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  • 1. Front coverIBM System Storage DS8000:LDAP AuthenticationImplement LDAP authenticationfor the DS8000Configure the required TivoliProductivity Center v4.1Benefit from singlesign-on Bertrand Dufrasne Marcus Gorzellik Gabor Penzesibm.com/redbooks Redpaper
  • 2. International Technical Support OrganizationIBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP AuthenticationMay 2009 REDP-4505-00
  • 3. Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page v.First Edition (May 2009)This edition applies to the IBM System Storage DS8000 with Licensed Machine Code 5.4.20.xx (code bundles64.20.x.x).© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2009. All rights reserved.Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP ScheduleContract with IBM Corp.
  • 4. Contents Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii The team that wrote this paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Chapter 1. LDAP authentication for DS8000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 DS8000 basic user management and access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Directory Services and LDAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 Overview of LDAP-based authentication for the DS8000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4 Benefits for DS8000 administrators and users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1 Test environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2 Installing the LDAP servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3 Installing and configuring the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.4 Creating the certificates and the truststore file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.4.1 Creating the certificate and the truststore file on TPC server1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.4.2 Setting up TPC server2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.4.3 Copying the truststore file from TPC server1 to TPC server2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.5 Configuring the DS8000 for LDAP authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Chapter 3. User, group, and role administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.1 DS8000 to LDAP groups mappings using the DS GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.2 DS8000 to LDAP groups mappings using the DS CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.3 User administration for Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.3.1 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center roles to LDAP group mappings. . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Appendix A. Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Appendix B. Configuring Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for DS8000 LDAP authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 B.1 Securing the administration, applications, and infrastructure settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 B.2 Configuring federated repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 B.3 Adding a base entry to a realm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 B.4 Setting additional properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 B.5 Managing users and groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Appendix C. Installing Tivoli Directory Server v6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 C.1 Installing the server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 C.2 Configuring the server instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Appendix D. Installing openLDAP in a SUSE Linux environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 D.1 Installing the required LDAP packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 D.2 Configuring the LDAP server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 D.3 Configuring the LDAP client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. iii
  • 5. Appendix E. LDAP structure overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 How to get Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87iv IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 6. NoticesThis information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consultyour local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area. Anyreference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM product,program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service that does notinfringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the users responsibility toevaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document. Thefurnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, inwriting, to:IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where suchprovisions are inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATIONPROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS ORIMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT,MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer ofexpress or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically madeto the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM may makeimprovements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication at any timewithout notice.Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in anymanner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of thematerials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk.IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate without incurringany obligation to you.Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their publishedannouncements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm theaccuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on thecapabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate themas completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual businessenterprise is entirely coincidental.COPYRIGHT LICENSE:This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrate programmingtechniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs inany form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing applicationprograms conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which the sampleprograms are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM, therefore,cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. v
  • 7. TrademarksIBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business MachinesCorporation in the United States, other countries, or both. These and other IBM trademarked terms aremarked on their first occurrence in this information with the appropriate symbol (® or ™), indicating USregistered or common law trademarks owned by IBM at the time this information was published. Suchtrademarks may also be registered or common law trademarks in other countries. A current list of IBMtrademarks is available on the Web at http://www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtmlThe following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other countries, or both: AIX® i5/OS® System Storage™ DB2® IBM® Tivoli® Domino® Lotus® WebSphere® DS6000™ Redbooks® z/OS® DS8000® Redbooks (logo) ® Enterprise Storage Server® Redpaper™The following terms are trademarks of other companies:SUSE, the Novell logo, and the N logo are registered trademarks of Novell, Inc. in the United States and othercountries.Interchange, Red Hat, and the Shadowman logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. inthe U.S. and other countries.Java, Solaris, Sun, and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the UnitedStates, other countries, or both.Active Directory, Microsoft, Windows Server, Windows, and the Windows logo are trademarks of MicrosoftCorporation in the United States, other countries, or both.UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.vi IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 8. Preface Starting with release 4.2, the IBM® System Storage™ DS8000® series offers the ability to replace the locally based user ID and password administration with a centralized directory based approach. This release also allows a single sign-on capability for multiple DS8000 servers and possibly other servers in your environment. This IBM Redpaper™ publication helps DS8000 storage administrators understand the concepts and benefits of directories. It provides information that is required for implementing a DS8000 authentication approach based on the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).The team that wrote this paper This paper was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working with the International Technical Support Organization (ITSO). Bertrand Dufrasne is an IBM Certified Consulting IT Specialist and Project Leader for IBM System Storage disk products at the ITSO in San Jose, CA. He has worked at IBM in various IT areas, has written many IBM Redbooks® publications, and has developed and taught technical workshops. Before joining the ITSO, he worked for IBM Global Services as an Application Architect in the retail, banking, telecommunications, and healthcare industries. He holds a master degree in electrical engineering from the Polytechnic Faculty of Mons (Belgium). Marcus Gorzellik is an IBM Certified Specialist for High End Disk Solutions, working for the High End Storage System Support Center in Mainz, Germany. He has 12 years of experience in PC/server and network hardware support. For the past four years, he has provided support for Customer and Customer Service representatives with High End Disk Subsystems, such as the IBM System Storage DS8000, DS6000™, and Enterprise Storage Server® (ESS). His focus is open systems attachment of high-end storage including AIX®, Microsoft® Windows®, and Linux®. Gabor Penzes is a Test Engineer and System Administrator, working with DS8000 servers in Vac, Hungary. His focus is storage and highly available cluster systems on AIX and Linux platforms. He has more than 10 years of experience in planning, developing, and supporting UNIX®-based storage and server system architectures and networks. Gabor holds a degree in information engineering from the University of Pecs (Hungary). A special thank you to the following people: John Bynum of IBM U.S. Lisa Martinez of the IBM Tucson lab for providing equipment in support of this project Jens Wissenbach of IBM Germany for his preliminary work, on which we based some parts of this paper© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. vii
  • 9. Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: Sondra Ashmore, Kevin Gibble, Rakesh Jain, Markus Navarro, Thuan Q. Nguyen, and Kavita Shah of IBM U.S. Uwe Dubberke and Gerhard Pieper of IBM Germany Brian Sherman of IBM CanadaBecome a published author Join us for a two- to six-week residency program! Help write a book dealing with specific products or solutions, while getting hands-on experience with leading-edge technologies. You will have the opportunity to team with IBM technical professionals, Business Partners, and Clients. Your efforts will help increase product acceptance and customer satisfaction. As a bonus, you will develop a network of contacts in IBM development labs, and increase your productivity and marketability. Find out more about the residency program, browse the residency index, and apply online at: ibm.com/redbooks/residencies.htmlComments welcome Your comments are important to us! We want our papers to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments about this paper or other IBM Redbooks in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review Redbooks form found at: ibm.com/redbooks Send your comments in an e-mail to: redbooks@us.ibm.com Mail your comments to: IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization Dept. HYTD Mail Station P099 2455 South Road Poughkeepsie, NY 12601-5400viii IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 10. 1 Chapter 1. LDAP authentication for DS8000 Starting with Licensed Machine Code (LMC) level 5.4.20.xx, the DS8000 offers the capability to use Directory Services-based user authentication. This capability relies on unique features of the Tivoli® Storage Productivity Center 4.1 and the Tivoli Integrated Portal, in conjunction with the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). Previous versions of the DS8000 code only supported local user management (basic user management). Maintaining local repositories of users and their permissions is simple and convenient when only dealing with a small number of users and a small number of DS8000 servers or other systems. However, as the number of users and interconnected systems grows, authentication management quickly becomes difficult and time consuming. The benefits of a centralized user management approach can be substantial when considering the size and complexity of the overall IT environment. In this chapter, we review some of the benefits of this approach. Although the benefits from LDAP are substantial, you must also evaluate the substantial planning effort and complexity of deploying centralized Directory Services, if they are not already in place. We also briefly review the DS8000 local user management and user access methods. In addition, we provide an overview of the new LDAP-based authentication, the technology used, and the potential benefits.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. 1
