Software entitlement is part of the IBM Tivoli License Manager logical components and is detailed in 2.5, “Licence Management process” on page 30. IBM Tivoli License Manager Reports The IBM Tivoli License Manager solution provides some predefined reports and a full integration with the IBM Tivoli Data Warehouse product. Reports are part of the IBM Tivoli License Manager Logical components and are introduced in 2.3, “IBM Tivoli License Manager logical components” on page 23. Detailed information for Reports will be provided in Chapter 6, “Reporting with IBM Tivoli License Manager” on page 185.2.2 IBM Tivoli License Manager physical components A common way of organizing software to run on distributed systems is to separate functionality into two parts: clients and servers. A client is a program that uses services provided by other programs called servers. The client makes a request for a service, and a server performs that service. Server functionality often involves some sort of resource management, in which a server synchronizes and manages access to the resource, responding to client requests with either data or status information. Client programs typically handle user interactions and often request data or initiate some data modification on behalf of a user. A common design of client/server systems uses three tiers: a client that interacts with the user, an application server that contains the business logic of the application, and a resource manager that stores data. In the context of an IBM Tivoli License Manager solution, which is also based on a three tier architecture, an Administration server acts as the resource manager, a Runtime server as the application server, and agents as clients, as shown in Figure 2-3.16 Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  40. 40. Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Agents DB2 RDBMS (Clients) Runtime server (Application server) Agents DB2 RDBMS (Clients) (Resource) Administration server (Resource Manager) Agents (Clients) DB2 RDBMS Runtime server (Application server) Agents (Clients)Figure 2-3 Three-tiered client/server architecture The IBM WebSphere Application Server provides the middle tier in this architecture, allowing clients to interact with data resources as a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). IBM WebSphere Application Server is an environment for open distributed computing. Users and processes on a wide variety of platforms can interact by using the facilities provided by WebSphere. Both the IBM Tivoli License Manager Administration and Runtime servers are applications running on top of IBM WebSphere Application Server. These applications consist of object-oriented business logic that use a RDBMS for data storage. An application running on IBM WebSphere Application Server consists of the following components, each performing a different function: HTML and JSP pages providing the user interface and program flow. Enterprise beans containing the application’s business logic that handle transactional operations and access to databases. Servlets coordinate work between the other components of the application. They also can dynamically generate Web page contents. JavaBean components enable the other types of components to work together. Chapter 2. IBM Tivoli License Manager general overview 17
  41. 41. Relational Databases implement persistence and query functions for enterprise beans. In the context of IBM Tivoli License Manager, the RDBMS is provided by IBM DB2 Universal Database Enterprise Edition. Figure 2-4 shows you the complete IBM Tivoli License Manager physical architecture and components. In addition to that, it also describes the complete data flow between the components of each tier as well as between the internal component of the IBM Tivoli License Manager Administration and Runtime servers. Web Browser Web Browser B M N HTTP(s) HTTP HTTP(s) HTTP(s) A F L C D E HTTP Server HTTP Server H WebSphere Plugin WebSphere Plugin G HTTP(s) HTTP(s) J I IBM WebSpere IBM WebSpere O K Application Server Application Server Administration Server Runtime Server JDBC JDBC JDBC JDBC Agent Scan Engine IBM DB2 IBM DB2 Licence Usage WAS40 TLMA WAS40 TLMR Control ProcessITLM Administration ITLM Runtime server ITLM Agentserver Master Catalog Runtime Catalog Agent CatalogFigure 2-4 IBM Tivoli License Manager physical components Figure 2-4 is discussed in more detail in the following sections.18 Introducing IBM Tivoli License Manager
  42. 42. 2.2.1 IBM Tivoli License Manager Master Catalog IBM Tivoli License Manager maintains a Master Catalog where details of all the products that can be monitored are stored. This Catalog resides on the Administration server and a subset of it is periodically downloaded to each Runtime server. This subset of the Master Catalog, called Runtime Catalog, only includes those entries from the Master Catalog that relate to products that have been discovered running on nodes by Agents that are assigned to the Runtime server. A copy of the Runtime Catalog is also downloaded to each node where the Agent is installed. The IBM Tivoli License Manager Catalog Manager application enables you to add entries to the Master Catalog, using information from the following sources: The Unknown file table, which contains entries for all applications that were detected by Agents but that were not already in the Master Catalog. The IBM Tivoli License Manager Catalog updates that will be provided by IBM on a regular basis. For information on managing the IBM Tivoli License Manager Master Catalog, refer to 5.9, “Managing software product components” on page 174.2.2.2 Network communication This section provides information regarding the protocols used to communicate between each different component that makes up the IBM Tivoli License Manager solution. Support applications As shown in Figure 2-4 on page 18, the IBM Tivoli License Manager solutions are composed of the following support applications: HTTP Server IBM WebSphere Application Server IBM DB2 Universal Database Enterprise Edition An IBM Tivoli License Manager solution mainly uses HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for its communications. In some cases, HTTPs, which is a secure HTTP, can be used to secure the communication between the Administration server and the Runtime server. The communication among the Web Browsers and the Administration and Runtime servers can also be encrypted. However, there is no possibility of using HTTPs to secure the communication between Agents and Runtime servers. The HTTP requests made by an Agent or by a Runtime server are first received by an HTTP server which must be installed on each Administration and Runtime Chapter 2. IBM Tivoli License Manager general overview 19

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