  • 11. 1.1 DS8000 basic user management and access Basic user management refers to the local user management approach. Until the availability of License Machine Code 5.42.xx.xx, basic user management was the only supported capability. In this section, we review the characteristics of the local user management approach. Basic user management for the DS8000 is based on the definition of user IDs, passwords, roles, and permissions. This information is stored in a user repository and maintained locally at the DS8000 Hardware Management Console (HMC). The user repository is specific to a particular DS8000 and cannot be shared with other DS8000 servers in the enterprise. Consequently if the same individuals must be administrators and users of multiple DS8000 servers within the enterprise, their user IDs, passwords, and roles must be separately created and individually maintained for each DS8000 server. The Enterprise Storage System Network Interface (ESSNI) server, which resides on the HMC (Figure 1-1), is responsible for managing the security repository and establishing mappings between users and their role and permissions. The ESSNI server is also responsible for authenticating users. An administrator user ID is preconfigured during the installation of the DS8000 with the following defaults: User ID admin Password admin Whenever a user is added, a password is intially assigned by the administrator. At the first sign-on, users must change their password. The user ID is deactivated if an invalid password is entered and the number of attempts is more than the limit defined by the administrator as part of the security settings. The password for each user account is forced to adhere to the following rules: The length of the password must be between 6 and 16 characters. The password must begin and end with a letter. The password must have at least five letters. The password must contain at least one number. The password cannot be identical to the user ID. The password cannot be a previous password. General password settings include the time period in days after which passwords expire and a number that identifies the number of failed logins that are allowed. The user management is restricted to the following predefined user roles. Administrator Allows access to all storage management console server service methods and all storage image resources. Logical operator Allows access to service methods and resources that relate to logical volumes, hosts, host ports, logical subsystems, and volume groups, excluding security methods. Physical operator Allows access to physical configuration service methods and resources, including Storage Complex, Storage Image, Rank, Array, and Extent Pool objects. Copy Services operator Allows access to all Copy Services service methods and resources, excluding security methods.2 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 12. Monitor Allows access to list and show commands. It provides access to all read-only, nonsecurity management console server service methods and resources.No access Does not allow access to any service method or storage image resources. By default, this user group is assigned to any user account in the security repository that is not associated with any other user group.Communications between the DS8000 HMC and the administrative clients are managed by aclient/server connection between the DS8000 HMC ESSNI server and the host running aESSNI client. Regardless of the connection type, all connections must authenticate with auser and password against the ESSNI server that is running on the HMC.Figure 1-1 illustrates the different possible communications between administrative clientsand the DS8000 HMC, as well as the communication flow. Authentication Browser without LDAP TPC GUI TCP/IP User authentication Directly is managed by the TCP/IP ESSNI server regardless of type of connection TPC DS8000 HMC 1 TPC GUI TPC Host DS GUI ESSNI DS 8000 or SSPC Server Complex 1 ESSNI Client User repository DS8000 HMC 2 ESSNI DS 8000 Server Complex 2 User repository Remote desktop DS CLI ClientFigure 1-1 Communication between DS8000 HMC and administrative clientsAn administrative client has the following possible connections: Connection through the System Storage Productivity Center (SSPC) The ESSNI client is part of the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center running at the SSPC. Connection from a browser connected to the SSPC or Tivoli Storage Productivity Center on any server The ESSNI client is part of the DS graphical user interface (GUI) that is started within a Java™ applet during the connection. Connection from a separate Tivoli Storage Productivity Center workstation connected to the HMC The ESSNI client is part of the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center running on this workstation. Chapter 1. LDAP authentication for DS8000 3
  • 13. Connection by using Microsoft Windows Remote Desktop to the SSPC The ESSNI client is part of the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center running on the SSPC. Connection directly to the HMC by using DS command line interface (CLI) The ESSNI client is part of the DS CLI. User management and administration are done by using the DS GUI (through the SSPC) or the DS CLI. To work with user administration: 1. Sign on to the DS GUI. 2. From the selection menu on the left (Figure 1-2), select Real-time manager → Monitor System and click User Administration. 3. In the Basic Authentication User Administration panel on the right, click the Select action list and select Add user. Figure 1-2 Adding a user by using the DS GUI4 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 14. 4. In the Add/Modify User window (Figure 1-3), add a user by entering the user ID, the temporary password, and the role. The role decides the type of activities that can be performed by this user. You can temporarily deactivate the user ID by selecting No access (only). Figure 1-3 Adding a user and selecting the role You can also use the DS CLI to perform user administration tasks. Example 1-1 illustrates use of the mkuser command to add a new user, named csadmin. Example 1-1 Adding a user by using the DS CLI dscli>mkuser -pw AB9cdefg -group service,op_copy_services csadmin Date/Time: 16. Mõrz 2009 15:01:33 GMT-07:00 IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - CMUC00133I mkuser: User csadmin successfully created. For the exact syntax of any DS CLI command, see the IBM System Storage DS8000: Command-Line Interface User’s Guide, SC26-7916. You can also use the DS CLI help command for further assistance.1.2 Directory Services and LDAP Until now, the local user management, as explained in 1.1, “DS8000 basic user management and access” on page 2, has been the only possibility with the DS8000 series. Maintaining local repositories of users and their permissions is simple and convenient when only dealing with a small number of users and a small number of DS8000 servers or other systems. However, as the number of users and interconnected systems grows, it quickly becomes difficult and time consuming to manage. DS8000 v4.2 can now exploit the possibilities offered by Directory Services and LDAP to simplify these management tasks. Directory Services typically provides a repository to store the location and other relevant information about resources, combined with an access method and related administration services. Common examples are a telephone directory and a library card catalog. For a telephone directory, the objects listed are individuals, businesses, and if applicable, the services they provide. Such information can be retrieved by name (white pages) or service categories (yellow pages). In computer terms, a directory is a specialized database, also called a data repository, that stores typed and ordered information about objects. Directories allow users or applications to Chapter 1. LDAP authentication for DS8000 5
  • 15. find resources that have the characteristics needed for a particular task. A directory can also be used to store user IDs, passwords, and other credentials of system users. For example, the World Wide Web cannot function without a directory of available Web sites. This directory is what is referred to as a Domain Name Service or Domain Name System (DNS). The DNS allows users to search the Web for servers without any knowledge of the network address, host name, or IP address. A directory is often described as a database, but a specialized one that has characteristics that set it apart from general purpose relational databases. One special characteristic of directories is that they are accessed (read or searched) more often than they are updated (written). Hundreds of people might look up an individual’s phone number, or thousands of print clients might look up the characteristics of a particular printer, but the phone number or printer characteristics rarely change. Because the number of different networks and applications has grown, the number of specialized directories of information has also grown, resulting in islands of information that are difficult to share and manage. The ability to maintain and access all of this information in a consistent and controlled manner it might provide a focal point for integrating a distributed environment into a consistent and seamless system. The LDAP is an open industry standard that has evolved to meet these needs. LDAP defines a standard method for accessing and updating information in a directory. LDAP has gained wide acceptance as the directory access method of the Internet and is, therefore, becoming strategic within corporate intranets. LDAP defines a communication protocol. That is, it defines the transport and format of messages that are used by a client to access data in an X.500-like directory. LDAP does not define the directory service itself. When people talk about the LDAP directory, they are referring to the information that is stored and that can be retrieved by the LDAP protocol. All LDAP servers share many basic characteristics because they are based on the industry standard Request for Comments (RFCs). However, because of implementation differences, they are not all completely compatible with each other when a standard is not defined. For more information about RFCs, particularly regarding LDAP RFC 4510-4533, see the following Web address: http://www.ietf.org/rfc.html The implementation of directory service is based on a client/server relation. If an application expects some data from a object stored in a directory, the application must integrate with a client that connects to the directory server. The servers read the database and send the data back to the client application. For a more detailed description of LDAP, see the IBM Redbooks publication Understanding LDAP - Design and Implementation, SG24-4986. The following directory servers are the most common: IBM Tivoli Directory Server http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/tivihelp/v2r1/index.jsp For installation and configuration steps, see Appendix C, “Installing Tivoli Directory Server v6.2” on page 61. IBM Lotus® Domino® http://www.ibm.com/software/lotus/products/domino/6 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 16. Microsoft Active Directory® http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/active-directory.aspx openLDAP for Linux http://www.openldap.org/ For installation and configuration steps, see Appendix D, “Installing openLDAP in a SUSE Linux environment” on page 73.1.3 Overview of LDAP-based authentication for the DS8000 Figure 1-4 shows an overview of the DS8000 LDAP-based authentication architecture. LDAP Authentication Browser Tivoli Storage Productivity Center GUI The authentication is now managed through the Authentication Server, a Tivoli Storage Productivity Directly Center component, and a TCP/IP 1,2,3 new authentication client at TCP/IP the HMC. 1 1 DS8000 HMC 1 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 3 ESSNI TPC GUI 2 ESSNI TPC Server 10 DS8000 DS GUI Client Complex 1 Host System host 4 9 only TIP 5 Authentication 6 8 Client Authentication LDAP Service Server 7 DS8000 HMC 2 ESSNI 1 1,2,3 Server The authentication DS8000 server provides the Complex 2 connection to the Authentication LDAP or other Client repositories. Remote desktop DS CLI Client Figure 1-4 Communication between the DS8000 HMC, Tivoli Storage Productivity Center, LDAP and DS CLI or DS GUI client Communication between the DS8000 HMC and the various administrative clients (DS CLI, DS GUI) is unchanged compared to basic user authentication. The communication model still uses a client/server connection between the DS8000 HMC ESSNI server and the administrative client ESSNI client. The big difference with basic authentication is that the DS8000 user IDs (as used by the DS CLI or the DS GUI) are no longer locally managed and stored at the HMC. Instead they are managed and stored in an LDAP directory server. However, the HMC cannot directly communicate with the LDAP server. The HMC is configured to authenticate user IDs and passwords against a new service provided by Tivoli Storage Productivity Center v4.1, called the Authentication Server. This Authentication Server in Tivoli Storage Productivity Center receives authentication requests from an Authentication Client that is located at the HMC. Chapter 1. LDAP authentication for DS8000 7
  • 17. The Authentication Client also acts as an LDAP client to communicate those requests to the LDAP servers. Note: Tivoli Storage Productivity Center users are also now managed by LDAP. The HMC can still support basic authentication. The authentication method (either basic or LDAP) that is used is determined by setting an authentication policy in the DS GUI user administration menu. By default, the HMC is not configured to use LDAP, then the Authentication Server, which resides at the HMC, is not used. The initial authentication policy is set to the basic method. The two methods (basic or LDAP) are mutually exclusive. To use LDAP authentication, the authentication type at the DS8000 must be changed to Storage Authentication Service (SAS). The SAS policy includes all the information that is required for the LDAP connection and authentication. This information includes the host name or the IP address of the Authentication Server. It also includes the location of the truststore file, which is a digitally signed certificate of the Authentication Server. The certificate is used to establish a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) connection between the Authentication Server and the Authentication Clients. The communication between the LDAP server and Authentication Server can also be configured to use a secure connection through SSL, but it is not required. As stated previously, the Authentication Server is provided by the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1. Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 also includes the Tivoli Integrated Portal. Tivoli Integrated Portal is a browser-based utility that is used to administrate and manage the Authentication Server. When provided with the correct authority, Tivoli Integrated Portal can also be used to administrate LDAP user and groups through a web browser started on any host. For example, when using the DS CLI, the connection from a user standpoint is still established as it was without LDAP. The user establishes the connection by specifying the IP address of the HMC and is prompted for a user ID and password. Now, because the DS8000 has an active SAS policy, the Authentication Client sends the user request to the Authentication Server. The Authentication Server validates the user’s credentials with LDAP. If valid, an authentication OK token is returned to the ESSNI server, which executes the command against the DS8000. In Figure 1-4 on page 7, this sequence is noted by the circled numbers.1.4 Benefits for DS8000 administrators and users When applications access a standard common directory that is designed in a proper way, rather than using application-specific directories, redundant and costly administration can be eliminated, and security risks are more controllable. With DS8000 basic authentication, user administration is isolated and must be separately maintained. Each DS8000 in your environment has its own local user repository. DS8000 authentication through LDAP offers the following benefits: Centralized user management from one or more LDAP servers The user IDs and the role definition are stored and managed in one central location. Integration with existing Directory Services If you already use a directory service, you can integrate DS8000 users and, if needed, create a separate DS8000 LDAP group.8 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 18. More flexible user managementYou have different ways to add, change, or remove a user ID or to reset a password:– Directly with the LDAP server GUI– By using the Web (for example, Tivoli Directory Server Web Administration Tool)– User Management by using the Tivoli Integrated Portal of the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1– Use of the same user ID to access all DS8000 systems in the enterprise– Password policy management Tip: Use LDAP if it is already in use or if you have a large pool of DS8000 systems and other LDAP-enabled servers to administrate it.Even though LDAP support can provide single sign-on (SSO) capability by using the samecredentials to access multiple DS8000 servers, it remains possible to create separate userIDs for one person, while maintaining those user IDs by using LDAP. This is important ifthe same person needs to access multiple DS8000 servers with different authorizationlevels. Security isolation with multiple DS8000 systems remains possible with LDAP. Chapter 1. LDAP authentication for DS8000 9
  • 19. 10 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 20. 2 Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 In this chapter, we explain how to implement Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) authentication for the IBM System Storage DS8000 server. The implementation involves the following high level tasks: 1. Installing the LDAP servers 2. Installing and configuring the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers 3. Creating the certificates and the truststore file 4. Configuring the DS8000 for LDAP authentication© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. 11
  • 21. 2.1 Test environment Figure 2-1 shows the layout of the test environment that we set up for writing this paper. As a best practice, set up an environment that ensures high availability by providing redundancy for the installation key elements. In our case, we used two LDAP servers, two Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers, and two Hardware Management Consoles (HMCs) for the DS8000. As you can see in the diagram, the administration workstation (DS command line interface (CLI) or DS graphical user interface (GUI)) has redundant paths to the dual HMCs and Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers. The second DS8000 server is for illustration purposes, but you can do the cabling and setup as illustrated when managing multiple DS8000 servers. The DS8000 R4.2 LDAP authentication feature enables the definition of a backup LDAP and a backup Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server. However, only one of each of the redundant servers can be active at a time.Figure 2-1 High available environment2.2 Installing the LDAP servers As described in Chapter 1, “LDAP authentication for DS8000” on page 1, the main benefit of an LDAP-based authentication is the centralized user management that it allows. Therefore, if you already have an operating LDAP server in your environment, use the same servers for DS8000 user authentication. If you do not have an LDAP server installed yet, use the Tivoli Directory Server. For detailed installation instructions, see Appendix C, “Installing Tivoli Directory Server v6.2” on page 61.12 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 22. Alternatively in a Linux environment, you can opt for an openLDAP server. For details, see D.1, “Installing the required LDAP packages” on page 74. As previously indicated, also provision a second (standby) LDAP server for redundancy. We refer to those LDAP servers in this paper as LDAP server1 and LDAP server2.2.3 Installing and configuring the Tivoli Storage ProductivityCenter servers IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center is storage infrastructure management software that can centralize, automate, and simplify the management of complex and heterogeneous storage environments. Tivoli Storage Productivity Center is included on the Storage System Productivity Center (SSPC) console that is recommended with DS8000 installation. Remember that Tivoli Storage Productivity Center or SSPC (which includes Tivoli Storage Productivity Center) is now required for DS8000 GUI access. Tivoli Storage Productivity Center v4.1 is required for LDAP authentication support. If you plan or must install a new Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server, see the installation instructions in Appendix A, “Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008” on page 39. As previously indicated, you must also provision a second (standby) Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server for redundancy. We refer to those Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers as TPC server1 and TPC server2. If you already have Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 servers installed, but not configured for LDAP authentication, use the Tivoli Integrated Portal component of Tivoli Storage Productivity Center to configure them for LDAP. For more information, see Appendix B, “Configuring Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for DS8000 LDAP authentication” on page 51. After the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers are installed and configured for LDAP, proceed to the following section, 2.4, “Creating the certificates and the truststore file”.2.4 Creating the certificates and the truststore file The certificate and the truststore file from the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server or servers are needed to secure Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) communication between the DS8000 HMC and the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server. The certificate and truststore file are shared between the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers and HMCs.2.4.1 Creating the certificate and the truststore file on TPC server1 The Tivoli Storage Productivity Center v4.1 server administration is done to a component called the Tivoli Integrated Portal. Tivoli Integrated Portal is packaged with Tivoli Storage Productivity Center. This component provides a GUI front end to the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center administration, accessible from a Web browser. The Tivoli Integrated Portal is part of Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 and is automatically installed as part of any Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 installation. Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 13
  • 23. To create the certificate and truststore file: 1. Open a Web browser and point it to the Tivoli Integrated Portal, which is typically accessible from the following URL: https://IP-Address:16311/ibm/console The default Tivoli Integrated Portal installation secures the https transport with a self signed certificate. Depending on the browser that you use, you might receive an exception message and have to accept that certificate as a trusted certificate. 2. Export the certificate: a. Log in to the Tivoli Integrated Portal console. b. Navigate to the SSL certificate and key management →Key stores and certificates →NodeDefaultKeyStore →Personal certificates →Extract certificate page (Figure 2-2). c. Under General Properties, enter the path and file name on the IBM Tivoli Integrated Portal server indicating where to extract the certificate. For example, if you enter the path and name c:default_itso.cer, the default_itso.cert file is generated in the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server C: root folder. The file name can be any file name that you provide. Data type defines the encoding scheme (for example, Base64 encoded ASCII data) for the SSL certificate. Click OK. Figure 2-2 Extract certificate page 3. Create the truststore file: a. Launch the iKeyman utility that is included with Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1. For example, in Windows 2003 Server, open a Command Line window and enter the following command to open the IBM Key Management window: c:Program FilesIBMtivolitipbinikeyman.bat The iKeyman utility is a GUI-based tool that you can use to manage your digital certificates. With iKeyman, you can create a new key database or test a digital certificate, add certificate authority (CA) roots to your database, copy certificates from one database to another, request and receive a digital certificate from a CA, set default keys, and change passwords.14 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 24. Certificate authority: A certificate authority is a trusted central administrative entity that can issue digital certificates to users and servers. The trust in the CA is the foundation of trust in the certificate as a valid credential. A CA uses its private key to create a digital signature on the certificate that it issues to validate the certificates origin. Others can use the CA certificate’s public key to verify the authenticity of the certificates that the CA issues and signs. The term truststore refers to a special designation that is given to a CA certificate. This truststore designation allows a browser or other application to authenticate and accept certificates that the CA issues. b. In the IBM Key Management window (Figure 2-3), click Key Database File → New.Figure 2-3 iKeyman utility Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 15
  • 25. c. In the New panel (Figure 2-4): i. For Key database type, select a type or leave the default of JKS. ii. For File Name, enter a file name. For example, enter itso_trust_store.jks. Note: For Microsoft Windows systems, the default location for the generated key file is c:Program FilesIBMtivolitipbin. iii. Click OK. Figure 2-4 Selecting an export location and setting the file name iv. In the Password Prompt window (Figure 2-5), specify a password that you can remember for the truststore file. Click OK. Figure 2-5 Specifying a password After the truststore file is created, you return to the IBM Key Management window.16 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 26. 4. Import the certificate into the truststore file: a. Add the exported certificate file from the Tivoli Integrated Portal (see Figure 2-2 on page 14) to the truststore file: i. From the IBM Key Management window (Figure 2-6), click Add.Figure 2-6 Adding a certificate to a truststore file ii. In the Add CA certificate from a file window (Figure 2-7), click Browse. iii. Select the certificate file that you created in step 2 on page 14 (see Figure 2-2) and click OK.Figure 2-7 Selecting the certificate authority Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 17
  • 27. iv. In the Enter a Label window (Figure 2-8), enter any label (any character string of your choice). For example, we enter itso_cert_label. Then click OK. Figure 2-8 Specifying a key label The certificate is successfully stored in the truststore file, as shown in Figure 2-9. Figure 2-9 CA successfully stored in the truststore file b. Exit the iKeyman tool and locate the truststore file. In our example, the file is in c:Program FilesIBMtivolitipbinitso_trust_store.jks. You need this truststore file and password while configuring the LDAP-based policy on the DS8000 server.2.4.2 Setting up TPC server2 As previously discussed, as a best practice, install and configure a second Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server (TPC server2) to guarantee access to the DS8000 in case of a failure of TPC server1. Only one Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server can be active for LDAP authentication. TPC server2 is typically in standby and takes over in case of a failure at18 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 28. TPC server1. Implement TPC server2 preferably on the same hardware configuration as TPCserver1, but imperatively with the same LDAP server/branch information as TPC server1.To do a basic Tivoli Storage Productivity Center installation, see the instructions inAppendix A, “Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008” onpage 39. The additional setup tasks described in this section are required. Note: The Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers and Tivoli Integrated Portal are implemented as IBM WebSphere® application servers, which can securely communicate by using the Lightweight Third Party Authentication (LTPA) protocol.LTPA is intended for distributed, multiple application server and machine environments. TheLTPA protocol enables WebSphere Application Server to provide security in a distributedenvironment by using cryptography. Application servers distributed in multiple nodes cansecurely communicate by using this protocol.It also provides a single sign-on (SSO) feature where a user is required to authenticate onlyonce. The LTPA protocol uses cryptographic keys to encrypt and decrypt user data thatpasses between the servers. These keys must be shared between the different servers,assuming that all the servers involved use the same LDAP or custom registry. The defaultLTPA keys are automatically generated during the installation process.All of the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center Server processes (Tivoli Integrated Portal, node,WebSphere Application Server) share the same set of keys. If key sharing is requiredbetween different servers, export them from one server and import them to the other server.For security purposes, the exported keys are encrypted with a user-defined password. Thissame password is needed when importing the keys into another server.Exporting and importing the LTPA keysOn TPC server2, export and import the LTPA keys by using either the CLI or the TivoliStorage Productivity Center GUI.Using the CLI to export and import the LTPA keysTo use the CLI to export and import the LTPA keys:1. Export the LTPA keys that were initially created when installing TPC server1: a. On TPC server2, open a command window and go to the <tip installation directory>/bin folder. b. Enter the wsadmin command as follows to export LTPA keys from TPC server1 to a file on TPC server2: wsadmin -user <tip_admin id> -password <tip_admin password> -lang jython -port <tip_soap_port> -host <tpc_server1 hostname/IP> -f "<tpc_install_dir on TPC_Server2>/tip/scripts/exportLTPAKeys.py" "<LTPA keys file name>" <ltpaKeysPassword> Note the following explanation: • -user is the user name from the Tivoli Integrated Portal administrator. • -password is the password from the Tivoli Integrated Portal administrator. • -lang jython is the scripting language used for the export script (-f). • -port is the port on which the Tivoli Integrated Portal is listening. The default is port 16311. • -host is the host name or IP address the Tivoli Integrated Portal server. Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 19
  • 29. • -f is the export script path in the local Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server installation directory/tip/scripts directory. The script name is exportLTPAkeys.py. • LTPA keys file name is the name (or path and filename) of the exported LTPA file. • ltpaKeysPassword is the password that is used to encrypt and decrypt the LTPA keys. During import, this password must match the password that is used to export the keys at another LTPA server (for example, another application server, and so on). During export, remember this password so that you can enter it during import. Example 2-1 illustrates the command that we used (in our test environment) to export the keys. The exportedLTPAkeyfile file, which contains the LTPA keys of TPC server1 and that we import to TPC server2, is generated. Note: Use forward slashes when specifyng the path names for files. Example 2-1 Exporting the key C:Program FilesIBMTivoliTIPbin>wsadmin -user tpcadmin2 -password super321 -lang jython -port 16313 -host 9.11.112.112 -f "c:/program files/ibm/tpc/tip/scripts/exportLTPAKeys.py" "c:/share/exportedLTPAkeyfile" passw0rd 2. Import the LTPA key: a. In the same command window on TPC server2, enter the following wsadmin command to import the LTPA keys in Tivoli Integrated Portal and then into the device server. The parameters have the same meaning as explained in step 1 on page 19. wsadmin -user <tip_admin id> -password <tip_admin password> -lang jython -f "<tpc_install_dir on TPC_Server2>/tip/scripts/importLTPAKeys.py" "<LTPA keys file name>" <ltpaKeysPassword> The device server discovers storage subsystems and SAN fabrics. Then it gathers information about storage subsystems and SAN fabrics and analyzes their performance. The device server controls the communication with agents and the data collection from agents that scan storage area network (SAN) fabrics. It is also responsible for the creation and monitoring of replication relationships between storage devices. Example 2-2 shows the key being imported to the device server. Example 2-2 Importing the key to the device server C:Program FilesIBMTivoliTIPbin>wsadmin -user tpcadmin2 -password passw0rd -lang jython -f "c:/program files/ibm/tpc/tip/scripts/importLTPAKeys.py " c:/share/exportedLTPAkeyfile" passw0rd b. Change the directory to the device server’s TIPbin folder and run the same command as shown in Example 2-3. Note: Use forward slashes when specifyng the path names for files. Example 2-3 Importing the key to the TIP folder C:Program FilesIBMTPCdeviceappswasbin>wsadmin -user tpcadmin2 -password passw0rd -lang jython -f "c:/program files/ibm/tpc/tip/scripts/importLTPAKeys.py " c:/share/exportedLTPAkeyfile" passw0rd20 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 30. Using the GUI to export and import the LTPA keysTo use the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center GUI to export and import the LTPA keys:1. Export the LTPA key: a. To access the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center administrative console (Tivoli Integrated Portal), type the following URL in a Web browser: http://server_name:port_number/ibm/console b. In the left pane, select Security → Secure administration, applications, and infrastructure → Authentication mechanisms and expiration. c. In the window that opens (Figure 2-10): i. Under Cross-cell single sign-on, in the Password and Confirm password fields, enter the password to encrypt the LTPA keys. Remember the password so that you can use it later when the keys are imported into the other server. ii. In the Fully qualified key file name field, specify the fully qualified path to the location where you want the exported LTPA keys to reside. You must have write permission to this file. iii. Click Export keys to export the keys to the location that you specified in the Fully qualified key file name field. iv. Click OK to confirm the changes and click Save to save your configuration.Figure 2-10 Exporting the LTPA key Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 21
  • 31. 2. Import the LTPA key: a. Access the Tivoli Integrated Portal administrative console for the server that will receive the imported keys by typing the following URL in a Web browser: http://server_name:port_number/ibm/console b. In the left pane, click Security → Secure administration, applications, and infrastructure → Authentication mechanisms and expiration. c. In the window that opens: i. Under Cross-cell single sign-on, in the Password and Confirm password fields, enter the password that is used to decrypt the LTPA keys. This password must match the password that was used at the server from which you are importing the keys. ii. In the Fully qualified key file name field, specify the fully qualified path to the location where the signer keys reside. You must have write permission to this file. iii. Click Import keys to import the keys to the location that you specified in the Fully qualified key file name field. iv. Click OK and Save to save the changes to the master configuration. It is important to save the new set of keys to match the new password so that no problems are encountered when starting the servers later. The LTPA keys in TPC server1 and TPC server2 are now in sync.2.4.3 Copying the truststore file from TPC server1 to TPC server2 For TPC server2 to take over in case a TPC server1 failure, both servers must have access to identical truststore files. Copy the truststore file that was created for TPC server1 (see 2.4.1, “Creating the certificate and the truststore file on TPC server1” on page 13) to TPC server2.2.5 Configuring the DS8000 for LDAP authentication The DS8000 must be configured to use LDAP authentication. To perform the configuration, you can use either the DS GUI or the DS CLI. Important: You must have redundant LDAP servers. If the LDAP service is not available, you cannot log on to a DS8000 system that is enabled for LDAP to perform administrative tasks. Configuring DS8000 LDAP authentication by using the GUI To configure DS8000 LDAP authentication by using the GUI: 1. Open the DS8000 GUI using the administrative user ID and password. Enter the User Name and Password. Click OK. 2. On the DS8000 Storage Manager Menu (left pane), select User Administration. 3. In the User and Authentication Policy Administration Summary page, select a Complex Name.22 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 32. 4. Click Select action and select Create Storage Authentication Service Policy (Figure 2-11).Figure 2-11 Select Create Storage Authentication Service Policy5. On the Authentication Service Configuration page (Figure 2-12 on page 24): a. For Policy Name, enter any name. You can define more than one policy, but only one can be active. You can also switch freely between the different policies. b. For Authentication Service URL (Primary), enter the URL to the Tivoli Integrated Portal (on TPC server1). The following URL is the default to the truststore: https://tip_server_host:16311/TokenService/services/Trust c. For Authentication Service URL (secondary), enter the backup URL that points to TPC server2. d. For Authentication Service Client User ID, enter the user ID from the Tivoli Integrated Portal that is set up by installation. e. For Authentication Service Client Password, enter the password from the Tivoli Integrated Portal user. f. For Confirm Authentication Service Client Password, enter the password again. g. Click Next. Port number: The port for ESS service (16311) is 1 plus the default Tivoli Integrated Portal port 16310. If you change the default Tivoli Integrated Portal port, during installation to, say 17522, then the port# to use for ESS service is 17523 (one plus that Tivoli Integrated Portal port number). The ESS/Authentication Service URL is as follows: https://yourserver.com:17523/TokenService/services/Trust Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 23
  • 33. Figure 2-12 Authentication Service Configuration 6. On the Truststore file Information page (Figure 2-13): a. For Truststore File Location, see 2.4, “Creating the certificates and the truststore file” on page 13. b. For Truststore File Password, enter the password that when the truststore was created. c. For Confirm Truststore File Password, enter the password. d. Click Next. Figure 2-13 Truststore file Information page24 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 34. 7. On the Map External Users and User Groups to DS8000 User Roles page (Figure 2-14): a. Enter the External Entity Name. Enter the name of the user or user group that exists in the LDAP directory. b. Select the external Entity Type. The type of entity can be External User Group or External User Name. c. For DS8000 User Role, select a role from the list (see Table 3-1 on page 34). d. Click the Add button. e. To map more than one user or group, repeat these steps. For detailed information about user groups and roles, see 3.3, “User administration for Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers” on page 36. f. Click Next.Figure 2-14 Map External Users and User Groups to DS8000 User Roles window Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 25
  • 35. 8. On the Verification page (Figure 2-15), on which you can see the settings that will be stored, verify the information and click Next to continue or click Back to make changes. Figure 2-15 Verification page 9. On the Summary page (Figure 2-16), leave the Activate the Policy check box cleared. Click Finish to create the policy. Note that in the next step, we test the policy before activating it. Figure 2-16 Summary page26 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 36. 10.On the Manage Authorization Policy page (Figure 2-17), select a policy. Under the Select action menu, click Test Authentication Policy.Figure 2-17 Test Authentication Policy11.In the Test Storage Authentication Service Policy window (Figure 2-18), enter values for the External User Name and External User Password input fields. The user must be an existing user from the LDAP Directory and mapped to a local DS8000 role. Then click OK.Figure 2-18 Test policy Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 27
  • 37. The test takes a few seconds to complete. When complete, the Test summary page is displayed. If the test was successful, the Result State box is green and the Result details cell is empty, as shown in Figure 2-19. If something is wrong, the Result Status cell is red and the error messages is displayed in the Result details box. In this case, go back to the configuration and check the settings. Figure 2-19 Test completes successfully 12.Activate the configuration. Select a policy. Under the Select action menu, click Activate.28 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 38. 13.In the Activate Storage Authentication Service Policy window (Figure 2-20): a. For External User Name, enter a name that exists and is valid user name from the LDAP Directory. b. Enter the External User password. c. Click OK to activate the policy.Figure 2-20 Activate the configurationConfiguring DS8000 LDAP authentication by using the DS CLIIn addition to using the GUI, you can configure the DS8000 external authentication policythrough the command line interface (CLI). To configure with DS CLI:1. Go to the DS CLI Install Directory and open the DCSCLI command window.2. In the DS CLI command window, enter the HMC IP Address, User Name, and Password.3. To see the existing Authentication policies, enter the lsauthpol command as shown in Example 2-4. As you can see, the default initialPolicy is set for basic (non-LDAP) authentication. Example 2-4 Listing Authentication policies dscli> lsauthpol Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:17:16 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - name type state ========================== initialPolicy Basic active Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 29
  • 39. 4. Create a new empty policy, where the -type sas specifies the authentication policy type by entering the mkauthpol -type sas itsopolicy command as shown in Example 2-5. Currently, SAS (Storage Authentication Service) is the only valid value for this parameter and it is required. itsopolicy defines the name from the new policy. Example 2-5 Creating a new policy dscli> mkauthpol -type sas itsopolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:24:20 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - CMUC00365I mkauthpol: The authentication policy itsopolicy has been created. 5. Add a policy server or policy servers to the policy as shown in Example 2-6 by entering the the setauthpol command with the -action setauthserver and -loc parameters, where the -loc parameter is the URL to the TPC server1-. Example 2-6 Setting the policy server dscli> setauthpol -action setauthserver -loc https://9.11.240.201:16311//TokenService/services/Trust itsopolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:27:10 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - CMUC00366I setauthpol: The authentication policy itsopolicy has been modified. 6. Add the keystore file to the policy. Enter the setauthpol command with the -action settruststore parameter and the -loc parameter, where the value is the location of the truststore file (see 2.4, “Creating the certificates and the truststore file” on page 13), and -pw parameter for the truststore file password. See Example 2-7. Example 2-7 Setting the key dscli> setauthpol -action settruststore -loc c:key_itso.jks -pw passw0rd itsopolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:29:25 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - CMUC00366I setauthpol: The authentication policy itsopolicy has been modified. 7. Add the ESS user to the policy by entering the setauthpol command with -action setsasuser parameter, as shown in Example 2-8. For more details about the ESS user see Appendix A, “Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008” on page 39. Example 2-8 Setting the ESS user dscli> setauthpol -action setsasuser -username tipadmin -pw passw0rd itsopolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:31:24 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - CMUC00366I setauthpol: The authentication policy itsopolicy has been modified. 8. Map existing users and user groups from the LDAP server to user groups on the DS8000 by entering the setauthpol command with -action setmap parameter and -groupmap User:Group values, as shown in Example 2-9. Example 2-9 Mapping a user to a group dscli> setauthpol -action setmap -groupmap admin:Administrators itsipolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:32:54 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - CMUC00366I setauthpol:Authentication policy itsopolicy successfully modified.30 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 40. 9. Now that the policy is set up, check it as shown in Example 2-10. The policy is now in inactive state. Example 2-10 Listing of the available policiies dscli> lsauthpol itsopolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:35:47 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - name type state ========================= itsopolicy SAS inactive10.To view the configuration parameters, enter the showauthpol command, as shown in Example 2-11. Example 2-11 Showing the configuration parameters dscli> showauthpol itsopolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:36:52 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - name itsopolicy type SAS state inactive location https://9.11.240.201:16311//TokenService/services/Trust truststore itsopolicy_trustStore.jks sasuser tipadmin11.Test the configuration by entering the testauthpol command as shown in Example 2-12. Example 2-12 Testing the configuration dscli> testauthpol -username tipadmin -pw passw0rd itsopolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:38:28 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - CMUC00366I testauthpol:Authentication policy itsopolicy successfully verified.12.If the test completed successfully, active the policy by entering the chauthpol command with the -activate parameter as shown in Example 2-13. Example 2-13 Activating the policy dscli> chauthpol -quiet -activate -username tipadmin -pw passw0rd itsopolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:55:54 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - CMUC00366I setauthpol:Authentication policy itsopolicy successfully modified.13.Check the state for the policy by entering the lsauthpol command (Example 2-14). Example 2-14 Listing the policy dscli> lsauthpol itsopolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 10:06:34 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - name type state ============================ itsopolicy SAS active Chapter 2. Implementing LDAP for the DS8000 31
  • 41. 32 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 42. 3 Chapter 3. User, group, and role administration In this chapter, we explain how to map IBM System Storage DS8000 users and roles with Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) users and groups. We also explain the mapping of Tivoli Storage Productivity Center users with LDAP users and groups. The chapter includes the following topics: 3.1, “DS8000 to LDAP groups mappings using the DS GUI” on page 34 3.2, “DS8000 to LDAP groups mappings using the DS CLI” on page 35 3.3, “User administration for Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers” on page 36© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. 33
  • 43. 3.1 DS8000 to LDAP groups mappings using the DS GUI LDAP groups (for example, groups in your LDAP repository) are associated with predefined roles. When a user ID is authenticated to a DS8000 through the graphical user interface (GUI) or command line interface (CLI), the user’s membership in a particular LDAP group determines the user’s authorization level. Table 3-1 shows the association between DS8000 user roles and authorization levels. Table 3-1 DS8000 roles and authorization levels Role Authorization level Administrator This user role has the highest level of authority. It allows a user to add or remove user accounts. This role has access to all service functions and DS8000 resources. Logical operator This role has access to resources that relate to logical volumes, hosts, host ports, logical subsystems, and volume groups, excluding security functions. Monitor This role has access to all read-only, nonsecurity service functions and all DS8000 resources. Physical operator This user role allows access to resources that are related to physical configuration, including storage complex, storage unit, storage image, management console, arrays, ranks, and extent pools. The physical operator role does not have access to security functions. Copy Services This role has access to all Copy Services service functions and resources, operator excluding security functions. Logical operator and This role provides the authority of both the logical operator and Copy Services Copy Services operator. operator No access This is the default selection. It must be the only assigned role. This role has no access to any service functions or DS8000 resources. This user role is assigned to a user account that is not associated with any other user role. To define the mappings: 1. From the DS8000 User administration menu, select a storage complex. From the Select action list, select Manage Authentication Policy. Select a Storage Authentication Service policy, and from the Select action list, select Properties. 2. In the Storage Authentication Service Policy Properties window (Figure 3-3 on page 38), click the External Users tab and complete the following actions: a. For External Entity Name, enter the name of the user or user group that exists in the LDAP Directory. b. For External Entity Type, select the type of entity, which can be External User Group or External User Name. c. For DS8000 User Role, select a role from the list. Refer to Table 3-1. d. Click Add. e. After you add external (LDAP) users or groups, click OK to apply the changes. If you want to discard the changes, click Cancel.34 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 44. Figure 3-1 Storage Authentication Service Policy Properties window3.2 DS8000 to LDAP groups mappings using the DS CLI To map LDAP groups-or-users-to DS8000-group, use the setauthpol command. With the setauthpol command, you can modify, delete, or add a mapping. To add a new group map, use the -action setmap, -groupmap admin:Administrator command as shown in Example 3-1. In this command, admin is the DS8000 role group, and Administrator is the user group or user name from the LDAP repository. Example 3-1 Mapping groups to a DS8000 role dscli> setauthpol -action setmap -groupmap admin:Administrators itsipolicy Date/Time: March 11, 2009 9:32:54 AM MST IBM DSCLI Version: 5.4.2.540 DS: - CMUC00366I setauthpol:Authentication policy itsopolicy successfully modified. The DS8000 authority group roles for the DS CLI (see Table 3-1 on page 34) have the following possible values: admin op_storage op_volume op_copy_services service monitor no_access Chapter 3. User, group, and role administration 35
  • 45. To add a new user map, use the -action setmap, -userpmap admin:Administrator command. In this command, admin is the DS8000 role group, and Administrator is the user from the LDAP repository. The group roles are the same as described in Table 3-1 on page 34.3.3 User administration for Tivoli Storage Productivity Centerservers Access to the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center servers can now also be controlled and managed by using LDAP.3.3.1 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center roles to LDAP group mappings After installing IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center, you must assign roles to individuals who will use Tivoli Storage Productivity Center. From the Role-to-Group Mapping node, you can map Tivoli Storage Productivity Center roles, such as Tape Operator or Fabric Administrator, to user groups that you create either in the operating system or in an LDAP-compliant repository. In this paper, we discuss only the mapping to LDAP. Tivoli Storage Productivity Center role-based authorization LDAP groups (for example, groups in your LDAP repository) are associated with predefined roles. When a user ID is authenticated to IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center through the GUI, CLI, or application programming interfaces (APIs), the user’s membership in a specific LDAP group is used to determine the user’s authorization level. Table 3-2 shows the association between Tivoli Storage Productivity Center user roles and authorization levels. Table 3-2 Roles and authorization levels in Tivoli Storage Productivity Center Role Authorization level Superuser Has full access to all Tivoli Storage Productivity Center functions. Productivity Center Has full access to operations in the Administration section of the GUI administrator Disk administrator Has full access to Tivoli Storage Productivity Center disk functions. Disk operator Has access to reports only for Tivoli Storage Productivity Center disk functions. This includes reports on tape devices. Fabric administrator Has full access to Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Fabric functions. Fabric operator Has access to reports only for Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Fabric functions. Data administrator Has full access to Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Data functions. Data operator Has access to reports only Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Data functions. Tape administrator Has full access to Tivoli Storage Productivity Center tape functions Tape operator Has access to reports only for tape functions.36 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 46. If you select operating system authentication for your IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center,you do not have to create any of the groups before installation. The Tivoli Storage ProductivityCenter Superuser role is automatically mapped to the Administrators group on Windows, tothe system group on AIX, or to the root group on Linux. Note: For more information about IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center user and group mapping, see the “User roles” topic in the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center Information Center at the following address: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/tivihelp/v4r1/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm .tpc_V33.doc/fqz0_c_user_roles.htmlEstablishing group mapping in Tivoli Storage Productivity CenterTo establish group mapping:1. Log in to the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center (Tivoli Integrated Portal) with your administrator user name and password.2. From the left Navigation Tree (Figure 3-2), expand Administrative Services → Configuration and select Role-toGroup Mappings.3. In the Role-to-Group Mappings pane: a. Choose a role to map and click Edit.Figure 3-2 Role-to-Group Mappings panel Chapter 3. User, group, and role administration 37
  • 47. b. In the Edit Group dialog box (Figure 3-3), enter the LDAP group (it must exist) that you want to map this role and click OK. Figure 3-3 Add group to Role window c. Select File → Save to store the changes.38 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 48. A Appendix A. Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008 In this appendix, we explain how to install the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1. In the same procedure, we also install Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication, the Tivoli Integrated Portal, and a DB2® database. In this installation, we use the most common default values, which are suitable for a majority of environments. Prerequisites: To install a Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server on Windows Server® 2008, you must have the latest Windows Service Packs and Microsoft hot fixes installed. You must also first install the DB2 Server v9 for Windows.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. 39
  • 49. 1. Before you launch the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center installation, in Windows Services, ensure that the DB2 services are started as indicated in the Status column in Figure A-1. This status is required because a DB2 database is installed in silent mode as part of the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center installation. Figure A-1 Windows Service Menu 2. Launch the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 installer. 3. When prompted to select a language for the installation (Figure A-2), select your language. This setting is just the language for the installation wizard. You are prompted to select the language for Tivoli Storage Productivity Center later. Click OK. Figure A-2 Language selection 4. In the License Agreement window, accept the terms of the license agreement to continue with the installation and click Next.40 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 50. 5. For the type of Installation (Figure A-3): a. Select Typical installation. b. Clear the Agents and the Register with the agent manager check boxes. c. Specify a directory for the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center installation or use the default C:Program FilesIBMTPC directory. d. Click Next.Figure A-3 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center Server - Installation type Appendix A. Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008 41
  • 51. 6. In the next window (Figure A-4), specify the DB2 administrator ID and password. The default user ID is DB2admin. DB2 user ID: You must create the DB2 user ID first in Windows user management and have administrator and DB2 permissions. In the lower part of the window, specify the server name, server port, and agent port if applicable. Click Next to continue. Figure A-4 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center DB2 user and server IP port settings42 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 52. 7. In the next window (Figure A-5), specify the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center administrator user ID and password. Again, the user ID should have operating system and database administrator authority. In the lower half of the window, enter the name of the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server and the server port that will be used to communicate with the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server. Click Next.Figure A-5 IP settings Appendix A. Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008 43
  • 53. 8. As shown in (Figure A-6), select the authentication method to use for Tivoli Storage Productivity Center. Select LDAP/Active Directory. Click Next. Figure A-6 Selecting the authentication method 9. Define the basic LDAP connection settings (Figure A-7). Enter the LDAP server IP address and port number. If anonymous login’s are allowed by the LDAP server, the user and password are optional. Otherwise, select an LDAP user with the administrator role. Click Next. Figure A-7 LDAP connection settings44 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 54. 10.Specify appropriate values to reflect the structure of your LDAP directory (Figure A-8). Click Next.Figure A-8 LDAP user and group attributes11.Specify the LDAP user who will have administrator privileges for Tivoli Storage Productivity Center (Figure A-9). Click Next.Figure A-9 Administrator user for Tivoli Storage Productivity Center Appendix A. Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008 45
  • 55. 12.Review the summary information (Figure A-10). If you are satisfied with the values and features that you chose, click Install to start the installation process. Otherwise click Back to change any of the installation values. Figure A-10 Summary information The Tivoli Storage Productivity Center installation process is now effectively taking place. 13.In the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication installation window (Figure A-11), which opens when nearly ninety percent of the installation is completed, click Next. In doing so, you proceed with the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication installation wizard for the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center installation to complete. Figure A-11 Installation of Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication46 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 56. 14.In the system prerequisite check window (Figure A-12), click Next.Figure A-12 System check15.Accept the License Agreement for the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication to continue the installation process (Figure A-13). Click Next.Figure A-13 License agreement Appendix A. Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008 47
  • 57. 16.In the next window (Figure A-14), specify the program installation directory or accept the default. Click Next. Figure A-14 Installation directory 17.Specify the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication administrator user name and password (Figure A-15). Click Next. Figure A-15 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication - Administrator details48 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 58. 18.As shown in Figure A-16, select the Port for the WebSphere Application Server that Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication uses for its runtime environment. The WebSphere Application Server is automatically installed. Click Next.Figure A-16 Port settings for WebSphere Application Server19.In the installation summary window (Figure A-17), review the details. If you are satisfied with the values, click Install to start the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication Installation Process. Otherwise, click Back to change any of the installation values.Figure A-17 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication - Installation summary window Appendix A. Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008 49
  • 59. 20.After the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication installation is complete, in the summary information window (Figure A-18), click Finish to return to the Tivoli Storage Productivity Center Install Process. Figure A-18 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication - Installation complete The Tivoli Storage Productivity Center installation resumes. 21.In the summary window (Figure A-19) that indicates successful installation of Tivoli Storage Productivity Center, click Finish. Figure A-19 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center - Installation finished You can now further configure your Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server as explained in 2.4, “Creating the certificates and the truststore file” on page 13.50 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 60. B Appendix B. Configuring Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for DS8000 LDAP authentication If you already have Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 servers installed, but not configured for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) authentication, you must enable them for LDAP. To enable the servers for LDAP, you use Tivoli Integrated Portal before you configure the DS8000 itself for LDAP authentication. In this appendix, we explain how to enable LDAP on a Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 server. To configure Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for DS8000 LDAP support, begin by logging in to Tivoli Integrated Portal. Then proceed as explained in this chapter. Important: This configuration is only required when you want to enable LDAP support on an already installed Tivoli Storage Productivity Center server. Otherwise, LDAP support can be configured when you initially install a Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 server as explained in Appendix A, “Installing Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 4.1 on Windows Server 2008” on page 39.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. 51
  • 61. B.1 Securing the administration, applications, andinfrastructure settings To secure the administration, applications, and infrastructure settings: 1. From the Tivoli Integrated Portal console main widow, select Security → Secure administration, applications, and infrastructure. 2. On the administrative console page (Figure B-1 on page 53), configure administrative, application, and infrastructure security on a global level. a. Select Enable administrative security. By selecting this option, you enable administrative security for this application server domain. Administrative security requires users to authenticate before obtaining administrative control of the application server. When enabling security, set the authentication mechanism configuration, and specify a valid user ID and password (or a valid administrator ID when the internalServerID feature is used) in the selected registry configuration. Note: There is a difference between the user ID (normally called the administrator ID), which identifies administrators who manage the environment, and a server ID, which is used for server-to-server communication. You do not need to enter a server ID and password when you are using the internal server ID feature. However, optionally, you can specify a server ID and password. To specify the server ID and password: 1. Click Security → Global security. 2. Under User accounts repository, select the repository and click Configure. 3. In the Server user identity section, specify the server ID and password. b. Select Enable application security. Administrative security alone does not provide full security. In most environments, you must also enable application and resource security by selecting Enable application security. c. Under User account repository, from the Available realm definitions field, select Federated repositories to use LDAP as your account repository. Then click Configure to open the General Properties page (Figure B-2).52 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 62. Figure B-1 Administrative console pageB.2 Configuring federated repositories Use the General Properties page (Figure B-2) to manage the realm of your federated security repositories. The realm can consist of identities in the file-based repository that is built into the system, in one or more external repositories (LDAP), or in both the built-in, file-based repository, and one or more external repositories. To configure the federated repositories: 1. For Realm name, specify a name of your choice for the realm, for example, TIPRealm. You can change the realm name afterwards. 2. For Primary administrative user name, type the name of the user with administrative privileges that is defined in the repository, for example, superAdmin. 3. Under Server user identity, select the Automatically generated server identity check box to enable the application server to generate the server identity that is used for internal process communication. You can change this server identity on the Authentication mechanisms and expiration panel. 4. Configure one or more Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) repositories to store identities in the realm by using either of the following options as appropriate: – Click Add base entry to Realm to specify a repository configuration and a base entry into the realm. You can configure multiple different base entries in the same repository. – Click Remove to remove selected repositories from the realm. Repository configurations and contents are not destroyed. Appendix B. Configuring Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for DS8000 LDAP authentication 53
  • 63. The following restrictions apply: • The realm must always contain at least one base entry. Therefore, you cannot remove all entries. • If you plan to remove the built-in, file-based repository from the administrative realm, verify that at least one user in another member repository is a console user with administrative rights. Otherwise, you must disable security to regain access to the administrative console. Figure B-2 General Properties pageB.3 Adding a base entry to a realm When you click Add base entry to realm (Figure B-2), the page shown in Figure B-3 on page 55 is displayed. Use this page to configure secure access to an LDAP repository with optional failover servers. To view the administrative console page: 1. Click Add Repository to specify a new external repository or select an external repository that is preconfigured.54 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 64. Figure B-3 Adding a repository to the realm2. On the Repository configuration page (Figure B-4 on page 56): a. For Repository identifier, the value is the unique identifier for the LDAP repository that you entered in the General Properties (Figure B-3). This identifier uniquely identifies the repository, for example: c0y0te. b. For Directory type, select the type of LDAP server to which you connect from the drop-down list of LDAP directory types. For example, for use with an openLDAP server, select the Custom value. c. For Primary host name, specify the host name of the primary LDAP server. This host name is either an IP address or a Domain Name System (DNS) name. d. For Port, type the LDAP server port. The default value is 389, which is not a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) connection. For some LDAP servers, you can specify a different port for a non-SSL or SSL connection. e. For Failover host name, specify the host name of the failover LDAP server. You can specify a secondary directory server to use in the event that your primary directory server becomes unavailable. f. For Support referrals to other LDAP servers, specify how referrals that are encountered by the LDAP server are handled. A referral is an entity that is used to redirect a client request to another LDAP server. A referral contains the names and locations of other objects. It is sent by the server to indicate that the information that the client requested can be found at another location, possibly at another server or several servers. The default value is ignore. g. For Bind distinguished name, type the distinguished name (DN) for the application server to use when binding to the LDAP repository. If no name is specified, the application server binds anonymously. In most cases, bind DN and bind password are required. However, when anonymous bind can satisfy all of the required functions, a bind DN and password are not required. h. For Bind password, type the password for the application server to use when binding to the LDAP repository. i. For Login properties, type the property names to use to log into the application server, for example, uid. This field accepts multiple login properties that are delimited by a semicolon (;). All login properties are searched during login. If multiple entries or no entries are found, an exception is thrown. For example, if you specify the login properties as uid and the login ID as Bob, the search filter searches for uid=Bob. When Appendix B. Configuring Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for DS8000 LDAP authentication 55
  • 65. the search returns a single entry, authentication can proceed. Otherwise, an exception is thrown. j. For Certificate mapping, to map X.509 certificates into an LDAP directory, choose either EXACT_DN or CERTIFICATE_FILTER. Specify EXACT_DN to use the specified certificate filter for the mapping. k. For Certificate filter, type the filter certificate mapping property for the LDAP filter. The filter is used to map attributes in the client certificate to entries in the LDAP repository. l. Select Require SSL communications to enable secure socket communication to the LDAP server. When enabled, the SSL settings for LDAP are used, if they are specified. m. Click OK to add the new repository. Figure B-4 Repository configuration 3. On the next page (Figure B-5 on page 57), add the repository details: a. For Distinguished name that uniquely identifies this set of entries in the realm, add the DN that uniquely identifies this set of entries in the realm. If multiple repositories are included in the realm, define an additional DN that uniquely identifies this set of entries within the realm, for example: dc=tucson,dc=ibm,dc=com. b. For Distinguished name of a base entry in this repository, add the LDAP DN of the base entry within the repository. The entry and its descendents are mapped to the subtree that is identified by the unique base name entry field, for example: dc=tucson,dc=ibm,dc=com. If this field is left blank, the subtree defaults to the root of the LDAP repository.56 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 66. c. Click OK to save the changes. Figure B-5 Repository details As shown in Figure B-6, the repository was added successfully to the realm. Figure B-6 Repositories in the realm 4. Click Apply to save the configuration. 5. In the Messages box (Figure B-7), click Save to save the changes to the configuration. Figure B-7 Messages Box - Saving and reviewing the changesB.4 Setting additional properties Back in the General Properties window (Figure B-2 on page 54), you can configure additional properties, including performance, LDAP entity types, and group attribute definition (Figure B-8). While this section provides only an overview, see the product documentation for details. Figure B-8 Additional properties Appendix B. Configuring Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for DS8000 LDAP authentication 57
  • 67. Configuring performance Use the page shown in Figure B-9 to minimize the impact to performance by adding open connections and contexts to internally maintained pools and reusing them. These settings also minimize performance impacts by maintaining internal caches of retrieved data. Figure B-9 shows the performance settings that we used in our environment. Figure B-9 Adjusting performance settings Setting up LDAP entity types Use the page shown in Figure B-10 to list entity types that are supported by the member repositories or to select an entity type to view or change its configuration properties. You must configure the supported entity types before you can manage this account with users and groups in the administrative console. The “Base entry for the default parent” column determines the repository location where entities of the specified type are placed on write operations by user and group management. After you add or update your federated repository configuration, go to the Security → Secure administration, applications, and infrastructure panel and click Apply to validate the changes. Figure B-10 Editing the Directory Structure settings58 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 68. Specifying the group attribute definition Use the page shown in Figure B-11 to specify the name of the group membership attribute. Every LDAP entry includes this attribute to indicate the group to which this entry belongs.Figure B-11 General Properties As shown in Figure B-12, add a new members attribute collection to your configuration. In our case, the name of the member attribute is member, and the Object class is groupOfNames.Figure B-12 LDAP group DN to Tivoli Integrated Portal member mappingAfter you configure any of these additional properties, save your settings and apply thechanges. Important: When you finish adding or updating your federated repository configuration, go to the Security → Secure administration, applications, and infrastructure panel and click OK then Apply to validate the changes. Appendix B. Configuring Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for DS8000 LDAP authentication 59
  • 69. B.5 Managing users and groups To manage users and groups, from the Tivoli Integrated Portal console main window, select Security → Users and Groups. Then choose whether you want to manage users or groups: Managing users Use the Manage Users window (Figure 3-4) to display a list of users that match your search criteria. You can perform additional tasks such as view more information about a user, change information about a user, add a new user, delete users, or duplicate the group assignments of a user for other users. You can also customize how the information is displayed in the table, as well as create and save customized search filters. Figure 3-4 Manage Users window Managing groups Use the Manage Groups window (Figure 3-4) to list groups that match your search criteria. You can perform additional tasks such as view more information about a group, change information about a group, add a new group, delete groups, or duplicate the group assignments of a group for other groups. You can also customize how the information is displayed in the table, as well as create and save customized search filters. Figure B-13 Manage Groups window60 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 70. C Appendix C. Installing Tivoli Directory Server v6.2 The Tivoli Directory Server uses the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) to provide a trusted identity data infrastructure for authentication in the following ways: It provides identity management for companies that want to deploy a robust and scalable identity infrastructure. It uses LDAP identity infrastructure software and meets LDAP v3 industry compliance standards. It enhances proxy server capabilities with flow control for managing requests and paging search results for single and multiple partitions and a smart fail-back mechanism to restore servers safely. It maintains high availability with master/subordinate and peer-to-peer replication capabilities and scheduled online or offline backup and remote restore. It supports virtual list views so that you can scroll forward or backward through entries in a large sorted data set and can record deleted entries. It supports leading platforms, including IBM AIX, i5/OS®, z/OS®, Sun™ Solaris™, Microsoft Windows Server, HP-UX, and SUSE® and Red Hat® Linux distributions. In this appendix, we explain how to install and configure Tivoli Directory Server v6.2 in a Windows Server environment.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. 61
  • 71. C.1 Installing the server To install the server: 1. In the ./tdsV6.2/tds/ directory, select the install_tds file to launch the installation. 2. When prompted by the installation wizard (Figure C-1), select a language for the installation and click OK. Figure C-1 Selecting the language 3. In the welcome panel, click Next. 4. In the license agreement panel (Figure C-2), click I accept both the IBM and non-IBM terms and then click Next. Figure C-2 License agreement panel62 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 72. 5. In the next window (Figure C-3) choose the type of installation, which normally to select Typical. Then click Next.Figure C-3 Selecting the type of installation6. Provide a DB2 user ID and password (Figure C-4).Figure C-4 Specifying a user ID for the DB2 administrator Appendix C. Installing Tivoli Directory Server v6.2 63
  • 73. While you can select an existing user, you must ensure that the user is a member of the DB2ADMNS and DB2USERS groups as illustrated in Figure C-5. Figure C-5 User group membership of the DB2 administrator Back in the window shown in Figure C-4, click Next. 7. In the installation summary panel (Figure C-6), if all the options are correct for your environment, click Install. Figure C-6 Summary before the installation64 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 74. Figure C-7 shows the installation process starting. This process might take a while, depending on the hardware.Figure C-7 DB2 installation progress8. After the installation completes successfully, in the installation window (Figure C-8), click Finish to continue with the configuration.Figure C-8 Successful installation Appendix C. Installing Tivoli Directory Server v6.2 65
  • 75. C.2 Configuring the server instance The Tivoli Directory Server Instance Administration Tool (Figure C-9) starts automatically upon completion of the Tivoli Directory Server installation. To configure the server instance: 1. In the Tivoli Directory Server Instance Administration Tool window, click Manage. Figure C-9 Tivoli Directory Server Instance Administrator Tool window In the left pane of the next window (Figure C-10 on page 67), you see some of the configuration tasks that can be performed: – Change the administrator user or password – Perform database related tasks such as backup and restore operations or tune the database performance settings. – Import existing LDAP Data Interchange™ Format (LDIF) files (contain the Object entries of the LDAP tree). This Export/Import function can also be used to create a backup of critical LDAP information.66 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 76. Figure C-10 Tivoli Directory Server Configuration Tool2. Make changes as required for your environment by selecting the appropriate options. Then proceed with the additional changes as documented in the following steps.3. Invoke the Web Administration Tool. From the Windows desktop, click Start → All Programs → IBM Tivoli Directory Server 6.2 → Web Administration Tool. The default browser opens.4. In the initial window (Figure C-11), enter the administrator user ID and password. The default user ID is superadmin and the default password is secret. Then click Login.Figure C-11 Console administrator login Appendix C. Installing Tivoli Directory Server v6.2 67
  • 77. 5. After a successful logon, in the Console administration pane (Figure C-12), change the default login user ID and password: – To change the login name, from the left pane, click Change console administrator login. – To change the password, from the left pane, click Change console administrator password. Note: This user ID and password change is not for the Windows Administrator user. For more information, see the documentation for Tivoli Directory Server in the information center at the following address: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/tivihelp/v2r1/index.jsp?toc=/com.ib m.IBMDS.doc/toc.xml Add a console server connection by clicking Manage console servers and then clicking Add. Figure C-12 Console administration panel 6. In the Manage console servers pane (Figure C-13), click Edit to review or change the parameters for the connection between the Web Admin tool and the LDAP Server Instance. Figure C-13 Manage console servers pane68 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 78. 7. In the Edit server pane (Figure C-14), enter the server host name or IP address. Then click OK. Port: To view the Port Settings, in the Server Instance Administration Tool, select the instance and click view.Figure C-14 Properties of the server connection8. Log out of the Console administration window and log in again by clicking the here link. Now the login name has changed to the Directory server login.9. In the Directory server login window (Figure C-15), from the LDAP Server Name list, select an LDAP server if more than one is available. The User DN (cn=root in our case) is configured during the configuration of the first server instance. Type the password and click Login.Figure C-15 Directory Server LoginNow you can start to build your directory structure by creating the different groups and users.Figure C-16 on page 70 through Figure C-20 on page 72 show examples of the differentoptions that are available to manage your Tivoli Directory Server LDAP directory. Appendix C. Installing Tivoli Directory Server v6.2 69
  • 79. Figure C-16 shows the welcome page. Figure C-16 Web Administration welcome page By selecting Server administartion in the left pane in Figure C-16, you can edit the port setting or the administrator group, or you can set a password policy. You can also start and stop the server. Figure C-17 shows the Manage users pane. Figure C-17 Manage users pane70 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 80. Figure C-18 shows the Manage groups pane. Figure C-18 Manage groups pane Figure C-19 and Figure C-20 on page 72 show the Directory management panes for modifying existing directory entries.Figure C-19 Directory Content Management Appendix C. Installing Tivoli Directory Server v6.2 71
  • 81. Figure C-20 Content Management User More information: For a detailed description, see the Tivoli Directory Server documentation in the information center at the following address: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/tivihelp/v2r1/index.jsp?toc=/com.ibm.I BMDS.doc/toc.xml72 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 82. D Appendix D. Installing openLDAP in a SUSE Linux environment In this appendix, we explain how to install openLDAP in a SUSE Linux environment. The SUSE Linux distribution contains the required packages for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) support.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. 73
  • 83. D.1 Installing the required LDAP packages To implement an LDAP server on a SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) 10 system, install the following packages: openldap2 openldap2-clients openldap2-devel nss_ldap pam_ldap To search for the LDAP packages: 1. Enter the following command: yast2 sw_single & 2. In the YaST2 installation window (Figure D-1): a. In the Search field, type the word ldap and click Search to obtain the list of packages that contain ldap in their name. b. Select the required packages (using the check boxes) and click Accept. Figure D-1 YaST2 installation window The packages are now being installed. Wait until the entire process completes.74 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 84. D.2 Configuring the LDAP server From YaST, choose the LDAP server. In the LDAP Server Configuration window (Figure D-2), select Yes to have the LDAP server automatically started when booting the server. Figure D-2 Selecting to start the LDAP serverD.3 Configuring the LDAP client To configure the LDAP client: 1. Enter the following command: yast2 ldap & Appendix D. Installing openLDAP in a SUSE Linux environment 75
  • 85. 2. In the LDAP Client Configuration window (Figure D-3): a. Under User Authentication, select Use LDAP. b. In the Address of LDAP Servers field, enter the LDAP server IP address. c. In the LDAP base DN field, enter the LDAP distinguished name (DN). Alternatively, you can click Fetch DN after you enter the LDAP server name (and assuming the service is started). In this case, a window is displayed in which you can select the DN. d. Click Advanced Configuration. I Figure D-3 LDAP Client Configuration window76 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 86. 3. In the Advanced Configuration window (Figure D-4), click the Client Settings tab and enter the values under Naming Contexts. The values should match the base DN specified in the LDAP Client Configuration window (Figure D-3 on page 76).Figure D-4 LDAP Advanced Configuration - Client Settings tab Appendix D. Installing openLDAP in a SUSE Linux environment 77
  • 87. 4. Click the Administration Settings tab (Figure D-5) and click Accept to complete the LDAP client configuration. Figure D-5 Advanced Configuration - Administration Settings tab 5. Verify that your LDAP client is properly configured and working by entering your LDAP server settings in the LDAP Browser dialog (Figure D-6). Figure D-6 LDAP Browser LDAP Server connection settings78 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 88. If successful, you see a view of the LDAP tree that lists all the configured entries on the LDAP server (Figure D-7).Figure D-7 LDAP Browser listAt this stage, the installation is completed. You can now create and configure users andgroups according to the directory structure you want. Appendix D. Installing openLDAP in a SUSE Linux environment 79
  • 89. 80 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 90. E Appendix E. LDAP structure overview In this appendix, we provide a brief overview of the LDAP structure. The structure of the directory used with LDAP looks like a upside down tree, with the root on the top. This is known as a directory information tree (DIT). The directory start with a root directory and branches in the different sections. The root of a directory service structure is tied to a domain. There are some circumstances where it is necessary to divide the information into two or more domain trees or directory information trees. This is known as a domain forest. Similar to a file directory on a PC, the branches in the directory service tree contain information or specific attributes about an object. Some of the object attributes are built by the position of that object within the tree structure, and some attributes are given separately. Figure E-1 on page 82 shows an example of a directory tree. In this example, the root of the directory is the country information, followed by the company name, then an identifier for the city, and underneath, branches for user, group or even printers.© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. 81
  • 91. c=us o=ibm o=xyz ou=tucson ou=raleigh ou=new york cn=groups cn=users cn=printers cn=admins cn=diskAdmin deviceID=printer1 deviceID=printer37 cn=users cn=tapeAdmin cn=superAdmin Figure E-1 Structure of an LDAP directory database Each object must have a unique identifier, known as the distinguished name (DN). This DN is built from its relative distinguished name (RDN), and the RDN is a construct of some of the object’s attributes followed by the parent objects’ DN. As a way to illustrate the concept of DN and RDN, consider a full file name on a PC. As shown in Example E-1, the full name, including the whole path, can be thought of as the DN. The RDN is the short file name, relative to the subdirectory where the file is located. Example E-1 DN and RDN DN of ntuser.dat =C:WINDOWSsystem32win.com RDN of win.com = win.com the DN is now build up of the parent DN’s DN of=c: DN of=WINDOWS DN of=system32 when the object “win.com” is now copied to “c:WINDOWS” the DN changes to “C:WINDOWSwin.com” but the object and it’s attributes are the same. The DN is not fixed for an object and can change. In our example, when the file is moved to a different subdirectory, the full file name (DN) changes. This is also the case for the DN of an object in Directory Services. Whenever some attributes of the object change, the DN of that object also changes. To uniquely identify objects, the LDAP server assigns a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) to each object. Compared to the DN, the UUID never changes until the object is deleted.82 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 92. Example E-2 shows an illustration from the test directory, which contains DS8000 userinformation that we used in preparation of this paper.Example E-2 User attributesdn: uid=diskAdmin,cn=users,ou=tucson,o=ibm,c=usobjectclass: inetOrgPersonobjectclass: personobjectclass: organizationalPersoncn: disksn: adminmail: diskadmin@us.ibm.comuid: diskAdminuserpassword: passw0rduuid: 25a8c2e8-1a3f-4ac4-b1b5-32d9b9188000This example shows how the DN was built from different attributes of the user. (LDAP lets youdefine which attributes must be listed for a valid DN. For our client for DS8000 users, weconfigured a default of cn=users,ou=tucson,o=ibm,c=us and uid as specific user attribute.See Figure A-8 on page 45. Appendix E. LDAP structure overview 83
  • 93. 84 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 94. Related publications The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed discussion of the topics covered in this paper.IBM Redbooks For information about ordering these publications, see “How to get Redbooks” on page 85. Note that some of the documents referenced here may be available in softcopy only. Managing Disk Subsystems using IBM TotalStorage Productivity Center, SG24-7097 Patterns: Pervasive Portals Patterns for e-business Series, SG24-6876 Understanding LDAP - Design and Implementation, SG24-4986Other publications These publications are also relevant as further information sources: IBM System Storage DS8000: Command-Line Interface User’s Guide, SC26-7916 IBM System Storage DS8000: Introduction and Planning Guide, GC35-0515How to get Redbooks You can search for, view, or download Redbooks, Redpapers, Technotes, draft publications and Additional materials, as well as order hardcopy Redbooks, at this Web site: ibm.com/redbooksHelp from IBM IBM Support and downloads ibm.com/support IBM Global Services ibm.com/services© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. 85
  • 95. 86 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 96. Index ESSNI (Enterprise Storage System Network Interface)A client 3, 7administration for users, groups, and roles 33 server 2–3, 7administration, applications, and infrastructure settings52administrative security 52 Fadministrator role 2, 34 federated repositories 53application security 52Authentication Client 8Authentication Server 7–8 G group administration 33 group attribute definition 59B group management 60base entry added to a realm 54basic user management 1–2 H Hardware Management Console (HMC) 2C HMC (Hardware Management Console) 2CA (certificate authority) 15certificate authority (CA) 15certificate creation 13 I iKeyman utility 14chauthpol command 31Copy Services operator role 2, 34 J jython 19Ddata repository 5DB2 Server v9 for Windows 39 Ldevice server 20 LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) 6–7directory 5 authenticationDirectory Information Tree (DIT) 81 benefits 8Directory Services 1 configuration in Tivoli Storage Productivity Center LDAP 5 51Directory Services-based user authentication 1 for DS8000 1directory structure 69 Directory Services 5distinguished name (DN) 55, 82 entity types 58DN (distinguished name) 82 group mappingsDNS (Domain Name System) 6 DS CLI 35domain 81 DS GUI 34 forest 81 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center roles 36Domain Name System (DNS) 6 implementation for the DS8000 11DS CLI 4 installation of servers 12DS GUI 3 structure overview 81DS8000 SUSE Linux basic user management and access 2 client configuration 75 benefits of LDAP authentication for administrators and required packages 74 users 8 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) 1, 6–7, configuration for LDAP authentication 22 33, 61 HMC 2 authentication LDAP authentication 1, 7 benefits 8 configuration in Tivoli Storage Productivity Center 51E for DS8000 1Enterprise Storage System Network Interface (ESSNI) Directory Services 5 client 3, 7 entity types 58 server 2–3, 7 group mappingsESS service port 23© Copyright IBM Corp. 2009. All rights reserved. 87
  • 97. DS CLI 35 S DS GUI 34 SAS (Storage Authentication Service) 8 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center roles 36 server ID 52 implementation for the DS8000 11 setauthpol command 30 installation of servers 12 setauthserver command 30 structure overview 81 settruststore command 30 SUSE Linux showauthpol command 31 client configuration 75 single sign-on (SSO) 19 required packages 74 SSPC (Storage System Productivity Center) 13 server configuration 75 SSPC (System Storage Productivity Center) 3Lightweight Third Party Authentication (LTPA) 19 Storage Authentication Service (SAS) 8logical operator role 2, 34 Storage System Productivity Center (SSPC) 13Lotus Domino 6 SUSE Linux, openLDAP installation 73lsauthpol command 29, 31 System Storage Productivity Center (SSPC) 3LTPA (Lightweight Third Party Authentication) 19LTPA keys CLI to export and import 19 T GUI to export and import 21 testauthpol command 31 Tivoli Directory Server 6, 61 v6.2 installation 61M Tivoli Directory Server Instance Administration Tool 66Manage Groups 60 Tivoli Integrated Portal 1, 8, 13Manage Users 60 Tivoli Storage Productivity CenterMicrosoft Active Directory 7 configuration for LDAP authentication 51mkuser command 5 Directory Services-based user authentication 1monitor role 3, 34 installation and configuration of servers 13 installation of v4.1 39N role-based authorization 36no access role 3, 34 user administration for servers 36 v4.1 installation on Windows Server 2008 39 Tivoli Storage Productivity Center for Replication 46O truststore file 8, 13openLDAP 13, 73 copying 22 for Linux 7 creation 13 installation in a SUSE Linux environment 73 UP Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) 82performance configuration 58 user account repository 52physical operator role 2, 34 user administration 33port number 23 user management 60 user repository 2 user roles 2, 34R UUID (Universally Unique Identifier) 82RDN (relative distinguished name) 82realm 53 adding a base entry 54 WRedbooks Web site 85 Windows Server 2008, installation of Tivoli Storage Pro- Contact us viii ductivity Center v4.1 39referral 55 wsadmin command 19relative distinguished name (RDN) 82repository 52Request for Comments (RFCs) 6 XRFC (Request for Comments) 6 X.500 6role-based authorization, Tivoli Storage Productivity Cen-ter 36 Yroles 2 YaST 75 administration 3388 IBM System Storage DS8000: LDAP Authentication
  • 98. Back cover ®IBM System Storage DS8000:LDAP Authentication Redpaper ™Implement LDAP Starting with release 4.2, the IBM System Storage DS8000 series offers the ability to replace the locally based user ID and password INTERNATIONALauthentication for the administration with a centralized directory based approach. This TECHNICALDS8000 release also allows a single sign-on capability for multiple DS8000 SUPPORT servers and possibly other servers in your environment. ORGANIZATIONConfigure therequired Tivoli This IBM Redpaper publication helps DS8000 storageProductivity Center administrators understand the concepts and benefits ofv4.1 directories. It provides information that is required for BUILDING TECHNICAL implementing a DS8000 authentication approach based on the INFORMATION BASED ONBenefit from single Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). PRACTICAL EXPERIENCEsign-on IBM Redbooks are developed by the IBM International Technical Support Organization. Experts from IBM, Customers and Partners from around the world create timely technical information based on realistic scenarios. Specific recommendations are provided to help you implement IT solutions more effectively in your environment. For more information: ibm.com/redbooks REDP-4505-00